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LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 



https://archive.org/details/minesmineralreso01trox 



I 



SEP i y 1966 

MINES AND MINERAL 
RESOURCES OF 
KERN COUNTY 
CALIFORNIA 

CALIFORNIA 
DIVISION OF 
MINES AND 
GEOLOGY 

COUNTY REPORT 1 




Front cover: The exceedingly varied terrain of Kern County is shown 
by the brown section— from McKittrick Peak in the Coast Ranges in the 
far west (left side), through the San Joaquin Valley in the vicinity of 
Bakersfield, to the majestic Sierra Nevada and Owens Peak (highest 
point in the county); on the east (right side) is the sharp descent to 
the floor of the Mojave Desert. The black section, taken farther south, 
shows the Tehachapi Mountains and the Mojave Desert. Cover design 
by Elinor Rhodes. 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES 
OF KERN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 



By BENNIE W. TROXEL, mining geologist 
California Division of Mines and Geology 

and PAUL K. MORTON, mining geologist 
California Division of Mines and Geology 



County Report f 

Ferry Building, San Francisco 
1962 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

EDMUND G. BROWN, Governor 

THE RESOURCES AGENCY 
WILLIAM E. WARNE, Adm/n/sfrafor 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

DeWITT NELSON, Director 

DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY 

IAN CAMPBELL, State Geologist 

COUNTY REPORT 1 
Price $5.00 



CONTENTS 

Page 

ABSTRACT 9 

INTRODUCTION 11 

Geographic and cultural features .. 1 1 

History 14 

Land and land use 15 

Water resources 16 

Acknowledgments 17 

Glossary of selected geologic and mining terms . 18 

GEOLOGIC FEATURES 19 

General features 19 

Precambrian? rocks r 20 

Paleozoic rocks 21 

Mesozoic rocks 21 

Tertiary rocks 22 

Quaternary rocks 23 

Structural features 23 

MINING DISTRICTS 25 

Clear Creek district 25 

Cove district, by Thomas E. Gay, Jr. 27 

El Paso Mountains district 29 

Erskine Creek district 31 

Gorman tin district : 34 

Greenhorn Mountain district 34 

Greenhorn Summit tungsten district 35 

Indian Wells Canyon district - 37 

Jawbone Canyon district 37 

Kern River Canyon district 38 

Keysville district 38 

Kramer borate district, by William E. Ver Planck 39 

Loraine district 1 41 

Mojave district 43 

Piute Mountains district 45 

Rademacher district _ 47 

Rand district 47 

Red Mountain tungsten district 51 

San Emigdio district 51 

Tehachapi district 52 

Weldon tungsten district 52 

Woody (and White River) district 52 

MINES AND MINERAL DEPOSITS 54 

Antimony 54 

Arsenic _ — — 59 

Asbestos 59 

Barite — 60 

Bismuth 61 

Borates, by William E. Ver Planck 61 

Boron operations, United States Borax & Chemical Corporation 61 

Other operations 65 

Clay, by George B. Cleveland _ 69 

Types of clay 71 

Future sources . 72 

Coal and peat 83 

Copper 83 

Diatomaceous earth, by George B. Cleveland , 90 

Fluorspar — 90 

Gem and mineral localities 90 



CONTENTS-Continued 

Gold — 92 

Graphite — - — 197 

Gypsum, by William E. Ver Planck - 197 

Belridge area _ 198 

Bitterwater Creek area — 199 

Koehn Lake area 200 

Lost Hills area 201 

Round Mountain area _ - 202 

Sunset oil district 202 

Iron - 209 

Lead - 211 

Limestone, dolomite, and cement, by Cliffton H. Gray, Jr. _ 212 

General geology of the limestone-bearing regions .-. 214 

The limestone bodies 214 

Lithium - 237 

Magnesite, by William E. Ver Planck _. 237 

Manganese 238 

Mercury _____ _ ____ __._ __ ____ 240 

Molybdenum __ _ 243 

Perlite __ _ 244 

Petroleum fuels, by Earl W. Hart 244 

Geology _ 244 

History _ _'. 252 

Exploration and significant developments 1949-57 _ 255 

Production 256 

Reserves _ ____ _ .__ 258 

Processing and utilization 259 

Pumice and pumicite ~ _._ 261 

Quartz and feldspar, by William E. Ver Planck 265 

Roofing granule material, by Thomas E. Gay, Jr __ 266 

Saline minerals — 272 

Salt, by William E. Ver Planck 272 

Sand and gravel, by Harold B. Goldman — 274 

Silver --- 280 

Specialty sand 285 

Stone ..- 285 

Sulfur - 288 

Talc 288 

Thorium and rare earths _ __ - 289 

Tin 290 

Tungsten — - 294 

Uranium - — 326 

Wollastonite 344 

Zinc - _ 345 

BIBLIOGRAPHY __ 347 

INDEX TO MINES, PROSPECTS, AND MINERAL DEPOSITS ____ 359 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 1. Map of Kern County, showing locations of mines, prospects, and mineral 

deposits - In pocket 

Plate 2. Geologic map of Kern County _ In pocket 

Plate 3. Claim map of part of the Rand district In pocket 

Plate 4. Composite plan of the Butte mine In pocket 

Plate 5. Composite plan of the Cactus Queen and Winkler mines In pocket 

Plate 6. Composite plan of the Golden Queen mine In pocket 

Plate 7. Composite plan of the King Solomon mine __ _.. In pocket 

Plate 8. Composite plan and longitudinal section of the Mammoth mine In pocket 

Plate 9. Composite plan (a) and longitudinal projection (b) of the Home vein, 

Tropico mine — — _ In pocket 

Plate 10. Composite map of underground workings, Yellow Aster mine... In pocket 



CONTENTS-Continued 

Page 

Figure 1. Principal geographic features in Kern County 11 

Figure 2. Index to topographic maps, Kern County 17 

Figure 3. Sketch of the geologic provinces in Kern County. 19 

Figure 4. Sketch of the principal faults in Kern County _ 24 

Figure 5. Index to maps of mining districts _ 25 

Figure 6. Sketch map, Clear Creek and Red Mountain districts 26 

Figure 7. Geologic map, Cove district 28 

Figure 8. Sketch map, western El Paso Mountains 30 

Figure 9. Map of geology, mines, and prospects, Erskine Creek district 32 

Figure 10. Geologic map and section, Gorman tin district __ 33 

Figure 11. Sketch map of mines. Greenhorn Mountain district .... 34 

Figure 12. Sketch map of geology and- mines. Greenhorn Summit tungsten area 35 

Figure 13. Geologic map and mines of part of Indian Wells Canyon 36 

Figure 14. Sketch map and mines and prospects, Keysville district _. 38 

Figure 15. Geologic map and mines and prospects, Loraine district 40 

Figure 16. Sketch map of mines and prospects, Mojave district 42 

Figure 17. Claim map of north Soledad Mountain, Mojave district 43 

Figure 18. Claim map of Standard Hill area, Mojave district 43 

Figure 19. Photo of north slope of Soledad Mountain, Mojave district 44 

Figure 20. Map of geology, mines, and prospects, Piute Mountains district 45 

Figure 21. Map of geology, mines, and prospects, Rademacher district 46 

Figure 22. Map of geology, mines, and prospects, Rand district 48 

Figure 23. Map of claims, San Emigdio district 51 

Figure 24. Map of geology, mines, and prospects, Weldon tungsten district 53 

Figure 25. Map of antimony and boron deposits, Kern County 54 

Figure 26. Map of antimony-bearing bodies, San Emigdio mine 56 

Figure 27. Photo of Boron pit and processing plant, Boron 62 

Figure 28. Map of clay deposits, Kern County ____ 69 

Figure 29. Photo of bentonitic clay bed, southwestern El Paso Mountains 71 

Figure 30. Geologic sketch map, Amargo clay deposit 72 

Figure 31. Geologic sketch map, Muroc clay deposit 75 

Figure 32. Geologic sketch maps, Aetna and California fullers earth deposits 81 

Figure 33. Geologic sketch maps, Snow White and Unnamed No. 2 deposits 82 

Figure 34. Map of copper deposits, Kern County.... 83 

Figure 35. Geologic sketch, Greenback mine 84 

Figure 36. Map of lode gold deposits, Kern County 94 

Figure 37. Map of placer gold deposits, Kern County 94 

Figure 38. Composite plan, Amalie mine 96 

Figure 39. Composite plan, Barbarossa mine . 97 

Figure 40. Longitudinal plan, Big Blue mineralized shear zone 98 

Figure 41. Composite plan, Big Dike mine 99 

Figure 42. Photo of the Big Gold mine 100 

Figure 43. Composite plan and cross section, Big Gold mine 101 

Figure 44. Photo of the Butte mine 102 

Figure 45. Photo of the Consolidated mine ._ 105 

Figure 46. Composite plan and vertical projection, Elephant mine 106 

Figure 47. Transverse section, Golden Queen mine.. 108 

Figure 48. Map of claims, veins, and underground workings of the Gwynne mine... 112 

Figure 49. Geologic sketch, Long Tom mine 114 

Figure 50. Composite plan and longitudinal section, Middle Butte mine 116 

Figure 51. Photo of Minnehaha mine 118 

Figure 52. Plan of -the main level, Porter group 118 

Figure 53. Geologic sketch, Poso mine 119 

Figure 54. Plan of the Rand group workings, Clear Creek district 121 

Figure 55. Photo of the Exposed Treasure vein, Standard group 122 

Figure 56. Composite plan, Standard group ._ 123 

Figure 57. Composite plan and longitudinal projection, Wegman mine.. 126 

Figure 58. Transverse section, Whitmore mine 127 

Figure 59. Photo of Yellow Aster mine 128 

Figure 60. Map of faults. Yellow Aster mine 129 

Figure 61. Photo of glory hole and open pit, Yellow Aster mine 129 

Figure 62. Photo of New Deal mine 131 



CONTENTS-Continued 

Page 

Figure 63. Longitudinal projection, Keyes mine 132 

Figure 64. Photo of Lone Star mine and milk 132 

Figure 65. Photo of Operator Divide mine 132 

Figure 66. Map of gypsum and iron deposits, Kern County 197 

Figure 67. Photo of gypsite. Kern Lake deposit 200 

Figure 68. Photo of old Monolith Portland Cement Co. gypsite workings 203 

Figure 69. Map of lead and zinc deposits. Kern County 210 

Figure 70. Map of metasedimentary rocks in central Kern County 213 

Figure 71. Photo of California Portland Cement Co. Creal plant 218 

Figure 72. Photo of main quarry, California Portland Cement Co. Creal plant 219 

Figure 73. Photo of sec. 24 quarry, California Portland Cement Co. Creal plant _ . 220 

Figure 74. Map of area near Willow Springs Rd. where limestone samples were obtained 221 

Figure 75. Map of limestone masses near Frazier Park 223 

Figure 76. Map of Microwave Station area 224 

Figure 77. Photo of Monolith Portland Cement Company plant 225 

Figure 78. Photo of Monolith Portland Cement Company quarry .... 226 

Figure 79. Photo of Monolith Portland Cement Company quarry 227 

Figure 80. Photo of lime kiln of Summit Lime Company 228 

Figure 81. Photo of limestone quarry, Summit Lime Company 229 

Figure 82. Photo of Tecuya limestone deposit 230 

Figure 83. Map of manganese and mercury deposits, Kern County 238 

Figure 84. Geologic map of the Walabu mercury mine .'. * 241 

Figure 85. Map of perlite, pumice, and pumicite, Kern County 244 

Figure 86. Map of productive oil fields. Kern County 245 

Figure 87. Photo of anticline, Buena Vista Hills 246 

Figure 88. Graph of crude oil, natural gas, and natural-gas liquids production 257 

Figure 89. Prices of crude oil, 1951-58 __ .- 257 

Figure 90. Photo of Standard Oil Company of California refinery, Oildale 260 

Figure 91. Photo of Standard Oil Company of California natural gasoline plant, Elk Hills 261 

Figure 92. Photo of Calsilco pumice quarry and mill 262 

Figure 93. Photo of Cudahy pumicite deposit . — — 262 

Figure 94. Map of roofing granule quarries and mills, Kern County 267 

Figure 95. Photo of Groover Mining and Milling Company roofing granule mill 268 

Figure 96. Map of sand and gravel sources, Kern County 274 

Figure 97. Map of silver and sulfur deposits, Kern County 280 

Figure 98. (a) Longitudinal section, Cowboy mine; (b) Plan and longitudinal section, Gold 

Peak mine . 282, 285 

Figure 99. Map of thorium and tin deposits, Kern County 290 

Figure 100. Map of Meeke tin mine 292 

Figure 101. Map of tungsten deposits, Kern County 295 

Figure 102. Claim map, B and F and Last Chance mines . 296 

Figure 103. Plan and longitudinal section, Buckhorn mine 297 

Figure 104. Map and plan, El Diablo mine . 299 

Figure 105. Map of High Enough mine 301 

Figure 106. Map of High Power deposit 302 

Figure 107. Map of Lucky Hit mine 304 

Figure 108. Map of Pala Ranch mine 306 

Figure 109. Map of Susie Q prospect ... 309 

Figure 110. Map of Tungstore No. 2 mine 311 

Figure 111. Map of uranium deposits, Kern County 327 

Figure 112. Map of Dono-han prospect 328 

Figure 113. Maps of Kergon mine 329 

Figure 114. Map and longitudinal section, Little Sparkler mine . 331 

Figure 115. Photo of Little Sparkler mine 332 

Figure 116. Map and diagram, Miracle mine 334 

Figure 117. Maps of Radiation mine _ 336 

Figure 118. Photo of Standard uranium mill 337 

Figure 119 Map of Verdi Development Co. deposit 343 

Figure 120. Photo of Code Siding deposit 345 



CONTENTS— Continued 



TABLES 

Page 

Table 1. Mineral production in Kern County, California 1880-1957 12 

Table 2. Sources of information relative to mining in Kern County 16 

Table 3. Mining districts in Kern County , 24 

Table 4. Physical properties of rocks from the Jenifer mine 63 

Table 5. Production of clay and clay products in Kern County, 1897-1957 70 

Table 6. Chemical analysis of the clay from the Filtrol bentonite deposit 73 

Table 7. Chemical analysis of clay from the Muroc clay deposit 74 

Table 8. Chemical analysis and physical properties of clay from the White Rock mine 80 

Table 9. Selected gem and mineral localities in Kern County 91 

Table 10. Index to minerals in Kern County listed in Minerals of California .._ 93 

Table 11. Chemical analyses of limestone and dolomite deposits in Kern County 216 

Table 12. Chemical analyses of limestone deposit (Creal deposit) that is exposed along Willow 

Springs Road 216 

Table 13. Chemical analyses of limestone at the Microwave Station area 217 

Table 14. Production of crude oil in Kern County fields by geologic age 247 

Table 15. Correlation chart of sedimentary formations in the southern San Joaquin Valley, 

Kern County 248 

Table 16. Summary of geologic, well, and production data of oil and gas fields in Kern County.... 250 

Table 17. Exploration wells drilled in Kern County, 1953 through 1957 255 

Table 18. Significant discoveries of new fields, areas, and pools in Kern County, 1949 

through 1957 256 

Table 19. Annual production and value of petroleum fuels in Kern County, 1947 through 

1957, and cumulative totals 256 

Table 20. Natural gas reserves of the largest fields in Kern County, Jan. 1, 1958 258 

Table 21. Oil fields in Kern County with estimated ultimate production exceeding 100 million 

barrels — — 258 

Table 22. Listed capacities of petroleum refineries in Kern County, Jan. 1, 1958 259 

Table 23. Natural-gasoline and cycle plants in Kern County, Jan. 1, 1958 259 

Table 24. Active sand and gravel producers in Kern County during 1958 278 

Table 25. Mines and prospects in Kern County examined for tin.. 291 



ABSTRACT 



Kern County, the third largest county in California, comprises 8,172 square miles of 
desert and mountainous terrain in the south-central part of the state. From deposits 
within its boundaries mineral commodities valued at about $5.4 billion were produced 
between 1880 and 1957. Ninety percent of this figure is the value of petroleum fuels 
(petroleum, natural gas, and natural-gas liquids). Most of the remainder is the value of 
boron, clay, gold, gypsum, limestone for cement, roofing-granule material, silver, and 
tungsten. 

All of the 68 oil fields in the county lie in or adjacent to the San Joaquin Valley. The 
oil fields are mostly in Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks. 

Most of the gold, the metal with the highest recorded total value of output in the 
county, has been mined, along with silver, from deposits in the Mojave and Rand 
districts in the southeastern part of the county. Several less productive districts lie in the 
Sierra Nevada in the east-central part of the county. Gold mineralization is commonly 
associated with shallow acid intrusive rocks of Tertiary age or with quartz veins in 
Mesozoic granitic rocks. Nearly all of the deposits are valued mostly for gold rather 
than silver. 

Tungsten, mostly in the form of scheelite, is widespread in pre-Cretaceous meta- 
sedimentary rocks preserved as roof pendants in Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Sierra 
Nevada batholith. Scheelite is also in quartz veins in the Rand district. Placer deposits 
overlying the scheelite-bearing quartz veins have also been an important source of 
tungsten in the county. 

The world's largest known source of boron lies in Tertiary nonmarine sedimentary 
rocks in the extreme southeastern part of the county. Although not disclosed, the total 
value of boron from this deposit is greater than that of many of the other mineral 
products in the county. In 1959, boron was one of the principal commodities being 
mined in the county. A $20 million expansion program was completed at the Boron 
mine and refinery in 1958. 

Limestone is used in the manufacture of portland cement at two plants, one newly 
constructed, and both enlarged in recent years. The limestone is obtained from large 
pre-Cretaceous deposits in the southern Sierra Nevada and Tehachapi Mountains. 

Clay has been mined from Tertiary nonmarine sedimentary rocks, altered Tertiary 
intrusive rocks, and Quaternary playa lake sediments. Total value of clay produced in 
Kern County is more than $9 million. 

In recent years, gypsum from deposits lying mostly in western Kern County, sand and 
gravel obtained from coarse Quaternary sediments, and roofing-granule material 
obtained from Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra 
Nevada have increased annually in total value and amount of output. 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF KERN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

By BENNIE W. TROXEL and PAUL K. MORTON 



With sections on clay and diatomaceous earth, by George B. Cleveland;* roofing granule materials and the Cove district, by Thomas E. Gay, Jr.;* sand 
and gravel, by Harold B. Goldman;* limestone, dolomite, and cement, by Cliffton H. Gray, Jr.;* petroleum fuels, by Ear! W. Hart;* and borates, 
gypsum, magnesite, quartz and feldspar, salt, and the Kramer borate district, by William E. Ver Planck.* 



INTRODUCTION 



The abundant mineral resources of Kern County have 
contributed much to the history and development of 
California. In 1957, the county ranked first in value of 
mineral production in California with a total of $369,- 
000,000. The yearly value of petroleum fuels alone, about 
85 percent of the value of all mineral products, ordinarily 
exceeds the value of agricultural products from the 
county. The total recorded value of all mineral output 
in Kern County from 1880 through 1957 is about $5 1 / 4 
billion, more than half of which has been produced since 
1946, and about $5 billion of which was from petroleum 
fuels. Boron, cement, clay, gold, gypsum, pumice, salt, 
sand and gravel, silver, and tungsten are the other impor- 
tant mineral products of the county exclusive of petro- 
leum fuels. Among these, gold, valued at |46.4 million, 
ranks first in total value of the metallic mineral products; 
silver, valued at $6 million, ranks second; and tungsten, 
valued at $1.5 million, ranks third. Clay, limestone prod- 
ucts, boron, and sand and gravel are the most highly 
valued of the nonmetallic minerals. Boron ranks high in 
dollar value of both total and current annual output. In 
recent years the county has yielded a significant propor- 
tion of California's output of roofing granules and 
uranium. 

Geographic and Cultural Features 

Kern County comprises an area of 8,172 square miles 
in south-central California. It is 130 miles long from east 
to west and 66 miles wide from north to south. It is 
divisible into three major geographic units (fig. 1)— the 
south end of the San Joaquin Valley, the southern Sierra 
Nevada, and the northwestern part of the Mojave Desert. 
* Mining geologist, California Division of Alines and Geology. 



The Temblor Range, a part of the California Coast 
Ranges, bounds the San Joaquin Valley on the west. The 
crest of the range roughly coincides with the western 
boundary of the county. The San Emigdio Mountains, 
at the southern terminus of the San Joaquin Valley, lie 
barely north of the western one-third of the south 
boundary. Eastward, the south boundary extends through 
the Tehachapi Mountains and into the Mojave Desert. 
The north boundary extends across the Sierra Nevada 
and the San Joaquin Valley. 

Bordering the Mojave Desert on the northwest is a 
northeast-trending mountainous belt comprising the Te- 
hachapi Mountains, the southeast flank of the Sierra Ne- 
vada, and El Paso Mountains. The principal prominences 
in the Mojave Desert are the Rand Mountains, parallel 
to and about 5 miles southeast of El Paso Mountains, and 



Figure 1. Principal geographic features in Kern County. 




( 11 ) 



12 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Table 1. Mineral production in 
(Data compiled from reports published by the 
California Division of Mines 



Year 


Antimony 


Copper 


Gold 


Lead 


Silver 


Tungsten 


Brick 


Clay 


Gypsum 


Lime 


Stone 1 


Tons 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Value 


Units 


Value 


M 


'Value 


Tons 


Value 


Tons 




Barrels 


Value 




Value 


1880 










$94,214 
190,000 
260,000 
150,000 
100,000 






$390 

14,000 
20.000 
5,000 
5,000 

1,721 
150 
2,500 
7,517 
586 
61 
73 
1,754 
39.700 
46.064 
34,650 
10,471 

6,543 
6,810 
147,736 
40,497 
99,135 
114.614 

151.189 
134,944 
129,503 
86,033 
96.550 
101,633 
35,041 

5,833 
11,480 

11,851 
8,002 
13,316 

8,475 

7,813 
7,817 
8,402 
8,385 

1,897 
6,524 


















33,000 
25,400 
37,100 
53,400 

42,000 
64,700 
57,721 
62,000 
99,360 
101,661 

178,038 
279,650 
295,613 
175,000 
116,717 
115,709 
99,187 

96.500 
162,831 

135,000 
81.600 
55,176 


$26,500 
24,980 
32,329 






1881 














1882 














1883 














1884 














1886 










72,003 
94,640 
72,358 
60.000 
242,676 
117.341 
107,735 
107,738 






1886 










1887 














1888 














1889 














1890 














1891 










1892 














1893 










83,665 






1894... 
1895... 
1896... 
1897... 

1898— 
1899 


92 
33 
15 
25 

40 


$3,720 
1.485 
2,250 






310,707 
231.433 
590.867 
754.313 






























































3,500 














1,100 

2,000 
1,600 
2,525 
4,600 
3,500 
9,000 

700 
750 
4,275 
2,168 
2,080 
3,365 
8.332 

5,603 
1,890 

1,625 
3,834 


$6,600 

14,000 
11.400 
17,300 
23,400 
24,500 
30,000 

4,900 
6,000 
34,200 
18,428 
19,552 










70,370 
29,900 






1,200 






1,017,930 
863.414 
805,252 




































620 
500 
1,000 
987 
250 

500 
53 
215 


$12,400 

3,750 
19,500 
19,246 

4,750 

9,500 
54 
752 






57,690 
51,700 
82,700 






1900 






4,000 
429,248 
235.840 

4,300 


$750 
67.606 
27,122 
559 


















1901 — 
1902 


50 


8,350 


1,007,059 
1.165,982 
1,022,353 

1,426,523 


1,600 


$64 


















1,000 
1,000 


$8,000 
8,000 


80,856 
76,246 

172,000 
255,500 
267,096 






1903 


















1904 


















1906 










1,160,971 
806,117 
878,798 
827,087 
654,799 
619,974 

557,471 
830,421 

649,712 
594,337 
983,319 

747.012 

537,852 
246,127 
150,589 






5,200 


$18,800 
183,600 


1,350 


11,000 






1906 


















1907 
















1,000 
500 
1,700 
1,675 

853 
8,479 

10,000 

82 


5,500 
2,000 
8,300 
8,305 

4,245 
18,188 

22,750 
320 
u 


169,822 
87,788 
88,869 
86,198 

82,025 
124,894 






1908 


























1909 










4,781 


174 






29,634 
63,711 

41,426 
23,120 


359 
242 


5,385 
121 






1910 
















$112,000 
107,880 


1911 






29,441 


3,680 


2,417 
19,664 

1,376 
379 
84,371 

24,274 
9,684 


109 
885 

61 
15 

3,965 

1,675 

833 
u 








1912 
















1913 






3,498 
7,394 
1,047 

24,754 

251,225 
95,580 


542 
983 
183 

6.089 

68,584 
23,608 






22,000 
29,214 


208 
346 


104 

172 

u 

u 
u 






1914... 
1915.. 

1916— 
1917 


267 
145 

113 


11,301 
5,880 

16,041 






65,100 








U 

482,387 

58,148 

u 


39,523 

u 

u 

23,615 
112,724 
106,733 

141,491 

u 

214,183 
96,880 




59,319 

63,723 

31,787 
311 
28.320 
31.180 

38,208 
35,582 
9,225 
5,244 
3,000 
28,000 
79,510 
78,663 
361,896 
450,351 

108,958 

49,077 

131,7431 

124,360 
184,696 

237,757 
240,750 

158,220 

282,576 

347,459 

449,160 


19,300 
4,900 


3,177 

and tile 
1,678 
1,709 
3,850 

5,840 
5,082 
5,271 
and clay 


23,824 

22,785 
16,380 
175,112 
56,550 

85,820 
66,652 
68,375 
23,058 
u 

55.140 
50,438 
30.791 
44,681 

u 
u 

u 
u 

u 

u 

u 


















1918 












23,615 
86,952 
76,395 

72,629 




1919 












u 








1920 






206 


38 


61.187 

84,698 
124,337 
107,051 
154,132 
135,545 
135.508 
171,100 
186.453 
148,421 








u 










1921 


















u 




1922 








u 




u 














1923 










33,151 
35,902 








rj 

see brick 

u 
u 
u 
u 

'85,845 
H 17.834 

'46,668 

"22,871 

u 

"30,142 
u 

V 

130,482 
64,821 

»32,373 
u 

■242,547 
'118,694 




u 


17,985 
8,130 




1924 








u 




u 












1925 




u 






7,455 
4,667 
8,932 
5,245 
2,312 
1,757 

2,534 

3,957 
70,931 

73,468 

105,978 
295,591 

561,712 
742,256 

767,633 

591,608 

617,381 

425,019 
















1926 
















4,591 
4,835 
2,126 
3,503 






u 
u 
u 




u 
u 
u 




1927 








D 


















1928 




r 




















1929 














1 


58,551 
371,123 

27,499 

14,770 








1930 








U 
19 

u 
49 

440 

3.152 
129 

666 

u 

609 
263 


165,435 

202.108 

296,250 
424,376 




11 
233 

IT 
V 

407 

87 
u 

172 
322 

1,341 

1,357 

1,801 

1,180 






u 
u 








1931 






207 


6,307 
















1932 




















1933 






760 

5,502 

37.971 
1.402 

5,604 




















1934 






1.021,849 

1,391.646 
2,401,280 

2,465,085 
3,034,605 

3,151,015 

2.887,255 

2.800,980 

(991,990 


11,008 
2,180 




V 
V 




19,526 












1936 




















1936 














u 








1937 






2,923 
6,994 

28,542 

27,133 

31,589 

17,615 




V 




42,628 
38,910 

23,213 










1938 




















1939 




l! 

6,062 
u 
u 













u 

93,964 
203,506 
206,659 








1940— 
1941 


216 


2,617 
5,146 
2,172 






70,043 
112,088 
156,104 








4,414 
2,591 


114,754 
61,682 




69,671 
71,172 








1942. 































1962] 



Kern— Introduction 



13 



Kern County, California, 1880-1951. 
California Division of Mines, compiled by the 
and US. Bureau of Mines.) - 



Asp hal turn 



Natural gaa 



Miscellaneous 



Unapportioned 2 



Value 



M. cu. ft Value 



Barrels 



Amount Value Substance 



1138,000 

28,000 
44,630 
86,350 

50,000 
57,670 
14,020 
43,126 
101,800 
100,787 

124,110 
105,860 
231,360 
260,158 
475,000 
655,391 
811.846 



289,610 


«3,327,858 
































































































































38,000 
975,724 

1,658,380 
4,400,000 

7,111,237 
6,508,868 
12,163,461 

16,679,658 



25,819,376 
23,645,128 
25,363,739 
34,912,865 

40,136,930 
47,644,633 
42,421,592 
47,881,308 
45,649,845 
44,182,140 
39.401,478 
35,107,062 
34.409.095 
27,908,423 

26,977,942 

26,234,262 
20,571,398 

21,309,723 

36,089,134 
58,044,172 

65,142,854 
68,974,794 

73,950.832 

79,409,481 

91,807,125 

70.890.547 



11,215 
116 

235 



12,714 
47,364 



165,438 
325,484 



390,532 
737,638 



1,445,880 
1,507.912 
1.618.913 
1,810,147 

1,926,797 
2,282,100 
2,051,656 
2,522,551 
2,290,608 
2,158,867 
2,057.807 
1,916,797 
1,861,950 
1,290,090 

1,444,732 

1,201,293 
916,090 

1,017,661 

1,891,675 
3,246,196 

3,950,521 
4,244,897 

6,191,065 

4,257,590 

4,573.754 

3,431,558 



10,000 
15,000 
919.275 
3.902,125 
8,777,948 
18,001,148 

19,608,045 
17,069.715 
13.826,000 
15.700,308 
18,777,871 
24,549,758 
40,641,159 

46,562,825 
51,448,067 

68,698,432 
65,332,633 
54,810,669 

54,120,509 



53,065,066 
49,049,917 
47,734,035 
50,660,438 

57.434,945 
53,512,157 
45.952,794 
61,175,405 
58,852,742 
54,549,646 
61,570,412 
44,096,638 
43,677,420 
44,170,810 

35,794,138 

35.552,661 
35,349,272 

41,823,494 

64,723,481 
62,273,932 

69,878,714 
66,093,496 

58,893,665 

60,660,165 

65,628,935 

72.093.741 



169,334 
116 

235 



10,000 
13,500 
827,348 
1,131,616 
1,966,586 
3.600,230 

3,431,408 
3,174,966 
3,765,200 
4,673,867 
9,388,935 
12,565,246 
17,825,212 

20,207,906 
21,762,632 

27,038,474 
26,721,046 
23,184,913 

34,691,246 



47,387,104 
61,410,496 
64,440,947 
86,831,991 

97,639,407 
64,803,222 
37.629,300 
69,572,934 
84,255,094 
78,987,887 
58,738,699 
36.803,054 
32,299,584 
37,015,139 

22,765,072 

23,393,685 
23,621,406 

30,476,225 

39,905,553 
53,781,287 

61,905.918 
58,803,255 

48,664,001 

50,835,439 

67,607,724 

64,477,255 



5,000t' 
27t 
220t 



1.425t 
20.000T 



4,100t 
300f 



17.000T 
22,OOOi 

3.060T 
18,500t 
16.000T 
18.921T 
10.506T 

6,890t 
11.279T 
14,960t 



(10,000 
5,000 
3,382 
1,100 



500 
4.331 



Limestone 
Limestone 
Borates 
Coal 



Bituminous 
Rock 



Gems 
Limestone 



1.710 
50,000 
30,047 

23.700 
27,250 



Limestone 
Salt 

Lime and lime- 
stone 
Silica 
Mercury 



81,000 
87,000 
20,100 
93,500 
66,000 
97.336 
44,115 
28,858 
41,116 
69,839 



Salt 

Salt 

Silica 

Salt 

Salt 

Salt 

Salt 

Salt 

Salt 

Salt 



Borates 



Years 1900-1909. 



600 Other minerals 
180,575 Other minerals 
299,997 Cement, magnesite, salt, and "U" 



363,516 Cement, feldspar, magnesite, mercury, salt and "U". 
139,345 Feldspar, magnesite, salt and "U". 

174,419 Limestone, magnesite, manganese, mercury, salt, and "U" 

9,345 Limestone, mercury, and "U". 
108,270 Cement, gems, mercury, and "U". 

829.115 Cement, limestone, silica, and "U". 
1.166.582 Cement, silica, and "U". 
1,602,138 Cement, limestone, pumice, sulfur, and "U". 
1.709,635 Arsenic, cement, pumice, sulfur, and "U". 
2,680,166 Borates, cement, and "U". 
2,144,889 Cement, feldspar, pumice, 6ilica, and "U". 
3.533,163 Borates, cement, feldspar, onyx, pumice, and "U". 
4,043,778 Borates, cement, feldspar, pumice, salt, and "U". 
4,004,550 Borates, cement, mercury, salt, volcanic ash, and "U". 
1,612,181 Cement, feldspar, mercury, rose quartz, salt, volcanic ash, 
and "U". 

4,212,034 Borates, cement, feldspar, mercury, mineral water, salt, 

volcanic ash, and "U". 
3,102,892 Borates, cement, salt, volcanic ash, and "U". 
2,931,110 Borates, cement, gems, mercury, salt, volcanic ash, wollas- 
tonite, and "U". 
Borates, cement, gems, mercury, salt, volcanic ash, wollas- 
tonite, and "U". 
3,521,958 Borates, cement, salt, volcanic ash, and "U". 
6,435,585 Borates, cement, mercury, mica schist, salt, volcanic ash 
and "U". 

4,909.821 Borates, cement, mercury, salt, volcanic ash, and "U". 
4,397,668 Borates, calcium silicate, cement, mercury, salt, volcanic 
ash, and "U". 

4,140,039 Borates, calcium silicate, cement, mercury, salt, volcanic 
ash, and "U". 

3,899,585 Borates, calcium silicate, cement, mercury, salt, volcanic 
ash, and "U". 

4,344,033 Borates, calcium silicate, cement, quartz, salt, volcanic 
ash, and "U". 

4,365,607 Borates, cement, quartz, salt, volcanic ash, and "U". 



14 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Table 1. Mineral product. on in 
(Data compiled from reports published by the 
California Division of Mines 



Year 


Antimony 


Copper 


Gold 


Lead 


Silver 


Tungsten 


Brick 


Clay 


Gypsum 


Lime 


Stone' 


Tons 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Value 


Units 


Value 


M 


Value 


Tons 


Value 


Tons 


Value 


Barrels 


Value 




Value 


1943 






2,726 


1354 

u 
u 


1103,705 
45,185 
31,990 
94,710 

217,980 
216,160 




V 

$571 

u 


$7,281 
754 
386 
6,972 

6,956 
12,226 

15.888 
8,625 
30,116 

41,083 
3.492 
12,730 

26,484 

13,786 

u 


2.112 
306 


$57,697 
7,390 




u 

V 


96,619 
152,237 
168,925 
177,960 

213,475 
215,953 

202,509 
93,026 
96.280 

68,324 
46,266 

46,315 

49,576 

44,300 


'$261,243 
•522.711 
711.676 
•544,841 

'746,372 
'768.280 

'699.635 
'524,084 
•' 700,620 

*oo i,yui 
'599,704 
'433,994 

'456,115 

'208,016 

'268,437 


250,989 
292,306 


$338,049 
394,356 

TJ 

352,484 
'558,''6<) 








$190,066 
222,607 
156,50 
327,259 


1944 




u 


7,142 










194S 






u 
u 

u 
u 

u 
u 
u 

37,968 
113,012 

292.292 










1946 














V 


268,162 

352,977 
271,908 

202.904 
203,080 
287,813 

ooz, l oy 
249,502 
245,486 

301,517 

426,608 

472,953 








1947 






















Total.. 


$4,806,325 


Sand and gravel 


Tons 


Value 


608,694 
581,459 

495.209 
654,933 
839,239 

860,789 
555,714 
659,508 

923,785 

1,106,645 

859,669 


$671,917 
663,945 

588,741 
835.657 
944,882 

722,589 
628,928 
797,214 

1,205,055 

1,807,330 

1,282,914 


1948 




















414,213 

314.574 
320.491 
454,750 

QAQ 979 

O40,£ / £, 

433.018 
424,245 

552.318 

769,264 

814,805 






1949 










199,190 
216.895 
316,470 

342,650 
105,315 
199,325 
















1950 
























1951 






300 


73 


2,500 
4,200 


432 
550 












1952 




u 












1953 




607 
3,100 

7,683 

1,888 




























1955 






200 
300 

100 


75 
127 

32 


160,090 














1956 






158,655 

u 


500 


79 


114,342 

u 










1957 


































Totals 

Value 


e 

159,789 


1,152.240 


$206,222 


146,428.508 


297,379 


7 

$16,345 


e 

$5,983,924 


52,101 


$1,542,042 


106,909 


$1,138,991 


2,536.534 


9 

$9,245,610 


4.744.818 


$7,590,045 


2,603,069 


$2,758,912 


8,145,624 


10 I 

$10,149,172 


Amt. 996 



• T = tons, F = flasks (76 lbs.), lb. = pounds. 3 Exclusive of value of bentonite included in unapportioned. 

v Value included in unapportioned. ' Includes value of brick clay. 

1 Includes crushed rock, rip-rap. roofing granules, rubble, and sand and gravel. B Includes small quantity from Kings County. 

2 Includes value of items marked "U" in other columns. 



Soledad Mountain, near Mojave. The principal valleys in 
the Mojave Desert are Antelope Valley, at the western 
end of the desert area, and Fremont Valley which lies 
farther east. Indian Wells Valley lies east of the Sierra 
Nevada in the northeast corner of Kern County. 

Elevations in the county range widely, from 270 feet 
above sea level at Buena Vista Lake in the southwestern 
part of the San Joaquin Valley, to more than 8,400 feet 
atop Owens Peak in the Sierra Nevada. The San Joaquin 
Valley lies mostly below the 1,000-foot elevation, and the 
Mojave Desert areas lie mostly between the 2,000- and 
3,000-foot elevations. Both the Mojave Desert and San 
Joaquin Valley have arid climates with an average annual 
rainfall of only a few inches. They are, however, im- 
portant agricultural centers: their gross aggregate yield 
was $232,300,000 in 1957 (Kern County Agricultural 
Commission). The semi-arid areas of the Sierra Nevada, 
Tehachapi, and ^ migdio Mountains receive more rain 
than the valleys and are used principally for livestock 
grazing. Population in Kern County has increased from 
about 6,000 in 1880 to an estimated 285,000 in 1958 (Kern 
County Board of Trade, 1058). Nearly two-thirds of the 
residents live in the San Joaquin Valley and about half of 
these live in the Bakersfield area. Mojave, Tehachapi, and 



Ridgecrest are the largest settlements outside of the San 
Joaquin Valley. 

Motor transportation in Kern County is well provided 
for by five Federal highways, six State highways, and a 
network of paved county roads. A4ost of the remote 
mountainous areas are accessible by graded roads. The 
Southern Pacific Company and the Atchison, Topeka, 
and Santa Fe Railway Company lines serve many points 
in the San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert (pi. 1). 
Both lines cross the Mojave Desert, the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains, and the San Joaquin Valley. Branch lines extend to 
several points in the San Joaquin Valley and one branch 
line extends from Mojave, around El Paso Mountains, 
into Indian Wells Valley. 

H istory 

The first permanent settlers in Kern County arrived in 
the 1840s after several expeditions had passed through the 
county. The county was organized April 2, 1866, and 
Havilah, a mining settlement 27 miles northeast of Bakers- 
field, became the county seat. The county was formed 
from parts of Los Angeles and Tulare Counties, and the 
boundaries were modified from time to time until about 
1895. Bakersfield has been the county seat since 1874. 



1962] 



Kern— Introduction 



15 



Ken, County, California, 1880-1951 —Continued 
California Division of Mines, compiled by the 
and U.S. Bureau of Mines.) 



Asphaltum 


Natural gas 


Petroleum 


Miscellaneous 


Unapportioned 2 


Year 


Tons 


Value 


M. cu. ft. 


Value 


Barrels 


Value 


Amount 


Value 


Substance 


Value 


Substance 






65.576,727 
72.111.360 
70.648.176 
72.945,848 

86,280.000 
84,803,000 

75,965,000 
73,683,000 
76,540,276 

71,505,994 
94,344,606 
97,399,119 

104,638,000 

78,148,000 

86,022,000 


J3.395.175 
3,786.075 
3,972,990 
5,694,426 

8,329,000 
8,414,000 

8,719.000 
8,715,000 
10,120,538 

10.445,036 
18,222.198 
20,064,000 

21.285,357 

16,880,000 

18,854,000 


84,934,943 
92,694,311 
110,290,276 
100,640,406 

106,058,000 
105,421,000 

92,045,000 
84,017,000 
89,651,073 

89,962,498 
93,580,090 
91.087,878 

94,455,000 

96,485,000 

91,508,000 


$86,174,973 
98,829,308 
116.846,281 
120,353,402 

176,761,000 
253,416,000 

204,849,000 
159,126,000 
191,572,128 

190,506,712 
217,068,760 
224,019.662 

233.512,222 

244,493,000 

273.746,000 


14,2141bs. 
8,5321bs. 
ll,8971bs. 


$1,535 

973 
1,368 


Zinc 
Zinc 
Zinc 


$3,715,283 
4,447,413 
4,994,872 
5,708,558 

11,218,422 
11,002,278 

11,698,645 
15,012,715 

19,837,439 

15,047,534 
17,460,932 
28,335.539 

25,942,332 

43,102,104 

50,315,054 


Borates, cement, salt, volcanic ash, and "U". 
Borates, cement, salt, tin, volcanic ash, and "U". 
Borates, cement, salt, tin, volcanic ash, and "U". 
Borates, cement, pumice, salt, volcanic ash, and "U". 

Borates, cement, pumice, quartz, salt, stone, and "U". 
Borates, cement, feldspar, pumice, pumicite, quartz, salt, 

and "U". 
Borates, cement, stone, and "U". 
Borates, cement, pumice, quartz, and "U . 
Borates, cement, pumice, quartz, and "U '. 

Borates, cement, pumicite, salt, and "U". 
Borates, cement, limestone, pumice, quartz, salt. 
Borates, cement, feldspar, limestone, manganese, pumice, 
salt. 

Borates, cement, gems, pumice, salt, sodium carbonate, 

sodium sulfate. 
Borates, cement, gems, pumicite, salt, sodium sulfate, 

uranium. 

Borates, cement, gems, gold, limestone, pumice, pumicite, 
salt, silver, sodium carbonate, uranium, and "U". 


1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 

1947 
1948 

1949 
1950 
1951 

1952 
1953 
1954 

1956 
1957 


Natural 

Barrels 

5,636,905 
6,001,714 

7,887,571 
9,714,075 
9,276.134 

8,798,000 
8,509.000 
8,101,000 

7.453,000 

9,058,761 

6.701,523 


gas liquids 

Value 

510,337,000 
17,323,000 

24,664,000 
28,121,000 
25,366,000 

23,724,000 
29,474,000 
27,874,000 

30,580.000 

29,207,000 

23.211,000 




102,87 4t 
7,8001bs. 


104,566 
1,420 


Stone 
Zinc 


106.535T 


259,873 


Crushed stone 


266.972T 

9001bs. 
234.079T 


457,238 

123 
487,441 


Miscellaneous 

stone 
Zinc 
Stone 


87,137,683 


$269,881,000 


2,419,928,316 


$232,313,004 


3,310,781,747 


$4,401,173,941 




$1,480,074 




$342,883,895 


GRAND TOTAL VALUE... $5,343,985,627 





a Exclusive of value included in unapportioned and production before 1880. "Exclusive of value included in unappoitiulied and with brick; Includes value of some 

7 Exclusive of value included in unapportioned. brick clay. 

8 Exclusive of value included in unapportioned and with clay. 10 Exclusive of value included in stone before 1947. 



The earliest mining in Kern County was in 1852 at 
placer gold deposits in Greenhorn Gulch, which drains 
into the Kern River about midway between Democrat 
Springs and Miracle Hot Springs (see pi. 1). In 1856, the 
antimony deposits near Antimony Peak, a few miles 
northwest of Frazier Park, were described by W. P. 
Blake (1857, p. 291). Gold discoveries were made sub- 
sequently at many other sites in the Sierra Nevada and 
the Mojave Desert. 

Mining of most of the other mineral commodities in 
Kern County began in the 1890s and early l§00s. 
Mineral commodities which have yielded most of the 
dollar output in Kern County and their approximate year 
of earliest recorded production or discovery are boron 
(1913), clay (1899), gypsum (1902), limestone for lime 
(1894), limestone for portland cement (1909), petroleum 
fuels (1894), salt (1914), and tungsten (1905) (see table 
1). Sand and gravel deposits have been most productive 
since about 1940; and uranium has been produced since 
1954. 

Land and Land Use 

Of the 5,228,000 acres of land in Kern County, 1,424,699 
acres (27 percent) is Federal land (Kern County Board 



of Trade, 1958); but this figure includes Federal land 
not open to mineral location. The Federal land open to 
mineral location (public domain) roughly coincides with 
the boundaries of the Sequoia and Los Padres National 
Forests and also includes much of the desert land in the 
east central part of the county (northwest of Mojave) 
and small areas elsewhere in the county. 

Persons desiring to prospect or locate mineral claims 
in Kern County are faced with the ever-increasing prob- 
lems of knowing the status of the land, and of a gradually 
decreasing amount of land open to mineral location. In- 
formation regarding status of land and other information 
relative to mining in Kern County are available from the 
several Federal, State, and County agencies that are listed 
in table 2. 

Topographic maps compiled by the U. S. Geological 
Survey at scales of 1:62,500 and 1:24,000 are available for 
most parts of Kern County. In general, topographic maps 
at a scale of 1:24,000 have been made for the western 
one-third of the county, and maps at a scale of 1:62,500 
have been made for the eastern two-thirds. The names 
and boundaries of topographic maps published by the 
U. S. Geological Survey are shown on figure 2. 



16 



California Division of Mines and Geology 

Table 2. Sources of information relative to mining in Kern County. 



[County Report 1 



Agency 



Address 



Type of information or services available 
or for reference use 



California, State of: 

Industrial Safety, Division of._ 

Labor Commission 

Land Commission 

Mines and Geology, Division of 



Oil and Gas, Division of, District No. 4 

Water Resources, Department of 



Kern County: 

Board of Trade (Chamber of Commerce) . 

Recorder 



Tax Assessor- 



United States: 

Agriculture, Dept. of, Commodity Stabiliza- 
tion Service, Performance and Aerial 
Photo Division, Western Laboratory 

Agriculture, Dept. of, Forest Service, District 
office 

Army Corps of Engineers 



Commerce, Dept. of, Atomic Energy Com- 
mission 

Geological Survey, Oil and Gas leasing 
Division 

Geological Survey, Public Inquiries Office 

Geological Survey, Pacific Region Engineers.. 

Land Management, Bureau of 



Brower Bldg., Bakersfield 

Brower Bldg., Bakersfield 

217 W. First St., Rm. 302, Los Angeles 12.. 
Los Angeles State Office Bldg., Rm. 1065, 
107 South Broadway, Los Angeles 12 

1613 16th St., Bakersfield 

Los Angeles IS 

P.O. Box 1312, Bakersfield... 

Hall of Records, Bakersfield 

Court House, Bakersfield.. 

2505 Parleys Way, Salt Lake City 9, Utah. 

Haberfelde Bldg., 1706 Chester Ave., Bak- 
ersfield 

751 S. Figueroa St., Los Angeles 

222 South West Temple, Salt Lake City, 
Utah 

2510 M Street, Bakersfield 

217 W. Seventh St., Los Angeles 

345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Park 

Sacramento (land located from Mount 

Diablo meridian) 
Riverside (land located from San Bernardino 

meridian) 



Mine safety orders, mine inspection. 

Laws pertaining to employment. 

Mineral leasing and prospecting of state land. 

Geology, mineral resources, mines, ore buyers licensing, 
periodic inspection of license holders, mineral pro- 
duction statistics, state mining laws. 

Regulations pertaining to conservation of oil and gas, 
descriptions of oil fields, yearly summary of opera- 
tions in California oil fields. 

Reports on water resources, water rights, water table 
and well data, dam supervision, state water projects, 
etc. 

General information concerning business, industry, 
recreation. 

Chronological and alphabetical cross references of 
mining claims and owners, copies of recorded loca- 
tion notices, transfers of title, proof of annual labor, 
etc. 

Maps showing land-o,wnership data, record books 
(reference use only). 

Aerial photos of most of Kern County. 

Mining claims in national forests, regulation of surface 
rights. 

Boundaries of military reservations and certain other 
federal lands. 

Regulations, purchase contracts and geologic informa- 
tion regarding uranium deposits. 
Oil leasing information. 

Topographic maps and publications sales. 

Sales copies of aerial photos of parts of northeastern 

Kern County and advance topographic maps. 
Claim and patent information, homesteads, federal 

mining laws, land withdrawal. 



Water Resources 

Mining and milling activities normally require sub- 
stantial amounts of water of good quality. In Kern 
County during 1958, the three largest consumers of water 
for treatment of mineral products were Monolith Port- 
land Cement Co., near Tehachapi; the Creal Cement plant 
of California Portland Cement Co. near Mojave; and the 
United States Borax and Chemical Corporation plant at 
Boron, in southeastern Kern County. With the relatively 
few current mining operations in the county, however, 
the mining industry does not consume a large proportion 
of the available water. The mines in the Sierra Nevada, 
though mostly idle in 1958, can and have been supplied 
with adequate water from local streams to meet drilling 
and milling requirements. In general, however, pumping 
and storage facilities are necessary to conserve and re-use 
water wherever feasible. Some miner and mills, especially 
in the desert areas of the county, need more water than is 
available and must import it from sources several miles 
away. The Ranu Lis! in southeastern Kern County is 
particularly water-n nt. Water for mine operations 
has been obtained from the Butte mine at Randsburg; 



from wells near Cuddeback Dry Lake, 10 miles to the 
southeast of Randsburg; and from wells near Goler Can- 
yon 6 miles northwest of Randsburg. Mine operators in 
the Mojave district, in general, have obtained water from 
nearby sources. 

Precautions to avoid stream pollution do not constitute 
major problems in most areas, but special care must be 
exercised in areas adjacent to the Kern River. 

Kern County embraces parts of two major drainage 
systems of California. The western two-thirds of the 
county drains into the San Joaquin Valley and the re- 
mainder drains into the Mojave Desert. Most of the 
water consumed in the southern San Joaquin Valley is 
supplied from subsurface sources and gravity diversions 
from the Kern and other rivers. Surface waters emerging 
from the mountain areas flow toward Buena Vista Lake, 
but much of the water is absorbed in porous valley 
fill and eventually seeps downward to recharge ground- 
water basins. 

The Kern River is the largest single source of surface 
water in the county. Its average annual runoff is 760,000 



1962] 

Figure 2. 



Index to topographic maps. Kern County. 



Kern— Introduction 



17 



/r- 



•3 as* 5T 
-LA RAMBLA- 

i5 



_ LIBERTY _ 
, FARMS . 



- EARLIMART- 



HART 
STATION 



— WASCO - 



BAKERSFIELD 



4 



A. 



CALIFORNIA 
HOT 
SPRINGS 



GLENNVILLE 



8RECKENRIDGE 



•CALIENTE 



KERNVILLE - 



EMERALD 
MTN 



CROSS 
MTN 



WILLOW 

ELIZ ABETH 



LITTLE 
LAKE 



BUTTE ^ 

•A M 



LAKE 



MOUNTAIN 

SPRINGS 
CANYON 



RIDGECREST 



SEARLES 
LAKE 



SEARLES LAKE 



RANDSBURG 



oloN - 



t 1 1 



■ KRAMER 



acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is 325,851 gallons of 
water) and drains about 2,420 square miles in the Sierra 
Nevada. The flow of the lower part of Kern River is 
controlled at Isabella Dam, 34 miles northeast of Bakers- 
field. Isabella Lake, the largest reservoir in the county, 
has a storage capacity of 550,000 acre-feet of water. 
Buena Vista Lake has a capacity of 205,000 acre-feet of 
water, but is used at present only during periods of ex- 
ceptionally high runoff. 

The estimated mean annual runoff into Antelope Valley 
at the west end of the Mojave Desert is 66,000 acre-feet 
(California Dept. Water Res., Bull. 1, 1951, table 72). 
One-third of this comes from streams on the north and 
west side of the valley (California. Div. of Water Res., 
Rept. to Assembly, 1947, table 1); the rest flows from 
streams in Los Angeles County. Almost all the water 
needs in Antelope V alley are supplied by pumping from 
wells, and overdraft is a serious problem. The quality of 
water is good in most areas and the water table lies at 
depths below 50 feet. Two groundwater basins exist in 
Antelope Valley; the Antelope Valley basin in the west 
and El Mirage basin to the east. 

The principal sources of surface water in Tehachapi 
Valley are Tehachapi Creek, White Rock Creek, and 
numerous smaller creeks draining the north slopes of 
Cummings and Double Mountains. The lowest part of 
Tehachapi Valley is occupied by Proctor Lake, which 
is at the east end of the valley. During periods of excep- 
tionally high runoff Proctor Lake overflows into Tehach- 



api Pass and subsequently flows southeastward into Fre- 
mont Valley in the Mojave Desert. 

The source of water in Indian Wells Valley, in the 
northeast corner of the county, is groundwater basins 
recharged by runoff from the Sierra Nevada; but the 
water generally is of poor quality and at deep levels. 

Acknowledgments 

This report is the product of work by many members 
of the Division of Mines. Information was gathered from 
both published and unpublished sources, in the field, and 
from many mine owners or persons living in the vicinity 
of the mines. The writers are grateful to all those who 
contributed information for the report. 

The first work done for the Kern County report was 
by Rudolph W. Fekete for a few months in 1954. He 
investigated the mineral deposits in the Breckenridge 
Mountain quadrangle. Later in 1954, Thomas E. Gay, 
Jr. and Bennie W. Troxel were assigned the project. 
Mr. Gay compiled most of the bibliographic material 
for each mine or prospect; made field investigations of 
properties near Kernville, Claraville, and Erskine Creek; 
and made field investigations of roofing-granule plants 
and deposits. In 1956, he was assigned to the Redding 
office of the Division of Mines and was relieved of fur- 
ther work for the report. J. Grant Goodwin was assigned 
to the project in 1956 and investigated mineral deposits 
in several areas northwest of the Kern River in the Sierra 
Nevada until mid-1957. His work was transmitted to 



18 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Paul K. Morton, who together with Bennie W. Troxel 
completed the field investigations of the metal deposits 
and assembled all the information into an integrated 
report. 

George B. Cleveland provided the sections on clay and 
diatomaceous earth and part of the information for the 
sand and gravel section; Thomas E. Gay, Jr. provided 
the roofing-granule materials section and other descrip- 
tions; Harold B. Goldman provided the sand and gravel 
section; Cliffton H. Gray, Jr. provided the limestone, 
dolomite, and cement section; Earl W. Hart provided 
the petroleum fuels section; and William E. Ver Planck 
provided the borates, gypsum, magnesite, quartz and 
feldspar and salt sections, and the description of the 
Kramer borate district. 

The geologic map (pi. 2) was originally compiled by 
Charles J. Kundert in 1955, but was modified by Morton 
and Troxel in 1959. Though many other people con- 
tributed to the information included on the map, the 
principal sources were unpublished maps compiled by 
Thomas W. Dibblee, Jr., of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

Other contributors to the information contained below 
are Dion L. Gardner and Rene Engel, consulting geolo- 
gists (unpublished descriptions of several mines); Charles 
W. Chesterman (unpublished data about tungsten de- 
posits in the Rand and Indian Wells districts); William 
A. Bowes, Richard D. Miller, and Arthur J. Richards 
of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (unpublished 
data about uranium deposits); F. Harold Weber, Jr. 
(unpublished description of a tungsten deposit in Indian 
Wells district and assistance in mapping a mine in the 
Rand -district); and several members of the U. S. Atomic 
Energy Commission, U. S. Bureau of Mines, and U. S. 
Geological Survey for allowing the use of information 
from their files. The base map for plate 1 was redrafted 
from a copy supplied by J. H. Hanks, Kern County Tax 
Assessor. 

Much of the information presented in previous de- 
scriptions of mineral deposits in Kern County was in- 
corporated in this report, especially descriptions by 
Reid J. Sampson and W. Burling Tucker. 

Lauren A. Wright contributed many constructive sug- 
gestions at all stages of the manuscript preparation. Help- 
ful suggestions and assistance were offered by many other 
members of the Division of Alines. 

Glossary of Selected Geologic and Mining Terms 

Listed below are some of the geologic and mining 
terms used in this report. They are defined in the sense 
that the present writers have used them. More complete 
definitions of these terms and definitions of terms not 
listed can be obtained from standard dictionaries or the 
following sources: 

American Geological Institute, 1957, Glossary of geology and 
related sciences, Publication No. 501, Washington D.C. 325 p. 

Fay, A. H., 1920, A glossary of the mining and mineral industry: 
U. S. Bur. Mines Buli. 95, 754 p. 

Rice, C. M., 1951, Dictionary of geological terms, Edwards Broth- 
ers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 465 p. 



Adit. A horizontal or nearly horizontal mine passage from the surface. 

Commonly called a "tunnel". A drift adit follows a vein or ore body; 

a crosscut adit does not. 
Alunitization. The introduction of, or replacement of minerals or r^^i, 

by alunite (hydrous, potassium-aluminum sulfate). 
Anhedral. The texture of mineral grains not bounded by their own 

crystal faces. 

Amalgamation. The process of extracting metals by alloying with 
mercury and later expelling the mercury. Usually restricted to the 
recovery of gold. 

Anticline. A fold or upward arch in rocks in which the layers are 
inclined away from each other. 

Arrastre (arrastra). A mill in which ore is ground by an object being 
dragged over it in a flat, circular bed or basin. Used mostly in com- 
bination with amalgamation of gold ore. 

Brecciated. Broken or crushed into angular fragments. 

Collar. The mouth of a mine shaft. 

Country rock. The rock along the walls of, or containing, a fault, vein, 
or ore body. Also host rock or wall rock. 

Crosscut. A mine level or passage driven across the course of a vein 
or ore body (from another underground working). 

Cyanidation. The chemical extraction of gold and silver from finely 
ground ore by dissolving in potassium or sodium cyanide, then pre- 
cipitating the gold and silver by addition of another metal, usually zinc. 

Dip. The maximum measureable inclined angle of any planar geologic 
feature at a given point; denoted in degrees downward from a 
horizontal plane. 

Fault. A plane of rupture in rocks along which the rocks on one side 

have moved relative to those on the other side. 
Fineness. The proportion of gold or silver in a mixture of the two; 

usually expressed in parts per thousand (900 fine = 90%). 
Footwall. The underlying or lower wall of a fault, ore body, or vein. 
Gangue. The worthless or undesirable part of a vein or ore body. 
Glory hole. A surface excavation resulting from the mining of ore that 

is removed through underground passageways connected to the floor of 

the excavation. 

Gossan (iron-hat). Iron-rich oxidized vein material in the upper parts 

of mineral veins containing iron sulfides. 
Gouge. Fine-grained, usually soft, pulverized material lying along the 

wall of a fault or vein. Usually altered, pulverized rock. 
Hanging wall. The overlying or upper wall of a fault, ore body, or vein. 
Heads. See mill heads. 

Isoclinal fold. A fold so tightly folded that the layers on each limb of 

the fold are inclined at the same angle. 
Kaotinization. The process of alteration or replacement whereby kao- 

linite (hydrous aluminum silicate clays) is formed. 
Lacustrine. Of or pertaining to lakes. 

Left-lateral fault. A fault along which the separation is such that the 
side of the fault opposite an observer has moved relatively to the left. 

Level. A designated horizontal plane or elevation in a mine, usually 
referring to a horizontal passage into or in a mine. 

Lithology. The composition and description of rocks or rock units. 

Metamorphic rocks. Rocks that have been changed without melting in 
response to pronounced changes of temperature, pressure, or chemical 
environment exclusive of weathering. "Meta" is commonly prefixed to 
the original rock name, e.g., metasedimentary rock = metamorphosed 
sedimentary rock. 

Mill heads. The average percentage of valuable constituents in mined 
ore before it is beneficiated; usually the average of a day's production. 

Milling ore. Ore that must be upgraded or concentrated before it can 
be shipped economically for further recovery of its valuable constituents. 

Mill tails. The average percentage of valuable constituents in the dis- 
carded fraction (tails, tailings) of ore that has been beneficiated. 

Modulus of rupture. A measure of the force which must be applied 
longitudinally in order to produce rupture. 

Normal fault. An inclined plane of rupture in rocks along which the 
block above the plane apparently has moved downward relative to the 
other. 

Ore pass. A vertical or steeply inclined underground opening through 
which ore is delivered by gravity from one level to another. 

Ore shoot (pay streak, ore body). A concentration or body of ore, 
usually elongate. 



1962] 



Kern— Geologic Features 



19 



Overhand stope. An underground opening, other than a raise, result- 
ing from removal of ore by mining upward from a level. 

Portal. The surface entrance to horizontal or nearly horizontal mine 
workings. 

Raise. A vertical or inclined mine passage driven upward, usually to 

connect mine levels or to follow ore bodies. 
Right lateral fault. A fault along which the separation is such that the 

side of the fault opposite an observer has moved relatively to the right. 
Roof pendant. Residual masses of older rocks surrounded except at the 

top by batholithic rocks. 
Shaft. A vertical or inclined mine passageway connected to the surface. 
Shear. A plane of rupture in rocks along which rocks have moved. A 

fault of minor displacement; usually one of many planes that comprise 

a complex fault zone. 
Sheeting. The development in rocks of closely spaced parallel planes of 

rupture; commonly, shears occupied by quartz veinlets. 
Shipping ore. Ore that can be shipped to a processing plant without 

preliminary concentration. 
Shrinkage stope. A stope developed by mining rock overhead and 

leaving sufficient broken rock underfoot to provide a working platform 

for subsequent mining overhead. 
Slusher. A power-driven device used for transferring broken rock in a 

scraper-bucket attached to cables and pulleys. 
Stope. The underground excavation, usually inclined or vertical, resulting 

from the removal of ore from other than raises, rooms, passageways, 

or winzes. 

Stratigraphic. Of or pertaining to the order and sequence of layered 
sedimentary rocks. 

Strike. The bearing of a horizontal line in any planar geologic feature 

in rocks; denoted in degrees west or east of north. 
Sub-level. A mine passage lower or higher than a main level. 
Syncline. A fold or downwarping in rocks in which the layers are 

inclined towards each other. 
Tactite. Metamorphosed rock composed mostly of calcium silicate minerals 

(epidote, garnet). Commonly found adjacent to the contact between 

granitic and metasedimentary rocks. 
Tails (tailings). See mill tails. 

Unconformity. A surface between rock units that represents erosion or 
nondeposition. Usually noted by a difference in the angle of layering 
in the rocks above and below the surface. 

Underhand stope. An underground opening other than a winze result- 
ing from removal of ore by mining downward from a level. 

Wall rock. The rock bounding a fault, vein, or ore body. 

GEOLOGIC FEATURES 

Rocks exposed in Kern County range in age from 
Precambrian? to Recent (pi. 2), although the Mesozoic 
and Quaternary rocks are the most abundant in outcrop. 
Since the publication in 1857 of a geologic map of south- 
eastern Kern County by W. P. Blake, numerous workers 
have mapped many segments of the county. Several hun- 
dred square miles, however, mostly in mountainous ter- 
rain underlain by pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks, lack 
detailed geologic maps. In general, areas underlain by 
Tertiary marine rocks have been the most thoroughly 
studied because they contain nearly all of the petroleum 
fuels in the county. 

Intensive studies of the Tertiary rocks in the San Joa- 
quin Valley and bordering hills were begun by F. M. 
Anderson (1905, 1908, 1911), Robert Anderson (1912, 
1915), Ralph Arnold (1910), W. A.English (1916, 1921), 
and R. W. Pack (1920). Since their time, many other 
workers have contributed additional geologic data con- 
cerning the San Joaquin Valley. Early workers who 
prepared maps of other parts of the county include O. H. 
Hershey (1902), C. L. Baker (1911), F. L. Hess and 



E. S. Larsen (1920), C. D. Hulin (1925), and D. G. 
Thompson (1928). Since 1929, maps of large areas un- 
derlain by crystalline rocks have been prepared by E. C. 
Simpson (1934), W. J. Miller and R. W. Webb (1940), 
H. S. Gale (1946), J. H. Wiese (1950), J. C. Crowell 
(1952), T. W. Dibblee, Jr. (1952), T. W. Dibblee, Jr. 
and C. W. Chesterman (1953), J. P. Buwalda (1954), and 
others. 

General Features 

Kern County lies in parts of five of the eleven geologic 
provinces of California (fig. 3)— the southeastern Coast 
Ranges (Temblor Range and San Emigdio Mountains), 
the Great Valley of California (southern part of the 
San Joaquin Valley), southern Sierra Nevada (including 
the Tehachapi Mountains), the southwestern tip of the 
Basin Ranges (El Paso Mountains and Indian Wells Val- 
ley), and the western end of the Aiojave Desert. Each 
province differs from the others in the nature of its geo- 
logic history and mineral deposits. 

The segment of the Coast Ranges province that lies 
in Kern County is characterized mostly by north-north- 
west-trending mountain ranges of moderate relief un- 
derlain principally by folded Mesozoic and Cenozoic 
marine sedimentary rocks and cut longitudinally by the 
great San Andreas fault. In the southwestern part of 
Kern County, however, this fault, which trends north- 
northwest, has a more easterly course. This is reflected 
in the easterly trend of the rugged San Emigdio Moun- 
tains which lie between the San Andreas fault and the 
San Joaquin Valley. The San Emigdio Mountains con- 
tain an exposed core of pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks 
that on the north flank are overlain by generally north- 
dipping, Tertiary marine and nonmarine sedimentary 
rocks. Elsewhere in the Coast Ranges province in Kern 
County the sedimentary rocks trend mostly north-north- 
west and are moderately to mildly deformed along folds 
trending parallel to the mountain ranges. 

The southern part of the Great Valley province is a 
nearly flat-surfaced north-trending trough bounded by 
the Coast Ranges, San Emigdio Mountains, and Sierra 
Nevada. Tertiary rocks, largely of marine origin, under- 
lie a relatively thin cover of Quaternary alluvium. The 
Tertiary rocks overlie pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks 
similar to those in the Sierra Nevada in the east side of 



Figure 3. Sketch of the geologic provinces in Kern County. 




20 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



the valley and Jurassic-Cretaceous marine sedimentary 
rocks in the west side of the valley. Pre-Jurassic crystal- 
line rocks presumably underlie the Jurassic-Cretaceous 
sedimentary rocks but their nature has not yet been de- 
termined. Northwest-trending anticlines in the Tertiary 
strata are reflected by the outlines of gas and oil fields 
(pi. 1) and by low hills in the valleys. 

The southern Sierra Nevada province, comprising the 
southern Sierra Nevada and the Tehachapi Mountains, 
contains most of the high mountains in Kern County. 
Cretaceous granitic rocks (Larsen and others, 1958) 
underlie most of the southern part of the province and are 
part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. The grantic rocks 
contain many roof pendants of pre-Cretaceous metasedi- 
mentary rocks. The pendants in the central part of the 
province trend northward, those in the northwest part 
trend north-northwest, and those in the southeast part 
trend northeast. The layering in the metasedimentary 
rocks generally is nearly vertical and strikes parallel to 
the long axes of the pendants. Many of the pendants 
are irregular in plan, posibly reflecting regional folds. 
Tertiary rocks, consisting of moderately to gently dip- 
ping nonmarine sedimentary rocks and intrusive and 
extrusive igneous rocks, occur locally in the province. 
The Sierra Nevada and Garlock faults form the east 
and southeast boundaries of the province. 

Only the small southwestern tip of the Basin Ranges 
province— which includes several hundred thousand 
square miles in eastern California, southeastern Oregon, 
Nevada, and western Utah— lies in Kern County. The 
parts of the Basin Ranges province that lie within Kern 
County are El Paso Mountains, which form the south 
boundary of the province; Indian Wells Valley; and the 
east front of the Sierra Nevada, which forms the west 
boundary of the province. El Paso Mountains, trending 
east-northeast, parallel to the Garlock fault, lie athwart 
the normal north-northwest trend of ranges in the Basin 
Ranges province. El Paso Mountains contain A4esozoic 
granitic rocks, the only Palezoic rocks in the county 
that have yielded well-preserved fossils, and moderately 
thick Tertiary sedimentary rocks. 

The Mojave Desert province, which includes most 
of the desert in southeastern California lying south of 
the Basin Ranges province, forms a westward-tapering 
wedge that is bounded by the San Andreas and Garlock 
faults. The northwest part of the wedge lies in south- 
eastern Kern County. In Kern County, isolated buttes 
and small mountain masses of moderate to low relief are 
irregularly distributed on the gently undulating desert 
floor. Most of the area is underlain by Mesozoic granitic 
rocks which here and there contain isolated outcrops of 
pre-Cretaceou; metasedimentary rocks and Tertiary 
igneous and sedimentary rocks. The most pronounced 
buttes rising above t he desert floor consist of Tertiary 
volcanic rocks. Broad shallow basins in the province con- 
tain Quaternary play;, : sediments but most of the 
desert floor is covered by Quaternary alluvium. Poorly 
exposed northwest-trending faults in the province com- 



monly border Tertiary basins containing nonmarine sedi- 
ments. 

Precambrian? Rocks 

In Kern County, rocks ascribed to the Precambrian era 
are confined to the southwestern part of the Tehachapi 
and El Paso Mountains and to the Rand Mountains (pi. 
2), although some of the crystalline rocks in the San 
Emigdio Mountains may be of Precambrian age. The 
Precambrian? age assignments of these rocks has been 
made mostly because the rocks are metamorphosed to a 
higher degree than many of the Paleozoic rocks in south- 
ern California and consist of different rock types than the 
Paleozoic rocks. The accurate dating of these rocks is 
one of the important unsolved geologic problems in the 
county. 

The Precambrian? rock units in Kern County are the 
Johannesburg gneiss and Rand schist (Hulin, 1925) in 
the Rand Mountains, the Mesquite schist (Dibblee, 1952) 
in El Paso Mountains, and the'Pelona schist and an un- 
named gneiss complex (Wiese, 1950) in the southwestern 
Tehachapi Mountains. The Rand schist and Pelona schist 
are similar both in lithology and in degree of metamor- 
phism. Hershey (1902), Simpson (1934), and others have 
used these similarities to correlate the two widely sepa- 
rated units. The Mesquite schist has not been correlated 
with the Rand and Pelona schists because it is finer 
grained and appears to be less metamorphosed than either 
of them (Dibblee, 1952). The gneisses do not appear to 
have any counterparts in the county. 

The Rand and Pelona schists consist mostly of mica- 
albite schist and amphibole schist and contain thin beds 
of limestone and quartzite. Both contain also thin lenses 
of white quartz. The Mesquite schist is mainly chlorite- 
quartz-albite-sericite schist with interbedded limestone 
layers. The Johnnesburg gneiss is composed of several 
types of hornblende-plagioclase gneiss and hornblende 
gneiss with interlayered limestone and quartzite. The 
gneiss complex in the Tehachapi Mountains consists of 
mica schist with interlayered marble and quartzite, nearly 
massive quartz-biotite-feldspar rock, and injection gneiss. 
The Rand schist is an estimated 2,000 feet thick (Hulin, 
1925, p. 27); the Pelona schist is 5,000 feet thick in the 
Tehachapi Mountains (Wiese, 1950, p. 12); the Mesquite 
schist is 4,500 feet thick (Dibblee, 1952, p. 13-14); and 
the Johannesburg gneiss is an estimated 2,500 feet thick 
(Hulin, 1925, p. 23). 

Most of the Precambrian? rocks consist of fine-grained 
sediments, some of which contain interlayered rocks of 
volcanic origin, and some of them were intruded in Pre- 
cambrian? time by plutonic igneous rocks. The extent 
of the Precambrian? seas and igneous masses is obscure, 
as is the history of subsequent metamorphism, folding, 
and erosion of these rocks. 

In the Rand Mountains, the Rand schist is one of the 
host rocks for gold, silver, and tungsten deposits. White 
quartz from lenses in the schist has been utilized for 
building stone and talc layers in the schist have been 
prospected. Elsewhere in Kern County the Precambrian? 



1962] 



Kern— Geologic Features 



21 



rocks have been of little economic significance though 
some of the limestone bodies contain small tungsten de- 
posits and some of the schists have been sources of minor 
amounts of flagstone. 

Paleozoic Rocks 

The rocks in Kern County that have been dated as 
Paleozoic are in isolated bodies in the Sierra Nevada, 
Tehachapi Mountains, San Emigdio Mountains, and El 
Paso Mountains (pi. 2). Most are metamorphosed strata 
that have been dated variously as "pre-Cretaceous, Car- 
boniferous?, Permian (in part), and late Paleozoic"; some 
of them might be of Mesozoic age. Age assignments have 
been made largely on the basis of lithologic similarities 
with fossiliferous Paleozoic rocks in other parts of Cali- 
fornia. Part of the Garlock series in El Paso Mountains 
contains crinoid stems and fusilinids that indicate a middle 
or early Permian age (Dibblee, 1952, p. 17-19). "Poorly 
preserved indistinct remnants of what were once cri- 
noidea" found by Goodyear (1888b, p. 310) in an uni- 
dentified marble quarry southwest of Tehachapi are the 
only other fossil remains that may be of Paleozoic age 
found to date in the county. Most of the pre-Cretaceous 
sedimentary rocks in the county appear to be too highly 
metamorphosed to yield identifiable fossils. 

The Paleozoic rocks are roof pendants or inclusions 
in Mesozoic granitic rocks, ranging in length from a few 
hundred feet to about 30 miles and in width from a few 
tens of feet to about 4 miles. Many of them are too small 
to be shown on the geologic map of the county. The 
layering in most of the Paleozoic rocks dips steeply and 
commonly strikes parallel to the long axis of the pendant. 
The principal exception is the Garlock series in El Paso 
Mountains, which strikes nearly at right angles to the 
long axis of the main pendant in which it occurs. 

Formation names have been applied to most of the 
Paleozoic rock masses in Kern County. The most widely 
accepted names are the Kernville series (Miller, 1931, p. 
335-343) in the Sierra Nevada; the Pampa schist (Dibblee 
and Chesterman, 1953, p. 18-22), also in the Sierra Ne- 
vada; the Garlock series (Dibblee, 1952, p. 15-19) in El 
Paso Mountains; and the Bean Canyon series (Simpson, 
1934, p. 381-383) in the Tehachapi Mountains. Many 
bodies of metasedimentary rocks of probable Paleozoic 
age in the San Emigdio, Tehachapi, and El Paso Moun- 
tains have not yet been studied in detail. 

The Paleozoic rocks consist mostly of mica schist or 
phyllite which commonly contain interlayered quartzite, 
limestone, dolomite, calc-silicate hornfels, and— in the 
Garlock series and Pampa schist— metavolcanic rocks. 
The Garlock series, 35,000 feet thick if not repeated in 
folds (Dibblee, 1952, p. 15-19), is the thickest succession 
of Paleozoic rocks yet measured in Kern County. Else- 
where in the county, the thickest measured section of 
Paleozoic rocks is the Pampa schist which is an estimated 
20,000 feet thick (Dibblee and Chesterman, 1953, p. 19). 

Marine environments probably existed over much of 
Kern County during much of the Paleozoic era, although 
extrusive volcanic rocks— meta-andesite, meta-dacite, and 



meta-basalt— were deposited in at least three areas in the 
county— in El Paso Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, north- 
west of Tehachapi, and in the southwestern Tehachapi 
Mountains. The lack of recognizable unconformities in 
the Paleozoic rocks and the abundance of fine-grained 
sediments suggest that deposition of the strata occurred 
under uniform conditions and probably continuously, at 
least during late Paleozoic time; deposition probably con- 
tinued uninterrupted into early Jurassic time. 

Bodies of Paleozoic limestone have been the only 
source of the large volume of limestone for cement, lime, 
white roofing granules, and filler material produced in 
Kern County. Wollastonite was mined from one locality 
in the county and building stone has been obtained from 
several localities underlain by Paleozoic rocks. The prin- 
cipal metal deposits in the Paleozoic rocks are tungsten, 
gold, silver, antimony, lead, tin, and zinc. Barite, graphite, 
molybdenite, and iron in the Paleozoic rocks have been 
prospected. 

Mesozoic Rocks 

Mesozoic marine sedimentary rocks crop out in north- 
western Kern County, and Mesozoic igneous rocks are 
widespread in Kern County east and south of the San 
Joaquin Valley. 

The Marine sedimentary rocks consist mostly of the 
Franciscan group occupying fault-bounded wedges in the 
Temblor and southeastern Diablo Ranges and other rocks 
which comprise the bulk of the southeastern Diablo 
Range. These have been variously assigned to the Knox- 
ville, Shasta, Chico, and other formations. Some of the 
metamorphosed unfossiliferous marine strata questionably 
assigned to the Paleozoic era may be of early Mesozoic 
age. 

In Kern County the Franciscan group consists of chert, 
shale, sandstone, and limestone and is associated with 
bodies of serpentine and other basic igneous rocks (Arn- 
old and Johnson 1910, p. 32-34). Only a small part of the 
stratigraphic section of the Franciscan group is exposed in 
Kern County. In recent years the Franciscan group has 
been considered to be in part late Jurassic and in part 
early Cretaceous; formerly it was considered to be wholly 
Jurassic in age. The Lower to Upper Cretaceous (Shasta- 
Chico) formations consist of about 11,000 feet of shale, 
sandstone, and conglomerate. 

Mesozoic igneous intrusive rocks are abundant in the 
Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountains, and San Emigdio 
Mountains, where they form about 70 percent of the total 
outcrops. They are also common in the Mojave Desert 
and El Paso Mountains. The igneous rocks range in com- 
position from granite to gabbro; quartz monzonite and 
quartz diorite are the most common types. Isolated bodies 
of basic igneous rocks— ranging in size, from a few 
feet in diameter to several miles in the shortest dimension 
—are enclosed in the younger acidic rocks. The igneous 
rocks in the Sierra Nevada and Tehachapi Mountains are 
part of the Sierra Nevada batholith which forms an 80- 
mile-wide belt about 400 miles long and is the largest 
Mesozoic batholith in the United States. Mesozoic 



22 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



igneous rocks in the Mojave Desert, El Paso Mountains, 
and San Emigdio Mountains also appear to be part of the 
Sierra Nevada batholith. 

Larsen and others'(1958, p. 49, 50, 52-53, 60) conclude 
from results of lead-alpha age determinations made on 
samples of granitic rocks collected in the Sierra Nevada, 
including one sample of granodiorite collected near the 
Kern River in Kern County, that the Sierra Nevada 
batholith is probably early Late Cretaceous in age. 

Marine deposition of fine-grained sediments probably 
continued from Paleozoic time into the Triassic period 
in parts of Kern County, although Triassic rocks have 
not been definitely recognized in the county to date. 
Many thousands of feet of fossiliferous Cretaceous marine 
sediments were deposited in the northwestern part of 
Kern County following deposition of marine strata of 
Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan group. The Jurassic and 
Cretaceous seas extended southeastward as far as the vi- 
cinity of Taft. Nearly simultaneously, batholithic rocks 
were being emplaced in the roots of the Sierra Nevada 
and in the Mojave Desert area. Older rocks in these areas 
were metamorphosed, tilted, folded, uplifted, and subse- 
quently eroded. These events occurred in a remarkably 
brief span of geologic time and were the beginning of a 
succession of geologic events that is continuing today. 
Since the close of the Cretaceous period, most of the 
Mojave Desert, Sierra Nevada, and Basin Ranges prov- 
inces has remained above sea level. 

The principal mineral deposits associated with the 
Mesozoic igneous rocks are tungsten, copper, and gold. 
Although many of these deposits are not wholly within 
Mesozoic rocks, their origin is closely associated with 
the late stages of emplacement of the batholithic rocks. 
Uranium deposits in the Kern River area lie in fractured 
granitic rocks. 

Tertiary Rocks 

Tertiary rocks are widespread in the western half of 
Kern County, although they are largely tovered by al- 
luvium in the San Joaquin Valley, and occur as isolated 
outcrops in southeastern Kern County (pi. 2). In western 
Kern County, the rocks are principally marine strata, 
which were deposited nearly continuously from Creta- 
ceous to Pleistocene time. Eastward, along the western 
foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Tertiary sediments 
consist largely of nonmarine strata. In the Mojave Desert, 
El Paso Mountains, and parts of the southern Sierra Ne- 
vada, Tertiary continental and volcanic rocks were de- 
posited during most of the Tertiary period, but deposi- 
tion and volcanism were not continuous. The Tertiary 
marine strata in the San Joaquin Valley and eastern 
Temblor Range consist of about 30,000 feet of shale, 
sandstone, conglomerate, silt, and claystone. They have 
been assigned a large number of formation names; most 
of them are listed on plate 2, and a few are mentioned 
below. 

Most of the marine rocks assigned a Paleocene age by 
early workers have been assigned ages of late Cretaceous 
or early Eocene by later workers. The principal Eocene 



formations are the Tejon formation, Point of Rocks sand- 
stone, Kreyenhagen shale, and Famosa sand. In Kern 
County, the Eocene strata apparently attain their ma^'- 
mum thickness of more than 6,000 feet beneath parts oi 
the San Joaquin Valley. Marine Oligocene rocks, a maxi- 
mum of about 1,000 feet thick, are included in the 
Oceanic sand, Tumey shale, Wagonwheel formation, and 
the San Emigdio and Pleito members of the San Lorenzo 
formation. Miocene strata attain a maximum thickness of 
more than 12,000 feet. They have been included in many 
formations, some of the most commonly used names be- 
ing Vaqueros sandstone, Maricopa and Monterey forma- 
tions, Santa Margarita sand, and McDonald shale. Many 
other Miocene formation names have been applied and 
are used by petroleum geologists (see pi. 2 in pocket and 
table 15 in petroleum fuels section). Pliocene marine 
strata are about 6,000 feet thick. They are most com- 
monly included in the Etchegoin and San Joaquin forma- 
tions and the marine facies of the Chanac formation. 

Continental sedimentary rocks, including pyroclastic 
rocks, in Kern County consist mostly of coarse fanglom- 
erates, fine-grained lake sediments, and interlayered vol- 
canic ash beds. They are mostly in isolated outcrops 
except along the east and south margins of the San Joa- 
quin Valley where coarse sediments form continuous out- 
crops. Most of the rocks are included in formations that 
have not yet been satisfactorily correlated with one an- 
other. The oldest Tertiary continental sedimentary rocks 
in Kern County are in the Paleocene Goler formation 
(Dibblee, 1952, p. 22; McKenna, 1955, p. 512-515), which 
is 6,500 feet thick and crops out over a large part of El 
Paso Mountains. The Oligocene Walker formation and 
Bealville fanglomerate in eastern San Joaquin Valley com- 
prise about 3,000 feet of coarse terrestial sediments. The 
Tecuya formation, about 2,000 feet thick, in southern San 
Joaquin Valley (Hoots, 1930, p. 262) and the Witnet for- 
mation, about 4,000 feet thick, in the Tehachapi area (Bu- 
walda, 1954, p. 134) are also probably Oligocene in age. 
Miocene continental rocks include the Bena formation, 
2,500 feet thick, along the western front of the Sierra 
Nevada (Dibblee and Chesterman, 1953, p. 38); the Kin- 
nick and Bopesta formation, about 5,000 feet thick, in the 
Tehachapi area (Buwalda, 1954, p. 134-135); and the 
lower part of the Tropico group in the Mojave Desert 
(Dibblee, 1958, p. 135-144). The principal Pliocene for- 
mations are the continental facies of the Chanac forma- 
tion, about 1,000 feet thick, in southern San Joaquin 
(Hoots, 1930, p. 292-293); the lower 5,500 feet of the 
Ricardo formation in El Paso Mountains (Dibblee, 1952, 
p. 30); the Horned Toad formation, about 1,000 feet 
thick, in low hills northwest of Mojave (Dibblee, 1958, 
p. 143); the Plio-Pleistocene McKittrick, and Tulare for- 
mations, about 2,000 feet thick, and the Kern River for- 
mation, about 1,200 feet thick, occur in the San Joaquin 
Valley. 

Intrusive and extrusive rocks of Oligocene to Pliocene 
age are erratically distributed through the southern and 
southeastern part of Kern County. They are predomi- 
nately of andesitic to rhyolitic composition. 



1962] 



Kern— Geologic Features 



23 



Folded basalt flows, andesite agglomerate, and basalt 
sills of early and middle Miocene age crop out between 
T cuya and Pleito Creeks in the Pleito Hills at the 
southern end of the San Joaquin Valley. The only vol- 
canic rocks on the western flank of the Sierra Nevada 
are a few patches of the Miocene Ilmon andesite which 
crop out north of Caliente Creek near Ilmon and Bena 
sidings (Dibblee, 1952, p. 38). 

Extensive andesite flows underlie several tens of square 
miles in an area centered about 10 miles northeast of 
Tehachapi. Although not accurately dated, they are no 
older than Pliocene (Buwalda, 1954, p. 135), and may be 
correlative with andesite of early Pleistocene age (Sam- 
sel, 1951, unpublished report) in Jawbone Canyon about 
25 miles northeast of Tehachapi. Also in Jawbone Can- 
yon, are about 2,300 feet of vesicular basalt and welded 
volcanic tuff breccia which are similar to Miocene rocks 
near Tehachapi. 

Rhyolite plugs and dikes are common in the area be- 
tween Monolith and the mouth of Jawbone Canyon. 
They are ill-dated but are probably middle Tertiary 
(Samsel, 1951, unpublished report). 

Basalt and andesite flows aggregating as much as 550 
feet in thickness are interbedded with sediments in the 
Pliocene Ricardo formation on the northwestern and 
western slopes of EI Paso Mountains. 

In the Mojave Desert region of Kern County, widely 
distributed basalt flows and quartz latite and rhyolite 
intrusive masses are included by Dibblee (1958, p. 135- 
144) in the Tropico group of Mio-Pliocene age. These 
volcanic rocks are mostly in the vicinity of Soledad 
Mountain (Bobtail quartz latite member) and Boron 
(Saddleback basalt). 

Uplift and concurrent erosion of most of the Sierral 
Nevada and Mojave Desert continued throughout the!' 
Tertiary period and are still continuing today. The 
Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake of July 1952 is evidence of 
this continuing activity. Marine sediments accumulated 
in the San Joaquin Valley and Temblor Range areas, 
upon the floors of Tertiary seas whose margins fluctuated 
rapidly and repeatedly due to continual warping of rocks 
underlying these areas. The seas extended inland from 
the present coast line of the Pacific Ocean as far east as 
the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada and south to 
the central part of the San Emigdio Mountains. The 
Sierra Nevada and Mojave land masses contributed large 
volumes of sediments to the bordering sea floors and to 
lakes occupying basins within these provinces. Coarse 
fanglomeratic material accumulated along the margins of 
the Sierra Nevada, San Emigdio Mountains, and else- 
where. Most of the basins in the Mojave Desert and bor- 
dering areas received sediments during only parts of the 
Tertiary period, and apparently only a few were receiv- 
ing sediments simultaneously at a given time. Volcanic 
activity resulting in the emplacement of shallow intru- 
sive rocks, extrusive flows, and pyroclastic sedimentary 
rocks occurred several times, mostly during the Miocene 
and Pliocene epochs. 



Movement along the ancestral San Andreas, Garlock, 
and Sierra Nevada faults probably began during the 
Tertiary period, if not before, and continued intermit- 
tently. Petroleum fuels probably accumulated in some of 
the early formed structural traps in the Tertiary marine 
strata. 

The most valued mineral resources associated with 
Tertiary rocks in Kern County are the petroleum fuels. 
These accumulated in folds, against faulted beds, and in 
stratigraphic traps in the Tertiary marine rocks in the 
southern San Joaquin Valley. Boron deposits near Kramer 
are in Tertiary continental rocks, and rock products are 
obtained in large part from loosely consolidated Tertiary 
and Quaternary gravels and fanglomerates. Many of the 
Tertiary rocks in the county contain clay deposits. 

Placer gold, probably derived from reworked Paleo- 
cene sedimentary rocks, has been mined in El Paso 
Mountains. Lode gold, silver, mercury, and antimony 
deposits are in quartz-rich Tertiary intrusive rocks in 
several districts in the county. These deposits are prob- 
ably genetically related to the intrusive rocks. In the 
Mojave district, the gold-silver veins are in quartz latite 
porphyry and rhyolite. Silver, gold, and antimony de- 
posits are found in rhyolite dikes in the Loraine district, 
and the mercury deposits northwest of Tehachapi in 
rhyolite. 

Quaternary Rocks 

Rocks of Quaternary age in Kern County are mostly 
continental sedimentary rocks which locally are inter- 
layered or overlain by basalt flows of Pleistocene age. 
The basalt flows, in turn, are overlain by Recent alluvium. 
The sediments occupy the floors of the San Joaquin 
Valley, the Mojave Desert, and Indian Wells Valley— 
about half the land-surface area of the county. The 
basalt crops out in the northern part of El Paso Moun- 
tains and in the Tehachapi Mountains east of Tehachapi. 

The Pleistocene rocks are mainly stream-terrace de- 
posits composed of alluvium, sand, and gravel. Some of 
the coarse sediments, such as those along San Emigdio 
Creek, are sources of large quantities of sand and gravel 
for aggregate. 

The Kern County area was largely a land area in 
Pleistocene time. Lacustrine, alluvial-plain, and alluvial- 
fan deposits were laid down in numerous basins, and 
locally basalt flows covered them. The land surface 
probably did not differ greatly from its present form. 

Recent fanglomerates, stream gravels, and alluvium 
overlie large segments of the valleys in Kern County. 
The coarse fractions of the Recent sediments are utilized 
for aggregate. 

Recent playa-lake sediments, which cover many of the 
dry lakes in Kern County, are utilized as a source of 
clay, particularly oil-well drilling mud. 

Structural Features 

Several structural features of legional geologic signi- 
ficance lie in Kern County (fig. 4). Three major faults— 
the San Andreas, Garlock, and Sierra Nevada— separate 
widely different geologic provinces, and the south end of 



24 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




Figure 4. Sketch of the principal faults in Kern County. 



the San Joaquin Valley is underlain by the south end of 
a major syncline. Additional faults and folds of less mag- 
nitude abound in Kern County; many of them were 
important factors in determining the position of mineral 
deposits. 

The San Andreas fault, a right lateral fault (the side 
opposite an observer is offset relatively to the right) 
has a total length of at least 600 miles. In Kern County 
it strikes about N. 40° W. along the west side of the 
county, but swings to about N. 75° W. in the southern 
part of the county near Frazier Park. Movement has 
occurred along segments of the fault in historic time, 
but the age and total displacement along it are subjects 
of controversy among geologists. In Kern County the 
San Andreas fault is bounded by widely different rock 
units, and the southwest end of the Garlock fault is ter- 
minated by the San Andreas fault near Frazier Park. 

The Garlock fault, 150 miles long, extends northeast- 
ward through the central part of the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains, then along the southeast flank of the Tehachapi, 
Sierra Nevada, and El Paso Mountains. Left-lateral move- 
ment (the side opposite an observer is offset relatively 
to the left) is characteristic along this fault, but its maxi- 
mum horizontal displacement appears to be much less 
than that along the San Andreas fault. Hulin (1925) 
suggests a left-lateral displacement of approximately 6 
miles. Movement has taken place in Recent time. Vertical 
displacement along the San Andreas and Garlock faults, 
though largely undetermined, may be large. 

The Sierra Nevada east-dipping normal fault system 
(the east block has moved relatively downward) extends 
more than 300 miles, along the entire east front of the 
Sierra Nevada. The Sierra Nevada block rose along it 
and was tilted westward to form the abrupt and spectacu- 
lar east front of the Sierra Nevada that lies west of sev- 
eral arid valleys and mountain ranges. The fault is ex- 
posed near the mouth of Jawbone Canyon where it 
terminates against the Garlock fault. Northward from 
this termination it follows a poorly exposed, irregular 
course. Movement along it, too, has been recorded in 
historic time. 

Other faults in Kern County of regional significance, 
are the Kern Canyon -Breckenridge-White Wolf system 



which cuts south to southwestward through the central 
part of the Sierra Nevada (fig. 4). The White Wolf 
fault, the southernmost segment of the system, has been 
intensively studied by seismologists and geologists since 
the Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake occured along it in 
1952. The Kern River fault, a west-dipping normal fault 
exposed at the mouth of the Kern River, is one of the 
few faults exposed along the western front of the Sierra 
Nevada. Numerous reverse faults (down-dip block has 
moved relatively upward) in the north flank of the San 
Emigdio Mountains cut through Tertiary rocks and have 
been closely studied to determine whether accumulations 
of petroleum have been trapped against them or whether 
petroleum-bearing structures lie concealed beneath them, 
Most ore deposits in Kern County, as elsewhere, lie along 
faults and fractures. In general, these faults are relatively 
minor ones whose relationships to regional structures are 
not fully determined. 



Table 3. Mining districts in Kern County. 
Names in previous reports Names in this report 



Agua Caliente 




Loraine 


Amalie 




Loraine 


Atolia 




i\ana 


Big Dixie 




El Paso Mountains 


Black Mountain 




El Paso Mountains 


Claraville 




Piute Mountains 


Clear Creek 




Clear Creek 


Cove 




Cove 






Erskine Creek 


Cjrarlock 




El Paso Mountains 


(joler 




El Paso Mountains 


Gorman tin 




Gorman tin 


(tPppii iVl rvi l n r o i n 
v_J 1 CCI1 IVHJLillliilll 




Piute Mountains 


Greenhorn Mountain 




Greenhorn Mountain 






Greenhorn Summit tungsten 


Havilah 




Clear Creek 






Indian Wells Canyon 


Isabella 




Erskine Creek 






Jawbone Canyon 






Kern River Canyon 






Kernville tungsten 


Keyes, Keyesville, Keysv 


ille 


Keysville 






Kramer borate 


Long Tom 






Mohave, Mojave 




Mojave 


Paris 




Loraine 


Pioneer 




Piute Mountains 


Piute Mountains 




Piute Mountains 


Rademacher 




Rademacher 


Rand, Randsburg 




Rand 






Red Mountain tungsten 


Redrock 




El Paso Mountains 


Rosamond 




Mojave 


Sageland 




Piute Mountains 


San Emigdio 




San Emigdiq 


Searles 




Rademacher 


Stringer 




Rand 


Summit 




El Paso Mountains 


Tehachapi 




Tehachapi 






Temblor 


Valley View 




Piute Mountains 


Vaughan 




Piute Mountains 


Weldon 




Weldon 


White River 




Woody 


Woody 




Woody 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



25 




The largest fold in Kern County is the syncline that 
underlies San Joaquin Valley. It is a downwarp that lies 
parallel to and west of the Sierra Nevada; during Ter- 
tiary time it was the principal basin occupied by the seas. 
Sediments derived from the Sierra Nevada were trans- 
ported into this trough, which continued to subside as 
the Sierra Nevada continued to rise. Sedimentary debris 
from the Sierra Nevada continue to be transported to 
the San Joaquin Valley today. 

Most of the Tertiary rocks within the broad regional 
fold are folded into many smaller anticlines and synclines 
which have yielded a large proportion of the petroleum 
in the county. All of the early discovered oil fields in 
the county were found by drilling along the crests of 
anticlines. Probably many of the metasedimentary rocks 
in the county are folded also, though little geological 
work has been done to substantiate this. 

MINING DISTRICTS 

Nearly all of the mineral deposits in Kern County, 
exclusive of petroleum fields and some of the deposits 
of nonmetallic minerals such as clay and gypsum, are 
grouped in areas that are referred to herein as "Mining 
Districts". The general geology and mining history of 
twenty-two of these districts or areas are described below. 
Geological features that are common to two or more 
mines within individual districts are emphasized in hope 
that they will prove helpful aids in future exploration. 

The names of districts used herein do not necessarily 
conform with formal names recognized in previous re- 
ports. Most of the districts described in the following 
paragraphs include one or more formal mining districts, 
most of which were described by Hill (1912, p. 120-122), 



Brown (1916, p. 482-485), and Tucker and Sampson 
(1933, p. 280-286). Table 3 lists the names of mining 
districts in Kern County with a notation of which dis- 
trict described in this report encompasses them (see also 
% 5). 

Clear Creek District 

The Clear Creek or Havilah district is in northeastern 
Kern County about 26 miles east-northeast of Bakers- 
field and 5 miles south of Bodfish. It comprises an area 
of about 40 square miles (fig. 6) which is bounded ap- 
proximately by Hobo Ridge on the west, Kern River 
on the north, Walker Basin on the south, and Bald Eagle 
Peak on the east. The district has yielded principally gold 
and tungsten, but deposits of placer gold, antimony, ura- 
nium, and rare earths also have been found. 

The earliest discoveries of gold at Clear Creek were 
made in 1864 by Claude de la Borde, George McKay, 
Benjamin T. Mitchell, and Hugh McKeadney (Boyd 
1952, p. 39). In 1865 the town of Havilah was established 
at the center of an elongate north-trending valley which 
traverses the area, and by the winter of 1865-66 had at- 
tracted an estimated 3,000 people. In 1867 it became the 
first seat of Kern County, an honor which it held until 
1874 when the county seat was moved to Bakersfield. 

The Clear Creek district is underlain mostly by plu- 
tonic igneous rocks of Mesozoic age, which range in 
composition from quartz diorite to gabbro, although 
quartz diorite predominates. Roof pendants of pre-Cre- 
taceous metasedimentary rocks lie along a narrow north- 
trending belt that traverses the north-central part of the 
district northwest of Havilah. The Red Mountain area, 
just north of Walker Basin, is underlain by similar rocks. 
These metasedimentary rocks strike generally north and 



26 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County R"[>ort 1 




T.27S. 



EXPLANATION 



Quartz Diorite 



Gabbro 



Metasedimentary rocks 
X 

Mine or prospect 
(Au) 
Gold 
(W) 
Tungsten 

Note: If unnamed, prospects 
are undeveloped. 



T28 S. 



mh.es 



Geology of Breckenridge 
Mountain Quodrangle by 
Dibblee and Chesterman. 
(1953, pi. I). 



R. 32 E. 



Figure 6. Geology and mines of the Clear Creek and Red Mountain districts. 



196?] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



27 



nearly everywhere dip vertically. Several elongate, north- 
trending pegmatite dikes intrude the plutonic rocks east 
of Havilah Creek, which flows north through Havilah. 

The mineral deposits, almost without exception, lie 
along north- to northeast-trending structural features. 
Most of the gold deposits are in a group of veins that 
strike N. 45° E. and dip steeply to the southeast. Al- 
though the veins are discontinuous, they form a zone 
about 1,000 to 2,000 feet wide that extends from the 
area just north of Flying Dutchman spring to the base 
of Rankin Peak, a distance of approximately 4 miles. 
Individual veins range in width from 3 inches to 6 feet, 
and most of them can be traced for several hundred 
feet along the surface. They are composed typically of 
quartz and fault gouge in which are small grains of 
arsenopyrite, pyrite, and free gold. Silver is generally 
present in small proportions, probably in solid solution 
with the gold, as no silver minerals have been recog- 
nized. Many of the ore shoots are at or near junctions 
of the principal vein with converging cross fractures, 
although some of the ore shoots have no apparent struc- 
tural control. 

Tungsten minerals are present in both quartz veins 
and tactite zones. The tactite bodies typically are lentic- 
ular and 1 to 1 5 feet wide. They are irregularly disposed 
along the margins of roof pendants, or are adjacent to 
small masses of granitic rock within the metamorphic 
rocks. In these bodies the tungsten is in disseminated 
grains of scheelite in a gangue composed principally of 
quartz, garnet, calcite, and epidote. The tactite can be 
recognized easily by its characteristic brown and green 
color. In the Clear Creek district tactite bodies formed 
as a replacement of limestone are more common than 
those formed by replacement of other sedimentary rocks. 

The scheelite-bearing quartz veins of the district 
(Tungstein King, Bald Mountain group), although not 
in contact with the roof pendants, are within a few hun- 
dred feet of them. These veins, which are all in the 
vicinitv of Hooper Hill (formerlv Bald Mountain), strike 
about N. 30° E. and dip 60° to '80° SE. The veins con- 
tain disseminated scheelite crystals, and scattered crystals 
of pyrite. 

Three-quarters of a mile northeast of Havilah at the 
Alice mine antimony is found in scattered patches within 
a north-trending pegmatite dike. 

Radioactivity has been noted in several pegmatite dikes 
in the district and has been attributed, in at least one 
occurrence, to the presence of cyrtolite, a uranium- and 
rare-earth-bearing zircon. No economic concentrations 
of radioactive minerals have been found in these dikes. 

Cove Mining District 

By Thomas E. Gay, Jr. 

The Cove district includes 30 or more claims on the 
west side of the Kern River Valley, 2 to 4 miles south 
of the new town of Kernville, near the west shore of 
Lake Isabella. Most of the more productive mines are 
gold mines in section 28, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M. 
(fig. 7). The Cove district has been referred to in recent 



reports as the Big Blue group because the Big Blue mine 
was one of the more important mines in the later active 
years of the district. A comprehensive report on the his- 
tory, geology, and operations of the Big Blue group was 
written by J. W. Prout (1940). The dozen or more pro- 
ductive mines in the district were active during various 
periods from 1860 to 1943. The Big Blue mine was 
closed in 1943 by War Production Order L208 and no 
gold has been mined since then. The following descrip- 
tion of the district is based on Division of Mines reports, 
mainly Dr. Prout's (1940), on property visits, and on 
conversations with Dr. Prout in 1955. 

In 1851 the discovery of placer gold brought a rush 
of prospectors to the Kern River basin. The placer de- 
posits proved to be disappointing in number and quality 
to most of the gold seekers, although daily recoveries of 
$16 to $60 were reported by a few miners. Placer values 
in the river banks and bars in the Cove district were low, 
and by 1855 most of the prospectors had departed. 

In 1860, quartz-bearing float was traced to an outcrop, 
which became the discovery point for the Big Blue mine. 
The lusty mining camp of Quartzburg was established 
near the present site of the Big Blue mill, and the Cove 
district commenced a period of essentially continuous— 
though incompletely documented— activity, which lasted 
until 1883 when a serious mine fire occurred. Arrastras, 
Chilean mills, and, later, stamp mills with amalgamation 
machinery, powered mainly by Kern River water, were 
used to recover an estimated total of several million dol- 
lars in gold prior to 1883. 

Details of the ownership and operation of the mines 
in the district prior to 1875 is largely undetermined. 
Lovely Rogers, who discovered the Big Blue vein, evi- 
dently did the first lode mining, about 1862. A score or 
more of claims along and adjacent to the Big Blue vein 
were staked by miners who worked them individually 
during most of the 1860s, and apparently made large 
recoveries from high-grade, near-surface ore bodies. 
Values were reported to be as high as $300 per ton in 
free gold. In 1868 Judge J. W. Sumner consolidated part 
of the mining interests and produced a substantial amount 
of gold. During the period 1856-76 the principal mine 
was reported to be the Sumner. The lode was 80 feet 
wide and average yield of the mined material was about 
$18 per ton (Raymond, 1875). An "old" 16-stamp 
custom (?) mill was said to have vielded a profit of $100,- 
000 to $300,000. 

In 1875-76 Senator John P. Jones of Nevada con- 
solidated all water and mining rights in the Cove district 
and formed the Sumner Gold and Silver Mining Com- 
pany. This company constructed and operated new 16- 
and 80-stamp mills, powered by a 54-inch water turbine. 
A steam plant was erected to power walking-beam Cor- 
nish pumps to dewater the six-compartment Sumner (or 
"Engine") shaft, which was then 400 feet deep and the 
principal mine opening. 

In 1881 the holdings were leased to Michaels, Freid- 
lander and Company, who operated them until late 1883 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



29 



when the property was ravaged by fire. The underground 
workings continued to burn for several years and most 
of the workings above the 260 level caved. 

From 1883 to 1934 the district was essentially unpro- 
ductive, although several attempts were made to restore 
the mine to its former productivity. Between 1894 and 
1900, probably about $50,000 in gold was recovered dur- 
ing intermittent operations. In 1924 the total production 
of the Cove district was estimated at $5,000,000 to $8,- 
000,000 (Tucker, 1924, p. 35). From 1907 to 1926 the 
property was owned by the Kern Development Com- 
pany, who reopened some of the lower workings and 
leased various portions of the property, but no commer- 
cial production resulted. 

In 1927, a Mr. Jubien leased four of the previously 
more productive claims, but drifting and diamond drill- 
ing on the 260 level failed to reveal commercial ore 
bodies and the lease was relinquished. 

From October 1931 to September 1932 the American 
Smelting and Refining Company leased the same four 
claims and explored by means of drifts and winzes on 
the 260 and 400 levels; again no production resulted. 

In 1934 a group later known as the Big Blue Mining 
Company was organized by A. V. Udell to operate the 
property (Prout, 1940, p. 385). Another mill was con- 
structed and considerable development workings were 
driven but the company became bankrupt and their in- 
terest in the properties was bought out in April 1935 
by Kern Mines, Inc., who are the present owners (1958). 
From 1936 to 1943 deposits that center about the Big 
Blue claim were continuously worked, yielding several 
hundred thousand tons of ore from which gold valued 
at more than a million dollars, and lesser amounts of 
silver, lead, and copper were recovered. In 1943, the 
Government closing order L208 caused the mine to be 
shut down permanently. 

The Big Blue mill and the portal of the mine drainage 
tunnel are at lower elevation than the spillway of Lake 
Isabella dam, which was constructed by the U. S. Army 
Corps of Engineers in 1948-53. Hence the workings 
(would be subject to flooding when the reservoir is filled 
'to capacity. In 1954, to complete the reservoir project, 
ithe Corps of Engineers acquired all land below elevation 
2617, including the mill and drainage tunnel portal. In 
1955 a watertight bulkhead was constructed across the 
(drainage tunnel by the Corps of Engineers, and a pump 
(installed to dispose of mine drainage waters. In 1957 the 
I mill was sold at auction, and removed to New Mexico, 
j The principal rock units of the Cove district are the 
gMesozoic Isabella granodiorite, including aplitic and alas- 
ikitic phases, the Carboniferous (?) schist, quartzite, and 
phyllite of the Kernville series (Miller and Webb, 1940; 
Prout, 1940). Gold mineralization has been localized 
mainly within two intersecting systems of faults and 
shear zones. The principal vein system, the Big Blue or 
Sumner lode, is a sheared and faulted zone, in places as 
I wide as 125 feet, that strikes about N. 30° E., and dips 
about 70° NW. This zone, known as the Big Blue- 



Sumner shear zone, can be traced laterally on the surface 
for more than 8,000 feet, and contains many subordinate 
faults, splits, and sheared zones. Another group of veins, 
the Lady Belle group, lies west of the Big Blue-Sumner 
shear zone. It dips 60° to 80° SW., and terminates against 
the west side of the northern portion of the Big Blue- 
Sumner shear zone. 

Gold, ranging from 650 to 700 fine, occurs in both 
vein systems. In some places it is not associated with 
other metallic minerals. In other places it is accompanied 
by arsenopyrite, galena, and sphalerite. Other metallic 
minerals reported in the ore include magnetite, mar- 
casite, pyrrhotite, scheelite, molybdenite, bismuthinite, 
sphalerite, and stibnite (Prout, 1940, p. 411-413). 

The main mines of the Cove district can be divided 
into two groups: those on the Big Blue-Sumner shear 
zone, including, from south to north, Nellie Dent, Con- 
tent, Blue Gouge No. 2, Big Blue, Sumner, and North 
Extension Sumner; and those on the Lady Belle vein sys- 
tem, including, again from south to north, the Lady 
Belle, Jeff Davis, Bull Run, Frank, Urbana, and Beaure- 
gard. Other claims adjacent to those listed above were 
worked, but few data are available concerning them. The 
available records are not entirely clear as to which por- 
tions of the district were active at particular times, nor 
as to which portions of the various ore bodies were the 
most productive. 

The mines of the Lady Belle group of veins yielded 
high-grade ore from about 1862 through the early 1880s, 
but they have been practically inactive since then. The 
mines on the Big Blue-Sumner shear zone had about the 
same early history as those of the other group, but were 
also intermittently active in the early 1900s, with peak 
productivity from 1936 to 1943. Mines of both groups 
were worked individually in the early years of the dis- 
trict, but most of the production resulted at times when 
the district was consolidated under unified management, 
such as that of the Sumner Gold and Silver Mining 
Company (1875-81), and Kern Mines Incorporated 
(1936-43). Although the veins of the Lady Belle system 
differ geologically from the Big Blue-Sumner veins, the 
two systems were mined through the same workings 
after the fire of 1883 made most near-surface portions 
of the Lady Belle system inaccessible. Published records, 
which do not include details of the district's earliest 
years, suggest that the Big Blue-Sumner mine was the 
most productive. It has the longest history of activity, 
the greatest recorded production, the deepest arid long- 
est workings, and has been the main means of under- 
ground access to several adjacent claims during consoli- 
dated operations. 

El Paso Mountains District 

El Paso Mountains (fig. 8), which trend east-north- 
eastward on the north edge of the Mojave Desert in 
northeastern Kern County, are about 25 miles long and 
4 to 10 miles wide. Placer gold, pumice, pumicite, and 
clay are the principal mineral products of the area. Lode 
gold ore, coal, and copper ore also have been mined. 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



31 



Manganese, uranium, perlite, molybdenum, and lead pros- 
pects in the area have been explored. Some of the rocks 
may eventually be quarried as ornamental stone. The 
northwestern part of El Paso Mountains is a popular area 
for collecting fluorescent and fire opal, silicified palm, 
jasper, agate, and other material suitable for cutting and 
polishing. The gross value of all mineral products ob- 
tained from deposits in El Paso Mountains probably 
exceeds several hundred thousand dollars— mostly for 
placer gold, pumice, and pumicite. 

The geology of El Paso Mountains has been mapped 
and described by Dibblee (1952). Metamorphosed sedi- 
mentary Permian (in part ?) rocks overlie Precambrian? 
schist and crop out in the northeastern part of the range. 
Quartzite conglomerate and hornfels (Jurassic-Triassic ?) 
crop out at the southwestern part of the range. These 
Precambrian? to Jurassic? rocks are intruded by Meso- 
zoic rocks of quartz diorite to granite composition which 
crop out mostly in the southwestern part of the range. 
The Goler formation, of Paleocene age (McKenna, 1955, 
p. 512-515), unconformably overlies the older rocks and 
is in turn unconformably overlain by the Plio-Pleistocene 
Ricardo formation. Both of these Tertiary formations are 
composed largely of continental deposits and lie north- 
west of the main part of the range. 

The metasedimentary and intrusive rocks are the host 
rocks for copper, gold, lead, manganese, and molybde- 
num mineralization. Sedimentary deposits of clay, coal, 
perlite, pumice, and pumicite are in the Ricardo forma- 
tion, and uranium mineralization is associated with some 
strata in this formation. Placer gold is sparsely distributed 
in basal members of the Goler and Ricardo formations, 
but the Quaternary gravels are richer. 

The placer gold deposits were discovered about 1893 
and hundreds of prospectors obtained small amounts of 
gold by "dry washing" the gravels, mostly during the 
1890s and a several-year period in the 1930s. Most of 
the clay was mined between 1920 and 1940 and was 
used principally as an adsorbent in refining petroleum 
products. Pumice and pumicite, mined nearly continu- 
ously since the 1920s, have been used in cleansing com- 
pounds and filler material. In 1958, the pumice deposit 
mined by Calsilco Corp. was the only active mine in 
the area. 

The principal placer gold areas are, from east to west: 
Goler Canyon and Reed and Benson Gulches on the 
west side of Goler Canyon; the segment of Last Chance 
Canyon between Holloway Camp and the mouth of Bo- 
nanza Gulch; Bonanza Gulch; and tributary canyons on 
the east side of Redrock Canyon. The placer gold gen- 
erally is most abundant in the lowermost part of 
Quaternary gravels on the sides of the stream beds or 
gulches. These gravels, or fanglomerate, contribute gold 
to smaller, but commonly rich, concentrations of placer 
gold accumulated in gullies downslope from the gravels. 

Copper, gold, lead, manganese, and molybdenum min- 
eralization is associated mostly with quartz veins in meta- 
sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks. Copper deposits 



are the most abundant of these and commonly contain 
traces of gold and silver. Lead is found in only a few 
prospects, and manganese was noted only in traces in 
some of the quartz veins. Molybdenum is present as 
powellite pseudomorphs after molybdenite and as mo- 
lybdenite disseminated in dikes. Fragments of the powel- 
lite pseudomorphs have been collected for many years 
from gravels in upper Last Chance Canyon and are 
prized as mineral specimens. 

The clay and pumice deposits in the lower part of the 
Ricardo formation are in a northeast-trending belt ex- 
tending between Redrock and Black Mountain (fig. 8). 
In the southern part of the belt a layer of altered pumice 
and pumicite was the source of a few tens of thousands 
of tons of adsorbent clay obtained mostly from the Snow 
White mine. This same sedimentary layer, some 7 miles 
to the • northeast, is the source of high-grade pumice 
which is marketed by Calsilco Corporation for several 
uses. A layer of very pure pumicite which occupies a 
stratigraphic position a few hundred feet higher in the 
Ricardo formation than the pumice layer was mined for 
nearly 25 years by Cudahy Packing Co. for use in a 
household cleaner. 

Erskine Creek District 

Erskine Creek, a northwest-flowing tributary to the 
Kern River, cuts through a north-trending roof pendant 
of pre-Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks that contains 
deposits of tungsten, gold, silver, antimony, uranium, 
copper, and building stone. These deposits lie within an 
area about 5 miles long and about 2 miles wide. Center 
of the area is about 5 miles southeast of Bodfish. Figure 9 
shows mines and prospects in the Erskine Creek district, 
as well as gold deposits and one tungsten deposit in the 
northwest part of the Piute Mountains. 

Antimony and gold deposits were productive in the 
early 1890s and later, though production was probably 
not large. Copper was discovered before 1904 but as late 
as 1958 the prospects remained unproductive. Tungsten 
was produced in the 1940s and 1950s, and probably has 
the highest total dollar value of materials mined in the 
district. Uranium mineralization was discovered in 1954, 
but only several tens of feet of underground workings 
were driven. Fine-grained metasedimentary rocks are 
mined intermittently from a deposit on Cook Peak and 
marketed as building stone. A travertine deposit at the 
mouth of Erskine Creek has been prospected for stone 
but none had been produced by 1959. 

Gold, associated with unidentified silver minerals, has 
been mined mostly from the Iconoclast mine from quartz 
veins in a northeast-trending zone that is nearly vertical. 

The principal source of tungsten in the district is a 
deposit of scheelite in metamorphic rocks at the Unip 
mine. Scheelite is also in the tactite at the Christmas Tree 
prospect. 

Antimony is found in a quartz vein at the Tom Moore 
mine in fine-grained metasedimentary rocks. The prin- 
cipal minerals are stibnite, native antimony, and several 
oxides of antimony. 



32 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



A Cook Peak 



</o Bodf ish 



Cook Peak (stone) 



Christmas Tree ( W) 




Tripoli Wn 



Pre-Creloceous 



Granitic rocks. 



Metosedimentory 
rocks. 



X = mine or prospect 
described in report. 
Au= gold, Sb=antimony, 
U = uronium, W = tungrten, 
Cu = copper. 



Probable fault zone . ,„ 

(from aerial photographs ) Geology modified after Miller and Webb (1940). 



Figure 9. Geology, mines, and prospects in the Erskine Creek district and part of the northwestern Piute Mountains. 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



33 



DISCOVERY PROSPECT Vi 

GRAY EAGLE Sn 

< -J > 
' C 




Limestone , hornfels 
and schist. 



Granite 



Geology by John H. Wiese 
1944 

(Plate 5, 1946) 



MINERALIZATION SYMBOLS 

Sn Tin 

Cu Copper 

W Tungsten 

Zn Zinc 

Ag Silver 

Fe Iron 



K Mine or prospect. 

Approximate scale 



Base from aerial photos 




Figure 10. Geologic map and section of the Gorman tin district. 



34 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



The principal uranium prospect is the Radiation prop- 
erty. Although pitchblende and gummite were tenta- 
tively identified in quartzite, no ore bodies were found 
and exploration was discontinued. 

The Silverado copper prospect contains chalcopyrite 
with traces of gold and silver in a northwest-striking, 
vertical shear zone. Green copper oxides mark the trace 
of the shear zone for about 1,000 feet. 

Pale-colored fine-grained metamorphic rock on the 
east slope of Cook Peak has been quarried intermittently 
in recent years for building stone. 

Gorman Tin District 

The Gorman tin district (fig. 10) includes an area of 
about 10 square miles on the southeast side of the Te- 
hachapi Mountains and 6 miles northeast of the settlement 
of Gorman. Only tin and zinc have been mined from the 
district. Limestone, of possible commercial interest, crops 
out over most of the district; iron, scheelite, and molyb- 
denite are associated with the tin deposits. 

Although only the Meeke mine has yielded tin ore, 
five other tin deposits have been explored in the district 
since tin was discovered in 1940. The principal tin min- 
eral is cassiterite, which is mostly in iron-rich tactite and 
gossan in limestone at or near contacts between limestone 
and granite. It also is found in limestone adjacent to 
tactite and gossan. Ludwigite, a magnesium and iron 
borate, may contain some of the tin in the tactite bodies, 
but is not an ore mineral of tin (Wiese and Page, 1946, 
p. 50). 

Iron, in the form of hydrous and non-hydrous oxides 
(hematite, magnetite, and limonite), is the principal con- 
stituent of gossan and of the tactite bodies, but the de- 
posits appear to be too small to be mined as bulk iron ore. 

Zinc has been mined from deposits along fractures in 
limestone at the Kelso mine near the headwaters of 
Alamos Creek. It has also been detected by assay in tin 
ore from the Meeke mine. 

The limestone and associated dolomite— a flat-bottomed 
pendant in granite, probably a few hundred feet in aver- 
age thickness— are in most places white to pale blue and 
range from coarse to fine crystalline; these rocks have 
not been systematically sampled, to the writers' knowl- 
edge. 

Greenhorn Mountain District 

The Greenhorn Mountain district (fig. 11) comprises 
about 20 square miles of the Sierra Nevada approximately 
28 miles northeast of Bakersfield and 4 miles northwest 
of Miracle Hot Springs. Its approximate boundaries are 
the Kern River on the south, Fremont Creek on the west, 
Woodward Peak on the north, and Black Gulch on the 
east. The first gold discovery in Kern County was made 
in Greenhorn Creek in 1851, by a member of General 
John Fremont's exploration party. An influx of pros- 
pector;, followed, the town of Petersburg was established 
near Fremont Creek, and the district was extensively de- 
veloped. After a disappointing recovery of placer gold, 
however, interest declined, and by 1900 Petersburg had 
become a ghost town. Subsequent intermittent and small- 



ro 



X= mines 

All tungsten mines unless otherwise noted. 
(U = uranium, Au = gold). 

° e _ a=>)j ^_^_ |__ 1 i 

Miles 

Figure 11. Mines and prospects in the Greenhorn Mountain district. 



scale attempts to mine gold from lode and placer deposits 
have been mostly unsuccessful. As most of the mining 
in this district was done prior to 1890, no accurate pro- 
duction statistics are available. 

Mesozoic igneous rocks, largely quartz diorite, underlie 
most of the area, although small roof pendants of pre- 
Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks and elongate north- 
trending pegmatite dikes crop out at scattered localities. 

Only lode and placer gold have been mined in the 
Greenhorn Mountain district, although an unusual uranif- 
erous peat bog deposit was discovered in 1955 in the 
extreme northwestern part of the area. The lode gold 
deposits are in northeast-striking fissure veins which 




1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



35 



range in width from a few inches to several feet. The 
veins strike N. 35°-75° E. and dip steeply northwest or 
southeast. They consist typically of iron-stained fault 
gouge and minor amounts of quartz. Free gold is the 
only ore mineral. Wall rocks generally consist of de- 
composed quartz diorite, but in a few mines one wall 
is composed of pegmatite. 

Most of the veins are within a 4-square-mile area, the 
center of which is the 2 miles due east of David Guard 
Station. The veins are quite numerous and widespread 
but generally are weakly mineralized, narrow, and dis- 
continuous. These features are reflected by the many shal- 
low prospect holes and in the low productivity of the 
district. 

Placer deposits derived from a large volume of bed- 
rock probably were the source of most of the gold mined 
in the district. The discovery of a few rich placers ap- 
parently provided impetus to mostly unsuccessful at- 
tempts to find equally rich vein deposits from which the 
gold was derived. 

The uraniferous peat bog deposit is on the old Pettit 
Ranch at the head of Little Poso Creek. Unidentified ura- 
niferous material is still being deposited from uranium- 
bearing spring water into a bog consisting of woody 
fragments, black carbonaceous matter, silt, and decom- 



posed granitic fragments. No mining of the material had 
been attempted by the end of 1958 (see text under 
Uranium). 

Greenhorn Summit Tungsten District 
The Greenhorn Summit area (fig. 12) comprises about 
20 square miles centered approximately 35 miles north- 
east of Bakersfield and 7 miles east of Glennville. It in- 
cludes most of the west half and southeast quarter of 
T. 25 S., R. 32 E., M.D.M. 

Tungsten was discovered in this area in 1916 under 
the favorable marketing conditions of World War I. 
By 1922 most of the deposits known in 1958 had been 
located, but production from them had been only mod- 
erate. Peak intervals of development were during the 
periods 1916-18, 1923-28, 1937-45, and 1951-57. Produc- 
tion was greatest during the latest period owing largely 
to the stockpiling program of the Federal General Serv- 
ice Administration which was terminated in 1957. All 
mines in the district were idle during most of 1957 and 
1958 because of the termination of the government pur- 
chase and a prevailing market price of approximately 
one-third that of the government price. 

The area is underlain by Mesozoic plutonic igneous 
rocks and pre-Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks. The 
metasedimentary rocks consist of schist, hornfels, lime- 




k^ Pre -Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks. 
Mesozoic granitic rocks. 



X= mines. 

All tungsten mines unless otherwise noted. 
(Sb= antimony) 



Figure 12. Geology and mines in the Greenhorn Summit tungsten area. 



36 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




Geology by C.W. Chestermon, Topographic and claim survey 

US. Geological Survey, 1943. o 500 iooo _I5Q Q by n.F. Stevens, 1936, 

feet courtesy Wra Siebert and 

M.M. Warner. 

Figure 13. Geology and mines of part of the southwest side of Indian Wells Canyon. 



stone, and quartzite and form northwest-trending roof 
pendants. The enclosing igneous rocks range in compo- 
sition from quartz diorite (dominant) to gabbro. The 
largest pendant has a maximum width of 1 mile on Shir- 
ley Meadow road and extends from the vicinity of Cooks 
Peak to the head of Cedar Creek— a distance of 4 miles. 
Smaller but more strongly mineralized roof pendants 
crop out to the northeast and east of the main pendant 
(fig. 12). 

The tungsten deposits are of the contact-metamorphic 
type (Hess and Larsen, 1921; Kerr, 1946) and consist of 
lenticular masses of tactite along the contact between 
granitic rocks and the roof pendants. The tactite bodies 
vary greatly in size, but most of them are less than 15 
feet wide and less than 50 feet long. They are irregu- 
larly disposed and apparently have replaced limestone 
more commonly than other metasedimentary rocks. The 
tactite is composed principally of coarse-grained garnet, 
epidote, chnnzoisite, calcite, diopside, and quartz, with 
scattered pyrite. chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and molybde- 
nite. A narrow transition zone characterized by the pres- 
ence of tremolite or wollastonite is found between the 



tactite and limestone in most of the bodies. Weathered 
outcrops of tactite are quite porous and friable and are 
readily identified by the characteristic assemblages of 
brown garnet and green epidote and by the dark soil 
which overlies some of them. 

The mines of the district are grouped into two prin- 
cipal areas. One group is centered between the head- 
waters of Cedar Creek and Slick Rock Creek directly 
northwest of Cedar Creek Campgrounds. Of this group 
the Owl, Major, and Hillside mines have been the more 
productive. Others in the group include the Cadillac, 
Good Enough, Lucky Hit, Lucky Strike, Trixie, and 
Wood No. 7 mines. Complete production statistics are 
not available, but this group has produced a minimum 
of about 10,000 tons of ore which, in general, averaged 
from 0.5 to 1.0 percent W0 3 

The second and less productive group is centered to 
the northeast of the first group between Calf Creek and 
Cow Creek, about 2 miles north-northeast of Greenhorn 
Summit. Here, the more productive mines have been the 
Big Sugar and Susie Q; the others are the Betty Lou, 
Silver Strand, Smith, Victory, and Wildcat mines. 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



37 



Scattered elsewhere in the Greenhorn tungsten area 
are the Black Mountain King, Little Acorn, and Pala 
mines. 

Most of the tungsten deposits in the Greenhorn tung- 
sten area have not been extensively explored and devel- 
oped. Only the immediately apparent near-surface ore 
bodies have been mined. A careful study of existing 
mines and a well-outlined diamond drilling program 
would probably prove additional ore bodies. 

Antimony is present near the tungsten mines in the 
Calf Creek area, but has not been mined successfully. 
Stibnite is found in quartz veins and as a replacement of 
gougy material along shear zones in quartz diorite. 

Mineral collectors regard the Greenhorn tungsten area 
as a source of smoky quartz, epidote, scheelite, and gar- 
net crystals. 

Indian Wells Canyon District 

Indian Wells Canyon is on the east side of the southern 
Sierra Nevada, northeastern Kern County. It is approxi- 
mately parallel to and 4 miles north of Freeman Canyon, 
which is traversed by State Highway 178. Gold was 
found there before 1880, but has been mined subse- 
quently only in small amounts, probably near the pres- 
ent Nadeau and Magnolia mines. Some of the gold ore, 
however, was fairly rich. Scheelite has been the principal 
mineral mined. A tungsten mill, which has lain idle for 
several years, was constructed (probably in the 1940s) 
on the northeast side of Indian Wells Canyon about 4 
miles west from the point where U. S. Highway 6 crosses 
the mouth of the canyon. It was nearly intact in 1957. 
Parts of a gold mill have been installed at the Magnolia 
mine. A tungsten mill, now removed, was once at the 
Fernandez mine. 

Mesozoic granitic rocks, mostly quartz monzonite but 
locally as basic as gabbro, underlie the canyon -bottom 
and its northeast wall. Pre-Cretaceous metasedimentary 
rocks, composed mostly of schist interbedded with thin 
layers of limestone and quartzite, underlie much of the 
southwest side of the canyon (fig. 13) and are part of 
a roof pendant several miles long and about a mile in 
average width. The pendant underlies the prominent 
ridge between Freeman Canyon and Indian Wells Can- 
yon. Layering within the pendant strikes northwest and 
dips 60° to 80° NE. Tabular masses of quartz monzonite, 
commonly parallel to the long axis of the pendant, are 
within the body of metamorphic rocks. 

Scheelite is a minor constituent of the tactite, which is 
composed largely of clinozoisite and garnet. Most of the 
tactite is in discontinuous layers and lenses, from a few 
inches to several feet in length, in limestone. The schee- 
lite content of the tactite ranges from a trace to about 
1 percent, but small pods containing 5 percent or more 
have been mined. 

Most of the mines are in a relatively narrow belt of 
metasedimentary rocks along the northeast side of the 
pendant (fig. 13). The most productive mine, the Hi- 
Peak, however, is about a mile north of the mouth of 
Indian Wells Canyon in an isolated pendant of meta- 



morphic rocks only a few hundred feet long. In recent 
years unexplored deposits of scheelite-bearing tactite 
have been found in the southwest side of the main 
pendant. 

Gold is in northwest-trending quartz veins in both the 
metamorphic rocks and the quartz monzonite, but is not 
abundant. The Nadeau and Magnolia mines, both within 
the scheelite-bearing belt in Indian Wells Canyon, are 
the principal gold mines. 

Jawbone Canyon District 

The lower part of Jawbone Canyon, an east-draining 
stream course in the southern Sierra Nevada, cuts through 
an area a few tens of miles in extent that contains a wide 
variety of mineral deposits. Antimony, clay, gold, roof- 
ing granules, stone, and tungsten have been produced 
from the district; but clay, roofing granules, and gold 
have accounted for most of the dollar value, which is 
estimated by the writers to be about $700,000. In addi- 
tion, the area is noted for yielding well-developed feld- 
spar and quartz crystals. 

A west-dipping, north-striking succession of Tertiary 
sedimentary and volcanic rocks crops out in an area 
about 1 Vi miles wide and 4 miles long across Jawbone 
Canyon. These rocks lie on Mesozoic granitic rocks and 
are intruded by Tertiary rhyolite dikes and plugs. Pen- 
dants of metamorphic rocks, a maximum of a few tens 
of feet long, crop out in a few places. The geology of 
the area was mapped and described by H. S. Samsel 
(1951, 1962). 

Clay has been mined from an altered rhyolite plug at 
the White Rock deposit on the north side of Chuckwalla 
Mountain. Large tonnages of clay remain in the mine 
area. A 10-foot layer of swelling bentonite (White Swan 
deposit) a few hundred feet in exposed length has been 
prospected but not mined. Tertiary? claystone consisting 
of layers that aggregate about 30 feet in thickness crop 
out on both sides of a narrow canyon for several hundred 
feet at the Red Hill deposit. A few thousand tons of it 
was mined. It has a pyrometric cone equivalent of 
about 19. 

Stone for roofing granules has been mined mostly from 
pale-green welded rhyolite tuff breccia and other Ter- 
tiary rocks at a small hill called "Blue Point" on the 
north side of Jawbone Canyon. Granitic rocks south of 
the canyon also have been mined for roofing granules. 
Tertiary rhyolite dikes containing brown bands formed 
by iron oxides have been mined in small quantities for 
decorative stone at a few localities in the district. 

The principal gold mines are the Skyline mine at the 
south edge- of Antimony Flat and the San Antonio mine 
about 6 miles north of Blue Point. The other gold mines 
are very small. The gold is in quartz veins in granitic 
rocks; most of the veins trend west to northwest. Placer 
gold was recovered before 1900 from small deposits in 
dry stream channels, principally Water Canyon, near the 
mouth of Jawbone Canyon. 

Scheelite in a small tactite body (High-Low mine) has 
been the source of tungsten valued at about $12,000, and 



38 California Division 

wolframite is found in fractured granitic rocks (-Blue 
Point prospect) . Cinnabar is present in veinlets in rhyolite 
on the south side of Jawbone Canyon and in meta- 
morphic rocks at the Mammouth prospect on the south 
side of Chuckwalla Mountains. Uranium deposits have 
been prospected at the Silver Lady claims, Miller Ranch, 
and Beryl No. 4 claim, but they remained unproductive 
through 195 8. 

Granite porphyry in a dike near Water Canyon has 
been for many years a favored locality for collecting 
large phenocrysts of orthoclase and small crystals of 
quartz (Murdoch and Webb, 1942, p. 325). 

Kern River Canyon District 

The Kern River Canyon area discussed herein is a 20- 
mile-strip from 1 to 2 miles wide, extending from Bod- 
fish southwestward along the Kern River to the west 
front of the Sierra Nevada, about 10 miles northeast of 
Bakersfield (fig. 11). 

Placer gold and uranium deposits, mostly in the north- 
eastern half of the area, have been mined, and lode gold 
as well as lode and placer tungsten deposits have been 
explored. Placer gold deposits were mined as early as 
1851 in Greenhorn Creek (Gulch) near its confluence 
with the Kern River (Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 
278). Although little is known of the area's early placer- 
mining activities, the deposits apparently were few and 
soon worked out. The most productive placer gold mine 
apparently was the Greenhorn Caves mine in Greenhorn 
Creek with a reported production valued at $60,000 
(Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 307). No reliable esti- 
mates of total production from placer mines in the area 
is available. Of the numerous prospects for lode gold and 
tungsten, only the Gem mine was of any consequence. 
At the Gem mine, 1 mile southwest of Democrat Springs, 
reported production was valued at $30,000 (Tucker and 
Sampson 1933, p. 303). 

The most recent mining interest in the Kern River Can- 
yon area is in the uranium deposits, first noticed by Harry 
B. Mann in January 1954 (Bowes, 1957, p. 7). Through 
1958, three deposits, the Kergon, Little Sparkler, and 
Miracle mines, have yielded a total of about 11 railroad 
cars of ore which averaged about 0.3 percent U 3 O s . 

Almost the entire Kern River Canyon area is underlain 
by Mesozoic quartz diorite and associated aplitic and 
pegmatitic dikes, which most commonly trend north. 
Small pendants of pre-Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks 
are present in the granitic rocks. Moderate foliation is 
common in the granitic rocks, especially near contacts 
with tl lants. 

The gold md tungsten placer deposits are in the 
recent gra of the Kern River and its tributaries. The 
gold is prol f derived from the Greenhorn Mountain, 
Keysville, Clear Creek, and the Cove districts, which lie 
within a 10-mile radius to the north and northeast. Most 
of the scheelite I ibly is derived from the Clear Creek 
district, although Creek and Kernville areas may 

have contributed substantial proportions. No placer tung- 
sten has been shipped. 



of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 

Uranium mineralization apparently is confined to a 
1 -square-mile area centered about \y z miles west of 
Miracle Hot Springs. The uranium is found along frac- 
tures and shears which have no apparent favored orienta- 
tion. Ore deposition was controlled by intersection of 
shears and fractures or by abrupt changes in the dip of 
the vein (Bowes, 1957, p. 5). 

Keysville District 
The Keysville district (fig. 14) is 32 miles northeast 
of Bakersfield and 2 miles southwest of Isabella Dam. It 
comprises about 15 square miles, bounded approximately 
by the Kern River, French Gulch, and Black Gulch. 

Gold was first discovered in this district in 1852 by 
Richard M. Keyes (Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 278) 
who located a group of claims later known as the Keyes 
mine. This and the Mammoth mine, which was located 
soon thereafter, became the two most productive mines 
of the district. Subsequent discoveries at the sites of the 
Pennsylvania, Sunrise, and other mines led to the estab- 
lishment of Keysville, the ascendant community of the 
Kern River country until the boom at Havilah in 1867. 
Keysville, which is 2 miles southwest of Isabella Dam on 
the west side of Kern River, has since become a ghost 
town. The principal periods of mining activity after the 
1860s were during the 1890s, from 1909 to 1915, and for 
a brief time following the rise in the price of gold in 
1933. 



Figure 14. Mines and prospects in the Keysville district. 




X=gold mines 



12 3 



Miles 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



39 



Mesozoic plutonic igneous rocks, predominantly quartz 
diorite, underlie virtually all of the area. The gold is in 
a vein system which strikes N. 40°-50° E. and dips 
70°-80° SE., closely resembling in nature and attitude 
the vein system in the Clear Creek district 7 miles to the 
south. Both systems contain sub-parallel discontinuous 
quartz veins, and both apparently terminate at the Kern 
Canyon fault. The Keysville veins, unlike those at Clear 
Creek, contain little pyrite and arsenopyrite. 

Most of the deposits lie in a mile-wide northeast-trend- 
ing belt extending 3 miles southwest from Lake Isabella 
to a northwest-trending ridge overlooking Black Gulch. 
The veins range in width from 3 inches to 6 feet and 
each consists typically of a gouge-filled fault zone which 
contains narrow, discontinuous quartz stringers. Gold is 
in the free state, both in the gouge and in the quartz 
stringers. In some veins it is associated with sparsely 
distributed grains of pyrite, arsenopyrite, and pyrrhotite. 
Hydrous iron oxide stains are common. 

Locally derived Recent placer deposits, which are 
mostly in shallow draws and intermittent streams, have 
been mined for gold since 1852. One mine, however— 
the Keyesville Placer— is in Pleistocene? auriferous stream 
gravels which are poorly sorted and occupy a southeast- 
draining channel about a mile southeast of Keysville. This 
channel lies above the present channels and has been dis- 
sected almost to bedrock. The gravel deposit is appar- 
ently 10 to 20 feet thick, less than 20 feet wide, and less 
than 2,000 feet long. Its known production is small. 

Kramer Borate District 

By William E. Ver Planck 

The Kramer borate district lies in southeastern Kern 
County near the town of Boron, about 30 miles east of 
Mojave. Borates are obtained from a buried, nearly flat- 
lying tabular mass. of borax (Na2B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O) and kern- 
ite (Na 2 B 4 07.4H20) estimated to be l l / 2 to 2 miles long, 
half a mile wide, and more than 200 feet in maximum 
thickness (Gale, 1946). The deposit contains only minor 
amounts of other saline minerals. Borax comprises prob- 
ably more than half of the sodium borate body, but kern- 
ite forms large masses in the body. Both borax and kernite 
form anhedral crystalline masses; some are transparent, 
others are clouded by included sediments. A minor pro- 
portion of shale is present, in the sodium borate body, 
as interbedded seams or lenticular bodies as much as 2 
inches thick, and in some areas the body is divided into 
three separate layers by shale with a relatively low con- 
tent of borate minerals. Disseminated masses of coleman- 
ite and ulexite that are of no present economic value lie 
beneath an area 4 miles long and about a mile wide, sur- 
rounding the sodium borate body. 

The borates that have been mined in the Kramer area 
are in a basin containing rocks of the Miocene? and Plio- 
cene Tropico group (Dibblee, 1958). The Tropico group 
is divisible in the Kramer area into three parts— a lower 
part, the Saddleback basalt, and an upper part, which in- 
cludes the borate-bearing beds. Borates are not known 
in the sediments below the Saddleback basalt. The sodium 



borates are preserved in a synclinal basin that has been 
modified by- subsidiary folding and minor faulting and 
lie at depths of from 150 to 1,000 feet beneath the sur- 
face. The United States Borax & Chemical Company, 
Pacific Coast Borax Company Division, owns or controls 
all of the sodium borate body except for a comparatively 
small portion that is controlled by the owners of the 
Mudd mine. 

Borates were discovered in the Kramer district in 1913. 
Dr. J. K. Suckow found colemanite in a well drilled for 
water in NW'/ 4 sec. 22, T. 11 N., R. 8 W., S.B.M., 
1J4 miles west of the sodium borate body. The Pacific 
Coast Borax Company and affiliated organizations ac- 
quired most of the available property in the area and 
in the following years Outlined the limits of the coleman- 
ite and ulexite deposits. In 1925 the Suckow Chemical 
Company produced a few hundred tons of colemanite 
from the Suckow No. 2 shaft or Suckow colemanite 
mine in NE'X sec. 22. In a contemporary report, Gale 
(1926) described the deposit as lower in grade than the 
colemanite deposits then being worked at Ryan, Inyo 
County, and elsewhere. Early in 1925 W. M. Dowsing 
and John L. Hannam discovered the more important 
sodium borate body by drilling in NE'X sec. 24, T. 11 
N., R. 8 W., S.B.M. The Pacific Coast Borax Company 
purchased the property and immediately began the de- 
velopment of a mine called the Baker mine. Soon after 
development began, the new sodium borate mineral kern- 
ite (also called rasorite) was recognized (Schaller, 1927, 
p. 24-25). A shaft reached the deposit in August 1926, 
and production began in 1927. 

At about the time the Baker mine was brought into 
production, the Suckow mine, now called the West 
Baker mine, and the Western mine, now called the Mudd 
mine, were developed by independent interests. The 
Suckow mine of the Suckow Borax Mines Consolidated, 
Ltd. in which Borax Consolidated, Ltd., the principal 
of Pacific Coast Borax Company, had a half interest as 
tenant in common, is in SE!4 sec. 14. Production began 
in 1927 but only a comparatively small tonnage had been 
mined when Borax Consolidated, Ltd. and Suckow Borax 
Mines Consolidated, Ltd. became involved in litigation 
which ultimately resulted in Borax Consolidated, Ltd. 
obtaining control of the Suckow mine. Renamed the 
West Baker mine, it was an important unit of the Pa- 
cific Coast Borax Company's operations from 1935 to 
1951. 

The Mudd (Western) mine is near the center of sec 
24. Kernite was found on this property in July 1927 frj 
W. M. Balling and associates who had previously ex- 
plored an area west of the calcium borates. Balling trans- 
ferred his interests to the Western Borax Company, and 
production began in November 1928. In mid-1933, after 
a high proportion of the readily recoverable ore had been 
mined, the property was sold to Pacific Coast F 
Company interests. In 1948, as the result of action by 
the Federal Government, the Pacific Coast Borax Com- 
pany sold the Western mine to Seeley G. Mudd, Hen 



40 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




T. Mudd, Caryl M. Sprague, and George D. Dub. This 
group obtained a Federal lease on the Little Placer, an 
adjoining 10-acre portion of the sodium borate body, in 
1954. They reopened the former Western mine in 1956. 

The United States Geological Survey, as part of its 
study of the saline resources of southeastern California, 
has made investigations in the Kramer borate area 
(Dickey, 1957; Benda, Erd, and Smith, 1958). One phase 
of the work included preliminary gravity, seismic, and 
aeromagnetic surveys that indicated in an approximate 



way the configuration of the pre-Tertiary bedrock sur- 
face and the locations of additional basins containing 
Tertiary, possibly borate-bearing, sediments. Basins thus 
outlined were tested by five bore holes drilled from 1954 
to 1957. All but one of the bore holes were in San Ber- 
nardino County about 5 miles east of Boron near Kramer 
Four Corners. Colemanite in amounts large enough to 
warrant prospecting by private organizations was found 
north of Kramer Four Corners. The hole in Kern County, 
known as Four Corners No. 2, was about 5 miles west of 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



4, 



Boron, south of the known sodium borate body. It was 
drilled to 2,328 feet but did not penetrate borate minerals 
or lake beds. 

When mining began, methods similar to those used in 
metal mines of the period were adopted. Through the 
years, as the Pacific Coast Borax Company gained experi- 
ence with the mining of massive sodium borates and as 
the production increased, mechanized mining methods 
were developed. Auger drills replaced hammer drills, and 
modified shrinkage stoping, using portable slushers, re- 
placed open stoping and shrinkage stoping. In 1950 and 
1951 the Pacific Coast Borax Company developed the 
Jenifer mine in NE'/i sec. 23. In the Jenifer mine con- 
tinuous mining machines and belt haulage were em- 
ployed. By 1955 an anticipated increase in the demand 
for boron minerals, the possibility of reducing waste in 
mining, obtaining safer working conditions, and de- 
velopments in mining equipment made open-pit mining 
feasible. In January 1956 preliminary work began on an 
open pit, called the Boron mine, in NE'X sec. 23. The 
open pit was dedicated on November 17, 1957; and the 
underground mines were dismantled. 

Very little groundwater is present in the Kramer 
borate district, and the mines are dry. The sodium borate 
ore is non-toxic, non-corrosive, comparatively easy to 
drill, and strong enough to stand with minimum support. 
Upon exposure to air, freshly broken borax quickly 
undergoes a surface alteration to white, powdery tincal- 
conite (NaoB 4 7 .5HoO); but the strength of the borax 
is not impaired. Kernite does not alter in this way. The 
alteration commonly observed on exposed kernite is 
thought to be due to small amounts of undetected borax 
(Muessig and Allen, 1957). The shale that encloses the 
ore is weak, and in underground mining some ore is 
left to protect it. Additional ore is left in pillars to pre- 
vent the subsidence of mined-out areas. Instances of pil- 
lar failure have occurred, allowing a small amount of 
water from near-surface gravels to enter the mining area, 
softening the shale, and resulting in the disruption of 
mining operations and the loss of ore. About 50 percent 
recovery is achieved in underground mining. 

Loraine District 

The Loraine district (fig. 15) is centered 12 miles 
north of Tehachapi in the extreme southern end of the 
Sierra Nevada. It embraces approximately 60 square miles 
and is bisected by the upper reaches of Caliente Creek 
in terrain of moderate to sharp relief. Most of the mines 
in the district are within a triangular area with apexes at 
Harpers Peak on the northwest, Eagle Peak on the south- 
west, and Stevenson Peak on the east. 

Silver and gold valued at more than $600,000 has been 
yielded by the district since mining began in the 1890s. 
The tungsten, antimony, lead, zinc, and copper output 
has been valued at approximately $150,000. In 1959, a 
deposit of barite was being developed. 

The district is underlain by Mesozoic biotite horn- 
blende quartz diorite and by roof pendants of pre-Creta- 
ceous metasedimentary rocks. The quartz diorite is me- 



dium gray, equigranular, medium grained, and, near 
contacts with roof pendants, is poorly to moderately 
foliated. The roof pendants are composed of layers of 
mica schist, quartzite, hornfels, and limestone. The largest 
roof pendant is a nearly continuous body, which in the 
Loraine district is 1 to 1 1 / 2 miles wide and extends 
laterally several tens of miles from Tehachapi Creek on 
the south to Lake Isabella on the north. In the Loraine 
district the pendant trends north-northeast between Eagle 
Peak on the south to the old townsite of Piute. 

Numerous Tertiary rhyolite porphyry dikes have in- 
truded the granitic and metamorphic rock throughout 
the district. The dikes range in width from a few feet 
to many tens of feet and are as much as several hundred 
feet long. Most of these dikes crop out as resistant ridge- 
forming masses that weather to a pale buff-yellow color, 
which contrasts with the predominantly reddish-brown 
color of the metasedimentary rocks and the knobby 
rounded outcrops of the granitic rocks. A few Tertiary 
dikes of andesitic to dacitic composition are found mostly 
in the northeastern part of the district. Both types of 
dikes trend northwest to west-northwest. 

Silver and gold are present in quartz veins commonly 
within or along the walls of the rhyolite dikes. This rela- 
tionship suggests that the mineralizing solutions may have 
been a late phase of the intrusion of the dikes. Pre- 
mineral shearing, faulting, and sheeting provided chan- 
nelways for the emplacement of the veins. The veins also 
commonly extend from the rhyolite into schist or diorite, 
or lie wholly within them, as at the Ella and Atlas mines. 
At the Barbarossa mine, a quartz vein strikes diagonally 
across a rhyolite porphyry dike to the edge of the dike, 
follows the contact for a few tens of feet, then swings 
into the quartz diorite where it splits or "horsetails" into 
minor fractures within a few feet. No known mineraliza- 
tion is associated with the dacite or andesite dikes. 

Wall-rock alteration is pronounced in most of the 
silver and gold mines in the district. Kaolinization com- 
monly extends a few tens of feet into both walls of the 
vein and alteration has been so intense that, in some 
mines, the nature of original wall rock is obscure. The 
altered rock is very weak and workings in it are held 
open only with difficulty, especially when it is wet. 

The veins consist principally of white to blue-gray 
quartz containing pyrite, cerargyrite, bromyrite, argen- 
tine, and free gold. Tetrahedrite and proustite also have 
been noted. Hydrous iron oxides and melanterite are 
common in oxidized zones near the surface. At the Min- 
nehaha mine large crystals of scheelite associated with 
free gold are in a vein in schist and limestone. 

Zinc, lead, and copper have been mined at one locality 
in the district, the Blackhawk mine. There, aurichalcite, 
sphalerite, goslarite, hemimorphite, galena, cerussite, chal- 
copyrite, and malachite are in a gangue of calcite and 
quartz, with associated pyrite, arsenopyrite, and pyr- 
'rhotite. The deposit consists of irregular replacement 
masses along a contact zone between metamorphic rocks 
and quartz diorite. 



42 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




X= gold-silv^t mine unless 
otherwise noted. (Us 
uranium, r. g. = roofing 
granules.) 



Figure 16. Mines and prospects in the Mojave district. 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



43 




Figure 17. Claim map of north Soledad Mountain (Sec. 6, T. 10 N., 
R. 12 W., S.B.M.) Mojave district. 



Several high-grade, closely spaced, and steeply dipping 
barite veins crop out in limestone on a sharp, high ridge 
between Studhorse and Hog Canyons on Ritter Ranch. 

Two antimony prospects, the Wiggins and Studhorse 
Canyon deposits, have each yielded a few tons of ore. 
Stibnite and yellow antimony oxides are in steeply dip- 
ping, narrow fissure veins in highly bleached and altered 
granitic rock. 

Mojave District 
The Mojave district "(figs. 16, 17, 18, 19) in southeast- 
ern Kern County comprises 70 square miles centered 
about 8 miles southwest of the town of Mojave. Five 
prominences separated by alluviated areas contain all 
the mines of the district, but comprise only a small pro- 
portion of the total area. Of these prominences Soledad 
Mountain, 5 miles south of Mojave, is the most important 
both in productivity and in the number of deposits. 
Tropico Hill and Middle Butte, 6 miles south and 4 miles 
west respectively from Soledad Mountain, are next in 
overall importance. Willow Springs Mountain, 6 miles 
southwest of Soledad Mountain, and the western part of 
the Rosamond Hills— which are between Tropico Hill 
and Soledad Mountain— are less well endowed with 
known mineral wealth. The Mojave district has yielded 
principally gold and silver, but feldspar, silica, clay, and 
volcanic rock also have been mined, and uranium, copper, 
lead, and antimony are known to be present. 



Attention was first drawn to this district in 1894 when 
George Bowers discovered rich float on Standard 1 « 
the present site of the Yellow Rover mine. From high- 
grade ore collected from the surface, Bowers quickly 
shipped two rail carloads. Inspired by this success, other 
prospectors' explored the surrounding areas and also dis- 
covered gold at what are now the Queen Esther, Echo, 
and Elephant mines on northern Soledad Mountain and 
at the Tropico mine on Tropico Hill. 

A 20-stamp mill and cyanidation plant was constructed 
on Standard Hill at the Exposed Treasure mine in 1901. 
Water for the mill was obtained through a 14-mile pipe- 
line from Oak Creek in the Tehachapi Mountains to the 
northwest. Three other mills were constructed at mines 
on Soledad Mountain in 1902, 1903, 1904, and the district 
flourished until 1914, when most of the mines were shut 
down. 

With the onset of the depression in 1929 gold-mining 
activity increased, and by 1935 the district was experienc- 
ing its most productive era. During that year the Golden 
Queen Mining Co. was formed; and soon afterward the 
Lodestar Mining Co., Soledad-Mojave Mining Syndicate, 
Cactus Mines Co., and Standard Gold Mines Co. also 
were formed (Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 4-5). From 
1932 through 1942 the mines operated by these com- 
panies yielded gold and subordinate amounts of silver 
valued at more than $12,000,000. During the war years 




• Designotes patented claim. 



Figure 18. Claim map of Standard Hill area (Sec. 32, T. 11 N., 
W., S.B.M.) Mojave district. 



44 

1942-45 all the mines were idle; between 1945 and 1958 
production was probably less than one-tenth that of the 
boom period. 

The oldest rock in the district is a medium-grained 
quartz monzonite of Mesozoic age. It is exposed in the 
low areas peripheral to resistant masses of younger intru- 
sive rock and in parts of the northwestern Rosamond Hills. 
Intrusive into the quartz monzonite are small pegmatite 
and aplite dikes also of Mesozoic age. Overlying the 
Mesozoic rocks are Mio-Pliocene nonmarine sedimentary 



[County Report 1 

The gold-silver deposits of the Mojave district are in 
epithermal fissure veins that occupy faults and shear 
zones. In general, the veins are confined to the rhyolitic 
volcanic rocks, although some of them have been traced 
downward into quartz monzonite. The principal ore min- 
erals are cerargyrite, argentite, and free gold, but pyrar- 
gyrite, proustite, tetrahedrite, stromeyerite, native silver, 
and electum also have been found (Schmitt, 1940, unpub- 
lished report). The most common gangue minerals are 
quartz, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and hydrous iron oxides. Lo- 



California Division of Mines and Geology 




and pyroclastic rocks of the Tropico group (Dibblee, 
1958, p. 136) which, in the Rosamond Hills, are homo- 
clinal in structure and strike west-northwest, and dip 
moderately south-southwest (Roberts, 1951). These 
rocks also crop out in parts of the other prominences in 
the area. Later Tertiary rhyolitic volcanic rocks have 
been intruded into both the quartz monzonite and the 
Tropico group. These volcanic rocks are resistant and 
are the most abundant rock exposed in the mountainous 
and hilly portions of the district except in the Rosamond 
Hills. 



cally abundant in some deposits are chalcopyrite, galena, 
and stibnite. At Middle Butte the most common gangue 
is a kaolinite-alunite-quartz mixture. 

Quartz and feldspar are mined periodically from a 
pegmatite dike in the Rosamond Hills and are used as 
exposed aggregate and in ceramics. Pink, yellow, green, 
and lavender volcanic rocks in the Rosamond Hills are 
mined, crushed, and bagged for use as roofing granules. 
Clay suitable for use in manufacture of pottery has been 
mined from the northeast flanks of Tropico Hill. Small 



I: 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



45 



amounts of weathered volcanic rock are collected from 
the east side of Middle Butte and sold as field stone. 

Two uranium localities in the district have been ex- 
plored: the Rosamond prospect and other nearby sources 
in an area 3 miles northeast of Tropico Hill were ex- 
plored in 1955-56; and the Dono-han mine, half a mile 
northwest of Tropico Hill, was still under development 
in 1959. Both properties remained prospects in early 1959. 

Piute Mountains District 

The Piute Mountains district, an area of about 35 
square miles, contains about 40 mines and prospects (fig. 
20). The district is in the crestal part of the Piute Moun- 
tains and centers about the townsite of Claraville, about 



14 miles southeast of Bodfish. Gold and tungsten have 
been the principal mineral products; antimony was pro- 
duced from one deposit; and large bodies of white to 
gray carbonate rock have been prospected. 

The most productive mines in the district have been 
the Bright Star, which was discovered about 1870, and 
yielded gold valued at about $600,000 (Brown, 1916, p. 
490) and the Gwynne, which yielded about $770,000 in 
gold (Tucker, Sampson, and Oakeshott, 1949, p. ,244). 
Each of the two has yielded several times more gold than 
the combined total of the other gold mines in the district. 
The principal periods of gold mining were 1870 to 1900, 
and the 1930s to the 1940s. An undetermined but small 
tonnage of tungsten has been produced— probably from 




Figure 20. Geology, mines, and prospects of the Piute Mountains district. 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




M7°45' R. 39 E . R. 40 E. 



Recent 
Plio-Pleisiocene 

Tertiory| 

Mesozoic 
Paleozoic 



Qdl 



basalt 

luff ond cloy 
rhyoiite dike, 
diorite dike- 
vein (some with 
quartz ) 

granitic rocks, mostly 
quartz diorite. 

Metasedimentary rocks, 
(main moss is part of 
Gorlock series of Dibblee, 
1945 ) 



— — — fault, appro*, located. 

3? mine or prospect 
described in report. 

X prospect pit. 

Au=gold, A g - sil ver, 

Cu= copper, w = tungsten 

i/i I 
■ 



(Main mass of Paleozoic rocks 
after Dibblee, 1952, p. 20.) 



Figure 21. Geology, mines, and prospects of the Rademacher district. 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



47 



three mines— since about 1950, and antimony valued at 
$13,000 was mined from the Jenette-Grant mine in 1918 
(Goodwin, 1957, p. 529). 

Most of the district is underlain by Mesozoic granitic 
rocks which contain a pendant of pre-Cretaceous meta- 
sedimentary rock. The pendant is from half a mile to 
2 miles wide and is several miles long. 

The gold deposits are in a belt about 2 miles wide that 
trends northwest in the granitic rocks, and north-north- 
west in the metamorphic rocks. Most of the gold deposits 
are in quartz veins which occupy shear zones and closely 
spaced joints, and trend mostly northeast. In most mines 
the gold is free-milling. Sulfide mineralization is evident 
in the deeper parts of some of the mines. According to 
U. S. Bureau of Mines production records, ore from 
most of the mines contained from 1/6 oz. to l l / 2 oz. of 
gold per ton, which accompanied silver at a ratio of 
about 2:1. About l / 2 oz. of gold per ton is probably 
the approximate average for all mines. 

The tungsten deposits are of two types: scheelite in 
gold-bearing quartz veins, and scheelite in tactite bodies 
near limestone. Most of the tungsten deposits explored 
by mid-1959 yielded pods of ore rarely more than a few 
feet in maximum dimension. 

Antimony was mined along a north-trending contact 
between limestone and phyllite at the Jenette-Grant 
mine. The principal mineral was stibnite. 

Carbonate rocks, in masses as much as several hundred 
feet long, several tens of feet wide, and several tens of 
feet in exposed vertical extent are found in the roof 
pendant of metasedimentary rocks. A few small open 
cuts have been made in the whitest portions of some of 
the bodieS along the east side of the pendant. Rocks ex- 
posed in these cuts are white enough to be utilized as 
roofing-granule material, and some might be suitable for 
filler material. 

Rademacher District 

The Rademacher mining district (fig. 21) of approxi- 
mately 50 square miles embraces a group of low hills at 
the northeast end of El Paso Mountains. It is 3 to 8 
miles south of Ridgecrest, along the east border of Kern 
County. Gold has been the principal mineral product, 
though silver, copper, tungsten, clay, volcanic ash, and 
wollastonite also have been produced. 

The district was formally organized, probably in the 
1890s. The oldest and apparently most productive gold 
mines are the Gold Bug, Bellflower (Huntington), and 
Rademacher. Others include the Wildcat, Red Wing 
(Haunita, Crown Consolidated), Stellar, Jerry, Gold 
Pass, and Yellow Treasure mines. Silver and copper have 
been obtained from some of the gold mines and tungsten 
has been mined from the Lucky Boy mine. Deposits "of 
clay and volcanic ash have been explored since about 
1940 and wollastonite was mined and marketed during 
the 1930s. The district was probably most actively pros- 
pected for gold before 1904 when many claims were 
located and developed by short adits and shafts. Even 
the most productive gold mines have histories of inter- 



mittent operation and production. In 1957, only the Bell- 
flower mine was equipped with a mill, and it was being 
rebuilt. 

The Rademacher district is underlain mostly by gra- 
nitic rocks, of Mesozoic age, which range in composition 
from quartz diorite to quartz monzonite. The granitic 
rocks contain small pendants of Upper Paleozoic meta- 
sedimentary rocks and also rhyolitic and dioritic dikes 
of probable Tertiary age. The crystalline rocks locally 
are overlain by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic flow 
rocks. 

Minute particles of free gold are in quartz veins which 
occupy faults and fractures in the granitic rocks. Most 
of the gold veins strike between N. 40° W. and N. 40° 
E. and dip steeply eastward. They range in thickness 
from a few inches to 8 feet. The largest and richest ore 
shoots have been found at or near intersections of veins 
with the dikes or with cross fractures. Most veins also 
contain oxides of copper and iron derived from coarse 
to fine grains of chalcopyrite and pyrite. At the Lucky 
Boy mine an undetermined, but probably small, amount 
of scheelite has been obtained from one of the small 
pendants. 

The wollastonite is associated with calcareous rocks 
of probable late Paleozoic age in the southwestern part 
of the district. These rocks appear to be a northwestern 
projection of the rocks of the Garlock series that crop 
out in El Paso Mountains. Bentonitic clay and volcanic 
ash are present as sedimentary layers in nearly flat-lying 
Tertiary sedimentary rocks in a small area within the 
south-central part of the district. 

Rand District 

The Rand district (fig. 22, pi. 3) is on the eastern bor- 
der of Kern County at the northeast end of the Rand 
Mountains. It includes about 50 square miles in Kern 
County and several additional square miles to the east in 
San Bernardino County. It is commonly referred to as 
the "Randsburg district" and includes one area, of about 
4 square miles 2 to 4 miles south of the town of Rands- 
burg, which is called the "Stringer district". The south 
end of the Stringer district overlaps the western end of 
the Atolia tungsten district which lies almost wholly in 
San Bernardino County. The most productive mines of 
the Rand district are in an area of about 10 square miles 
\vhich includes the "Stringer district". The gold output 
of the Rand district has been valued at about $20,000,000, 
and exceeds that of any other district in Kern County 
with the possible exception of the Mojave district. In 
addition, it is the principal source of tungsten in Kern 
County. 

Silver ore was sought with little success in the Kern 
County portion of the Rand district following the dis- 
covery of high-grade silver ore a few hundred yards east 
of the Kern County-San Bernardino County boundary 
near Red Mountain. All of the gold from the Rand dis- 
trict, however, contains silver and ranges from 730 fc 
about 900 fine (Hulin, 1925, p. 88). Small quantities of 



48 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



R . 40 E. 



T 29 S. 




o. ♦ 

~ HT.30S. 



QUATERNARY 



TERTIARY 



Alluvium 



r 



Sedimentary rocks 

MESOZOIC 

Quartz monzonite 

PRECAMBRI AN (?) 



j i memory 

m 



14 1/2 • 



Schists 



e 322 

Mine or prospect 
Names of the mines or 
prospects corresponding to 
numbers, will be found in 
the text. 

„ — \ — \ — ' — / — \ — ^ 

Approximate boundary of 
rocks colored pole red by 
iron oxides. 

(Geology by CD. Hulin, 1925, pi. I ) 



1/2 



MILE 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



49 



Figure 22 (opposite). Geology, mines, and prospects of the Rand district. 





GOLD 




GOLD— Continued 


107 


Allstate 


345 


Snowbird 


111 


Arizona 


347 


South Rand 


113 


Baltic 


355 


Sunbeam 


115 


Barnett 


360 


Sunshine 


118 


Beck 


366 


Wade H No. 2 


123 


Big Dike 


373 


W. H. No. 1 


125 


Big Gold 


376 


Windy 


131 


Bobby 


377 


Winnie 


139 


Buckboard 


378 


Yellow Aster 


142 


Butte 






145 


California 




MANGANESE 


149 


Consolidated 


444 


BHP 


151 


Culbert 


445 


Big Indian 


165 


Elizabeth 


178 
185 


GB 

Gold Coin 


518 


SILVER 


187 


Gold Crown 


Jasper 


201 


Granton 


520 


Mizpah-Nevada 


206 


Gunderson 


521 


Nondescript 


209 


Hard Tack 


522 


St. Lawrence Rand 


213 


Hawkeye 


523 


Togo 


215 


Hercules 


524 


Treasure Hill 


243 


King Solomon 


525 


Vienna 


246 


La Crosse 


526 


White Horse Rand 


252 


Little Butte 






259 


Lucky Boy 




STONE 


268 


Merced 


528 


Banded Rocks 


272 


Minnehaha 






276 


Monarch Rand 




TALC 


282 
288 


Nancy Hanks 
New Deal 


537 


Desert View 


290 
293 
296 


Noble 
Old Baldy 
Operator Divide 


538 
539 
540 


Roseo 
Serpentine 
Tommy Knocker 


300 


Pearl Wedge 






301 


Pestle 




TUNGSTEN 


303 


Pinmore 


550 


Barbara-Diana 


316 


Rainbow 


554 


Billie Burke 


317 


Rand Gold Dredging Assoc. 


556 


Bluebird 


320 


Red Bird 


574 


Gardner 


327 


Rizz No. 2 


579 


Hawk 


330 


Rose M. 


580 


Hess 


333 


Santa Ana 


585 


Holly Rand 


337 


Sidewinder 


587 


Jersey Lily 


338 


Sidney 


602 


Martha 


341 


Silverton 


630 


Tungsten Mountain 



50 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



manganese and building stone have been produced from 
the district and several deposits of talc have been ex- 
plored. 

The first discovery of gold in the district was in 1895 
at the site of the Yellow Aster mine. Soon thereafter most 
of the subsequently productive sources were found, and 
gold was produced steadily until 1918. Since then gold- 
mining activities have been less intensive except for a 
period of rather short duration in the 1930s following the 
increase in the price of gold from $20 per ounce to $35 
per ounce. 

Lode and placer deposits of scheelite were discovered 
in the Atolia district southeast of the Rand district in 
San Bernardino County in 1904. Placer scheelite later was 
found in the Stringer district northwest of Atolia. Still 
later, scheelite-bearing veins were found in bedrock be- 
neath the placer material in the Stringer district and in 
bedrock elsewhere in the Rand district. As recently as 
1957 scheelite-bearing veins were discovered in the Rand 
Mountains. The two principal periods of scheelite pro- 
duction were during World War I and between 1948 
and 1956, at which times the prices paid for tungsten 
concentrates were several times the normal market price. 

Nearly all of the lode gold deposits in the Rand district 
are veins along faults, but at the Yellow Aster mine gold 
is present in a series of closely spaced veinlets that oc- 
cupy small fractures. The principal country rocks are 
Precambrian? Rand schist and Mesozoic Atolia quartz 
monzonite. Most of the mines are in Rand schist, which 
is the more widespread. Gold mineralization has also 
taken place along walls of a few of the Tertiary rhyolitic 
and dioritic dikes which are common throughout the 
district. The largest gold mines in the Rand district are 
in an area of a few square miles in which the schist and 
quartz monzonite are colored pale red by iron oxides 
(fig. 22). 

In general the veins are between a well-defined hanging 
wall and a less-well-defined footwall, and contain numer- 
ous smaller shears. The richest parts of the veins are ore 
shoots which are variously oriented and localized mainly 
at the intersections or junctions of faults, fractures, or 
shear zones. Nearly all of the gold is in very minute 
grains in silicified, brecciated, and iron-stained rocks, 
usually in the footwall of the veins. Some pockets of ore 
contained several ounces of gold per ton, but the average 
value of all ore mined and treated is probably less than 
$10 in gold per ton, mostly because the large volume of 
ore mined from the glory hole at the Yellow Aster aver- 
aged less than $5 per ton in gold. The maximum depth 
to which gold veins in the Rand district have been mined 
or explored is about 600 feet below the surface. Most 
mining was stopped where unoxidized sulfides were 
found in the veins. In general the gold content decreased 
where the sulfides were found, but also, many of the 
mills in the district were not capable of recovering gold 
from ores containing sulfides and sulfide-bearing ore was 
not mined. The eins are variously oriented. In the 
Yellow Aster mine the principal veins and the series of 



veinlets strike west and are nearly vertical. Immediately 
northeast of Randsburg, four mines are along a con- 
tinuous system of northwest-trending veins which dip 
moderately steeply northeast. At localities north of 
Johannesburg and southeast of Randsburg most of the 
veins strike north and dip moderately to gently east. 
About two miles south of Randsburg, in the Stringer 
district, the veins (stringers) strike northeast and ^are 
nearly vertical. 

Some of the principal gold mines of the Rand district 
are listed below together with the approximate value of 
the gold as reported by Tucker and Sampson (1933, p. 
280-335) and mine owners: 



Big Dike $200,000 

Big Gold 500,000 

Buckboard 500,000 

Butte 2,000,000 

King Solomon 500,000 

Little Butte 400,000 

Minnehaha 100,000 

Operator Divide 600,000 

Sidney * 250,000 

Sunshine 1,000,000 

Yellow Aster _ 12,000,000 



Most of the output of placer gold has been mined from 
alluvial deposits in the Stringer district on the southeast 
flank of the Rand Mountains and along the northwest 
flank of the Rand Mountains due north of Randsburg. 
In general, the mining of placer gold deposits is hindered 
by the lack of abundant water nearby. Dry concentrating 
has been attempted on a small scale and with limited 
success, but most of the placer gold recovered to date 
has been as a co-product of placer tungsten in the alluvial 
deposits. 

The principal source of tungsten in the Rand district 
is placer material in the Stringer district.' Here, scheelite 
is found in fragments as much as several inches in diame- 
ter. A4ost of these deposits are low grade and occupy 
poorly defined buried stream channels near the bedrock. 
Numerous stringers of scheelite have been found and 
mined in bedrock beneath the alluvium and in exposed 
bedrock within a few hundred yards of the northwest 
edge of the alluvium. Scheelite has also been found in 
several of the gold veins in the Rand district. One of the 
most recently discovered productive sources of scheelite 
is a deposit along the footwall of a gold vein in the 
Billie Burke mine at the east end of Randsburg. The dis- 
covery in 1956 of the Gardner vein a few hundred feet 
west of the county boundary marked the first discovery 
of a mineable scheelite body in the Kern County part of 
the Atolia district. 

Several deposits of manganese have been explored in 
the Rand district, but as late as 1958 none of them had 
yielded more than a few tons of hand-sorted shipping 
ore. One prospect, the B.H.P., has yielded in recent years 
a few hundred pounds of rhodonite suitable for cutting 
and polishing and may have been the source of a few 
tons of manganese ore mined several decades ago. Most 
of the manganese is associated with quartzose beds in 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



51 




Rand schist and contains too much silica for metallurgi- 
cal applications. 

A few bodies of talc, mostly in the western part of 
the Rand district, have been formed by alteration of 
actinolite schist. They have been explored by means of 
shallow prospect holes and bulldozing. Because the talc 
deposits are low grade, in layers only a few feet thick at 
most, and would have to be mined by underground 
methods, they have not been mined to date. 

Several tens of tons of pale-colored, iron-stained rhyo- 
lite and white vein quartz have been mined as ornamental 
stone. Carbonate rocks which contain mariposite have 
also been the source of small quantities of ornamental 
stone. 

Red Mountain Tungsten District 

The Red Mountain tungsten district (fig. 5) is 5 to 
7 miles south of Havilah and lies east of the paved road 
between Havilah and Walker Basin. It includes about 
4 square miles in the southeast part of T. 28 S., R. 32 E., 
M.D.M., on the south end of Red Mountain in the south- 
ern Sierra Nevada. The total value of tungsten concen- 
trates from the district has not been determined, but is 
probably between $75,000 and $200,000. Most of the 
tungsten ore has been mined from the Tungsten Chief 
group, which has been operated intermittently since it 
was discovered by A. D. Zuck in 1918. 

Most of the tungsten ore has been mined from tactite 
bodies, which commonly are found along contacts be- 
tween limestone and mica schist of the pre-Cretaceous 
Kernville series, and between limestone and Mesozoic 



biotite quartz diorite. The tactite bodies range in maxi- 
mum dimension from a few feet to several tens of feet. 
Scheelite-bearing quartz veins along the contact zone 
between quartz diorite and mica schist also have been 
mined. The largest scheelite-bearing quartz vein yet de- 
veloped in the area is at the Rocky Point mine. This vein, 
which is 10 feet wide and 50 feet long at the surface, 
yielded $13,000 in scheelite concentrates during the 
period 1940-43. 

Scheelite is the only tungsten-bearing mineral that has 
been found in the Red Mountain area. It is found mostly 
as grains from 1/16- to i/ 2 -inch in diameter, although 
some deposits contain crystals an inch or more in diame- 
ter. Scheelite typically is sparsely disseminated through 
the tactite, and only rarely is an entire body sufficiently 
scheelite-rich to consist wholly of ore. Most of the tung- 
sten ore mined to date contains from 0.3 to 2 percent of 
WO :t , but some has contained 3 percent or more. A few 
small but very high-grade pockets and lenses of scheelite, 
both in the tactite and quartz vein deposits, have been 
mined. 

In recent years, the principal mine development and 
mining operations in the Red Mountain area have been 
at the Buckhorn mine, Tungsten Chief group, and 
U-See-Um group. 

San Emigdio District 

The San Emigdio mining district (fig. 23) embraces a 
few tens of square miles of steep mountainous terrain in 
the vicinity of San Emigdio Mountain, Antimony Peak, 



52 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



and Cuddy Valley in southwestern Kern County. The 
district's principal output is approximately 600 tons of 
metallic antimony produced from ore obtained mostly 
from the San Emigdio mine. 

The district is underlain by Mesozoic granitic rocks 
intrusive into gneiss, schist, and carbonate rocks of unde- 
termined age. These crystalline rocks crop out in a 
northwest-trending belt that lies northwest of the San 
Andreas fault and south of a thick succession of Ter- 
tiary marine and continental sedimentary rocks. The 
largest bodies of metamorphic rocks are about a mile 
wide, about 3 miles long, and trend north-northwest. 
Most of them are only a few hundred yards in their 
longest dimension, and many of these consist entirely of 
limestone or dolomite. 

The largest known antimony deposit is at the San 
Emigdio mine on the north and northeast slopes of Anti- 
mony Peak. At this mine stibnite and several oxides of 
antimony are disseminated in lenticular quartz-rich 
masses. These are discontinuously distributed along a 
northwest-trending, southwest-dipping shear zone in 
Mesozoic quartz diorite. Although several antimony de- 
posits east of the San Emigdio mine contain lenses of 
high-grade ore, none of them has proved large enough 
to mine profitably. These deposits are accessible only by 
foot trails. 

A few of the carbonate bodies near Frazier Park have 
been prospected and have yielded a few tons each of 
white coarse-crystalline limestone and dolomite. Other 
pendants farther north are less accessible and only in 
recent years have been considered as possible sources of 
limestone. Little is known concerning the purity, size, 
and distribution of these bodies pending detailed geologic 
mapping or sampling of them. 

Tehachapi District 

The Tehachapi district includes foothills on the north 
and south of Tehachapi Valley. Lime was produced from 
1888 to 1928, portland cement from 1909 to the present, 
adsorbent clay from 1929 to 1936, and roofing granules 
have been produced since about 1950. Gold and building 
stone were produced mostly around 1900, and tungsten 
in the 1940s and 1950s. Tertiary nonmarine rocks have 
been the source of several types of stone suitable for cut- 
ting and polishing by lapidaries. 

The rocks of principal commercial interest, in terms 
of total value of output, are limestone bodies preserved 
in pre-Cretaceous roof pendants. They have been uti- 
lized both for lime and portland cement. The limestone 
is in lenticular masses as much as 500 feet thick, half a 
mile wide, and half a mile long. The pendants, which 
also contain quartzite and other metasedimentary rocks, 
are in Mesozoic granitic rocks— the most abundant rocks 
in the district. Tertiary nonmarine sedimentary and vol- 
canic rocks crop out over a few tens of square miles 
northeast of Tehachapi. Tertiary bentonite clay in layers 
interbedded with rnudstone, tuffaceous shale, and tuff 
was mined for several years for use as an adsorbent clay 



in petroleum refineries, and Tertiary sandstone was quar- 
ried to obtain dimension stone and rubble, mostly around 
the turn of the century. Since about 1950, tuffaceous 
rocks in the same area have been mined, crushed, and 
sold as roofing granules. Quaternary alluvium which 
forms the valley floor has been utilized as a source of 
silica and alumina for portland cement. 

Scheelite has been mined from small lenses in quartz 
veins at two localities about 1 l / 2 miles apart and 4 miles 
south of Tehachapi. Gold also is found in quartz veins 
in the same area. They have yielded only a small propor- 
tion of the total mineral output of the Tehachapi district. 

Weldon Tungsten District 

The Weldon tungsten district (fig. 24) is a few miles 
south of Weldon, a community on State Highway 178, 
44 miles northeast of Bakersfield, in the Sierra Nevada. 
It encompasses at least 12 bodies of scheelite that lie 
within a northwest-trending belt, approximately 1 mile 
wide and about 8 miles long, which trends northwest 
across the southwest part of Nichols Peak in the Piute 
Mountains. The northwest end of the belt is at the mouth 
of Long Canyon, which is 314 miles southwest of Wel- 
don; the southeast end is near Rocky Point, a prominent 
but small peak near Kelso Creek, 7 miles southeast of 
Weldon. 

Scheelite, the only tungsten-bearing mineral noted in 
the district, is in garnet-epidote tactite. The tactite is in 
pendants of pre-Cretaceous metamorphic rocks in Meso- 
zoic granitic rocks. The scheelite-bearing tactite is most 
common in several pendants, a few tens of feet to several 
hundred feet long, that lie near the northeast flank of a 
much larger pendant (fig. 24). The scheelite grains range 
in size from less than one-sixteenth of an inch to half an 
inch or more in diameter. Most of the grains are sparsely 
disseminated along planes within tactite. The scheelite- 
bearing tactite generally can be recognized in the field 
by a very dark, almost black color, a friable nature in 
weathered outcrops, and the presence of green copper 
oxides. The scheelite-bearing zones occupy a small pro- 
portion of the total volume of the tactite, and most of 
them are no more than a few inches wide and a few 
feet long. 

Tungsten concentrates have been recovered from at 
least four mines in the district— the B. and F., Last 
Chance, Stardust, and Lucky Boy— and others may have 
had uncredited production. The total output of the dis- 
trict is probably several tens of units of WO :i concen- 
trates, most of which has been mined since 1941. 

Woody (and White River) District 

The Woody district is in northern Kern County about 
30 miles northeast of Bakersfield. The area embraces 
about 70 square miles included in T. 25 and 26 S. and 
R. 29 and. 30 E., M.D.M. Most of the mines are clustered 
in two areas— one just south of Woody, the other 2 to 
3 miles south of White River near the Tulare County 
line. In the following text they are considered as one 
district. 



1962] 



Kern— Mining Districts 



53 



A T I N 



ranitic rocks 

etosedimenlary rocks 
pendants around most of 
he tungsten mines ore too 
mall to show on this mop) 

Foult, approximatly located 



rospect described in 




Geology modified aft 



Figure 24. Geology, mines, and prospects of the Weldon tungsten district. 



Deposits of gold, copper, tungsten, and iron are known 
to exist in the area, but production records and informa- 
tion concerning the early history of mining are lacking. 
Gold was mined in the district as early as the late 1850s, 
and most of the total gold output of the district probably 
was produced before 1 890. Only the Blue Mountain mine 
has been worked seriously since 1890. It was active dur- 
ing the period 1909-23 and again briefly from 1929-31 
(see tabulated list). Tungsten mines in the district were 
most active during the periods 1940-43, and 1952-56, 
when more than 15,000 units of W0 3 was produced. The 
Greenback Copper mine, a quarter of a mile south of 
Woody, producer of almost all the recorded copper out- 
put from the district, yielded an estimated 600,000 pounds 



of copper during the years 1890 to 1900 and 1913-18. 
The only body of iron ore in the district is at the Iron 
Mountain deposit where concentrations of magnetite in 
schist have been reported. No production has resulted 
from the limited exploration done at this property. 

Granitic- rocks of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith 
underlie most of the Woody district, but a few roof 
pendants composed of metasedimentary rocks form some 
of the more resistant peaks. These pendants range from 
a few tens to a few hundreds of feet in width and from 
a few hundreds to a few thousands of feet in length. 
Oligocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks border the dis- 
trict on the west, but no ore deposits are known to be 
associated with these rocks. 



54 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



MINES AND MINERAL DEPOSITS 

Forty-three mineral commodities are discussed in the 
following pages. Each discussion of a mineral commodity 
consists of three parts: brief introductory statements 
about the distribution, geology, mineralogy, and pro- 
duction of the commodity; descriptions of principal or 
selected deposits; and tabulations of information about 
known and reported deposits in the county. Mine de- 
scriptions are based on previous descriptions that were 
made when more of the mines were accessible, and on 
newly acquired data obtained by the writers. Many of 
the mines that have been described several times in pre- 
vious reports are discussed herein only in the tabulated 
sections. Newly discovered prospects, though their pro- 
duction to date may have been insignificant, are described 
because they represent potential sources of mineral prod- 
ucts. Published references to the properties are cited in 
the tabulated lists. References that refer to tables only 
are denoted by a "t" following the page number. 

Antimony 

Antimony has been mined from several areas in Kern 
County (fig. 25). The principal operation has been the 
San Emigdio mine, on Antimony Peak northwest of 
Frazier Park, from which about 600 tons of metallic 
antimony has been produced (Jermain and Ricker, 1949, 
p. 2). This is probably more than half the total antimony 
output of Kern County. The other deposits are in the 
Sierra Nevada and Tehachapi Mountains. The principal 
mines and prqspects in these areas are the Big Oscar pros- 
pect near Greenhorn Summit; the Rayo, Tom Moore, 
Alice, and Jenette-Grant mines and prospects in the vi- 
cinity of Bodfish; the Mammoth Eureka, Studhorse Can- 
yon, and Wiggins mines near Loraine in Caliente Creek; 



the Antimony Consolidated (Amalia) mines near Cinco; 
and the Maharg and Houghawott prospect in the Te- 
hachapi Mountains west of Mojave. Antimony is associ- 
ated with silver in veins, near Randsburg, on the extreme 
east edge of Kern County. These veins lie west of the 
Kelly mine, which is in San Bernardino County. 

The total value of antimony produced from mines 
in Kern County is approximately $80,000 (Tucker, and 
others, 1949, p. 206)— about one-third of the value of 
all of the antimony produced in the state. Since 1900 
the principal productive periods in Kern County have 
been 1915-17, 1925, 1928, and 1939-42, when high prices 
prevailed. The most recent activity was in 1952 and 1953 
at two mines near Loraine and one near Greenhorn Sum- 
mit, and in 1958 in the vicinity of the San Emigdio mine. 

The principal antimony ore mineral in Kern County 
is stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ), which in most places is partly to 
nearly wholly altered to antimony oxides. Of these 
oxides, valentinite (Sb 2 3 ) is the most common and is 
probably present in all deposits. The other oxides— 
cervantite (Sb 2 4 ?), kermesite (Sb 2 S 2 0), and stibiconite 
(Sb 3 O (OH)?)— are probably much less common than 
valentinite, but have been identified at several localities 
(Murdoch and Webb, 1956). Native antimony is rare, 
but has been found at several of the properties near Bod- 
fish, at the San Emigdio mine, and near Cinco. 

The antimony mineralization in Kern County is con- 
fined to quartzose bodies in shear zones that cut granitic 
rocks or metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. Most of the 
bodies are lenticular. 

Big Oscar Antimony Deposit* Location: Sees. 9 and 
16, T. 25 S., R. 32 E., M.D.M., in the Greenhorn Summit 

* By T. E. Gay, Jr. 



^ antimony 



• boron 



antimony. 



N. 



® BAKERS FIEL D 



antimony. 



SAN EMIGDIO DISTRICT 

\ 

mmm antimony 
boron . 



• antimony 



O 

Mojave 



antimony • 
'boron 



KRAMER BORATE 
DISTRICT, 
boron "• 



Figure 25. Distribution of antimony and boron deposits in Kern County. 



1962] 

district, on Cow Creek, about 1 mile down Cow Creek 
trail, about 2 miles north of Greenhorn Summit. Owner- 
ship: Abaca Mining Company, consisting of Melvin M. 
Ford, Box 293, Inyokern, and Oscar F. Lipnitz, Glenn- 
ville, owns seven lode claims. 

The Big Oscar deposit, discovered in 1948, was ex- 
plored in 1953-54 with the financial aid of a Defense 
Minerals Exploration Administration loan, but no pro- 
duction resulted. 

Country rock is medium-grained Isabella granodiorite, 
widely distributed in the region, but exposed only in 
small outcrops in the heavily wooded vicinity of the 
deposit. Quartz veins, which range in width from 1 inch 
to 2 feet, trend north and dip nearly vertically, in a zone 
reported to be 30 to 40 feet wide. Several shear zones 
strike northeast and dip steeply to the southwest. Stibnite 
is present in some of the quartz veins, and is sparsely 
present as a replacement of the gougy altered granodio- 
rite in some of the shear zones. Assays are erratic but an 
average of 5 percent antimony was reported by the 
owners. 

A 28-foot shaft was sunk in 1948 on the southeast bank 
of Cow Creek in the zone of quartz veins, and a 26-foot 
shaft was sunk in a stibnite-bearing shear zone in the 
-creek bottom. Early in 1953 a DMEA contract for a 
$7,500 exploration program was approved, the U.S. Gov- 
ernment's share to be $5,625. This project called for the 
deepening of the 28-foot shaft to 88 feet; a 50-foot drift 
south on the vein, and a 40-foot crosscut, both on the 70- 
foot level. By mid-1954 the shaft was enlarged to 4 by 7 
feet, deepened to 90 feet, timbered in two compartments 
down to the 70-foot level where a 13-foot drift was 
driven south, and a 30-foot crosscut was driven to the 
west. Below the 70-foot level, water was an acute prob- 
lem; and timber, although needed to hold the heavy 
ground, was not emplaced. Small amounts of stibnite 
with pyrite were found, as veinlets and joint fillings in 
the granodiorite, but the DMEA contract was terminated 
in the fall of 1954 without a discovery having been cer- 
tified. The property has been idle since 1954; water 
stands in the shaft from 30 to 50 feet below the collar. 

Mammoth Eureka Mine. Location: SE'X sec. 33, T. 
30 S., R. 34 E., M.D.M., 17 miles east of Caliente, near 
crest of a ridge north of Indian Creek, a tributary to 
Caliente Creek. Ownership: Clyde E. Mallachowitz, 1102 
Kern St., Bakersfield (1958). 

The Mammoth Eureka mine was the source of an un- 
determined quantity of antimony ore during World War 

j I. Since then the veins have been explored and sampled 

■ but no ore has been sold. 

The mine area is underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks, 
probably of andesitic composition, and apparently of in- 
trusive origin. The antimony minerals are in veins in a 
silicified zone about 1,000 feet long and a few hundred 
feet wide. The silicified zone underlies the upper south- 
west side of the highest part of a northwest-trending 
ridge. The veins occupy faults or fracture zones in the 



55 

andesitic rocks, are from a few inches to several feet 
wide, and are several feet to several tens of feet long. 
The walls are well-defined to indistinct. Wall rocks are 
locally so silicified that field identification is not possible. 
The principal veins strike N. 40-45° W. and dip 60-70° 
NE. in a zone several tens of feet wide near the crest of 
the ridge. One of the veins is exposed in a crosscut adit 
near the northwest end of the high part of the ridge and 
another is exposed in drift adits several hundred feet to 
the southeast and at the crest of the ridge. The two veins 
appear to mark the sides of a zone about 1,000 feet long 
and several tens of feet wide that contains several other 
northwest-trending veins. Three veins are exposed from 
100 to 200 feet farther down the southwest slope and 
about midway between the northwest and southeast ends 
of the ridge. One vein strikes N. 65° E., dips 70° SE.; 
another strikes N. 70° E., dips 70° SE. to vertically; and 
the third strikes N. 80° W., dips 70° NE. The N. 70° 
E.-striking vein is at least 1 30 feet long, 2 to 4 feet wide, 
and has been explored to a depth of about 75 feet. The 
other veins range in width from a few inches to 3 feet; 
the maximum exposed length is a few tens of feet. 

The veins are composed principally of quartz and stib- 
nite with silver, pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Most of the 
stibnite is in fine, evenly disseminated grains, commonly 
so small and abundant that the siliceous vein material has 
a dull gray color. Some of the stibnite is in lenses, string- 
ers, and irregular aggregates of coarse crystals. These 
masses appear to be evenly distributed, and few exceed 
2 inches in width and a few feet in length. Near the sur- 
face some of the veins contain banded chalcedony or 
quartz. Silver, in an unidentified form, has been noted in 
the veins by George Ramey, who leased the property 
at one time. 

The most extensive working is a 390-foot crosscut adit 
driven approximately N. 50° E. from the southwest side 
of the northwest part of the ridge. The face of the cross- 
cut is probably about 300 feet below the surface. The 
vein at the end of the crosscut has been followed by a 
drift driven a few feet southeast. At a point approxi- 
mately over the face of the crosscut adit and at the north- 
west tip of the ridge is a 30-foot drift adit driven N. 45° 
E. along a short vertical vein. About 15 feet from the 
portal is a vertical winze 15 or more feet deep. Several 
hundred feet to the southeast of these adits, and on the 
southeast part of the ridge, are several other adits which 
appear to be the oldest workings on the property. These 
workings consist of two northwest-trending drift adits 
with portals about 100 feet apart horizontally and 50 feet 
apart vertically. A raise from the lower adit opens at the 
surface about midway between the portals of the drifi: 
adits. The upper drift adit is about 50 feet long and the 
lower one is about 100 feet long. Two drift adits were 
driven northeast along a vein in the middle part of the 
southwest slope about 300 feet below the crest of the 
ridge. The lower drift adit is 80 feet long. The upper 
drift adit is about 50 feet above and 100 feet northeast of 
the lower drift adit and is 130 feet long. In the upp 1 
drift adit the vein has been stoped from the floor of the 



Kern— Anti mon y 



56 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




Mineralized shear zone- 
in quartz diorite, show- 
ing antimony ore. 



(After Jermain and Ricker, 1949, fig 3 ) 



100 200 400 




Figure 26. Antimony-bearing bodies in northwest-trending shear zone at the San Emigdio (Antimony 
Peak) mine. 



adit to the surface (about 50 feet) and about 60 feet along 
the vein. An underhand stope, about 20 feet deep, was 
probably the source of ore mined and shipped during 
World War I. About 400 feet downslope and southeast 
of the stope in the upper adit is a 180-foot crosscut adit 
driven N. 5° W. It cuts only andesitic rocks. 

In spite of the development of the Mammoth Eureka 
mine by seven adits, large segments of the veins encoun- 
tered in them are unexplored and other veins have not 
been developed at all. 

San Emigdio (Antimony Peak) Mine* Location: Sees. 
9, 10, and 11, T. 9 N., R. 21 W., S.B.M., on north and 
northeast slopes of Antimony Peak, 8 miles northwest of 
Frazier Park. The. mine is accessible by trails from San 
Emigdio Creek, Pleito Creeks, and Pleito Ridge. Owner- 
ship: Kern County Land Co., 2920 H St., Bakersfield, 
owns five patented claims. 

The San Emigdio antimony deposits were probably 
first worked by Indians as the source of pigment for 
making paintings which can still be seen on sandstone in 
the vicinity of Antimony Peak (Jermain and Ricker, 
1949, p. 2). The deposits were probably known to the 
early missionaries (Jermain and Ricker, 1949, p. 2) and 
may have been mined by them (Angel, 1890, p. 226; 
Bowers, 1888, p. 680). W. P. Blake, who examined the 
deposits in 1853 and again a few years afterward, reported 
the remains of old smelting works (1857, p. 291-295). 
Claims were staked at the mine site sometime between 
1872 and 1878. About 1878 the Boushey Brothers erected 
a small concentrating plant and smelter in San Emigdio 
Canyon and commenced mining the deposits about 1 x /i 

* Abstracted mostly from a report by Jermain and Ricker (1949, 5 p.). 



miles to the east. Sixty tons of metallic antimony was 
produced in 1882. Later, the Anglo-American Associa- 
tion was formed; it is reported to have shipped several 
carloads of metallic antimony to New York during 1885 
(Jermain and Ricker, 1949, p. 2). Intermittent mining 
continued until 1892, when Kern County Land Co. pur- 
chased the property; since then, lessees have mined the 
deposit during two brief periods. One group of lessees 
mined and shipped five or six carloads of ore during 
World War I, and, in 1941, Charles B'. Fife, a lessee, 
shipped five tons of ore which contained 35 percent of 
antimony. Jermain and Ricker (1949, p. 2) estimate that 
no more than 600 tons of metallic antimony has been 
produced from the San Emigdio mine since 1882. Most of 
the ore mined before 1900 was carried by pack animals 
1 Vi to 2^ miles to concentrators and smelters in San 
Emigdio Canyon. Metallic antimony from the smelter 
was hauled in wagons to Bakersfield, then by railroad to 
other points. 

At the San Emigdio mine, stibnite and antimony oxides 
are found in siliceous lenses which are irregularly distrib- 
uted along a very poorly exposed shear zone in quartz 
diorite. The shear zone strikes N. 40° W., dips about 55° 
SW., is from a few feet to 100 feet wide, and is at least 
2,700 feet long. It lies along the north side of Antimony 
Peak beneath a shallow, soil-covered depression. The soil 
overlying the shear zone, however, is commonly paler 
than that overlying the quartz diorite. The antimony- 
bearing lenses are most abundant in the southeast third of 
the zone (fig. 26). They are along both walls of the shear 
zone; some of them extend diagonally from one wall to 
the other. In general, the long axes of the lenses are par- 
allel to the walls of the shear zone. 



1962] 



Kern— Antimony 



ANTBIONl 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address J 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


1 


Alice mine 


Reported in sec. 2 
T28S, R32E, MDM, 
Clear Cr . dist. ] 
3/4 mile northeast 
of Havilah (1949) ; 
not confirmed, 195£ 


R. L. and Alice 
Coughran , 316 Toll- 
house Dr., Bakers- 
field (1958) 


Irregular masses of stibnite in 
porphyritic quartz diorite . 


Developed by 75-foot adit and 60-foot 
winze. Several small shipments in 1939 
and 1940. Idle. (Crawford 96:31; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49 : 206 , 252t) . 


2 


Amalia mine 


Reported in sees. 5 
8, T31S.R36E, MDM, ' 
6 miles west-south- 
west of Cinco, on 
Antimony Flat 


Undetermined, 1954; 
Antimony Mines Co. , 
R. C. Golden, 
Bodfish (1949) 


Stibnite-bearing veins in grano- 
diorite . 


One claim with shallow shafts and open 
cuts. Mined ore hauled to mill near 
Gypsite (near Cantil) ; several shipments 
of stibnite ore were made to Harshaw 
Chem. Co. , El Segundo in 1940. Mine 
a 1 so operated in 1917 and 1918 Idle 
since 1940. See Cowboy No. 1. (Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:206-207, 252t) . 


3 


Antimony Con- 


SW cor. sec. 5, 
T31S R36E MDM 
Antimony Flats, 6 
miles west-south- 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Los Angeles (1949) 


Poorly-exposed quartz vein in grano- 

grained sul fides . Vein strikes N. 
30° W. , dips 70° NE. , and is 

a strike distance of about 600 feet. 
Parallel vein a few tens of feet 
long exposed about 400 feet to 
northeast from southeast end of 


Four patented claims (sees. 5 and 8). 

and 7 trenches on principal vein. Near- 
surface stopes evident by subsiding 

and 3 trenches on northeast vein. Pro- 
duction undetermined; long idle. 
(Boalich, Castello 18b:llt; Brown 16: 
475; Tucker 29:21; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49: 252t) 




Antimony Dyke 
group 


Repor ted in Loraine 
dist. (1918) 


Undetermined, 1958; 
George Ramey and 
A. Carlson, 
Caliente (1918) 


Undetermined . 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably early 
name of Studhorse Canyon mine. 
(Boalich, Castello 18b : 11 t) . 




Antimony Peak 
mine 








See San Emigdio mine in text. (Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:207, 252t) . 




Betty Lou 








Uncorrelated name. May be same as 
Betty Lou mine listed under tungsten. 
Produced about 40 tons of antimony con- 
centrates in 1940 and 1941. 


4 


Big Oscar pros- 
pect 


NW^ sec. . 16, T25S, 
R32E, MDM, 2 miles 
north of Greenhorn 
Summ.it, on Cow Cr. 


Melvin M. Ford, 
P.O. Box 293, 
Inyokern, and 
0. F. Llpnitz, 
Glennville (1954) 


Stibnite in veins in granodiori te . 


See text. 


5 


Big Pine group 

Black Sambo 
prospect 

Bousby 
Boushy 


Sec. 10, T9N, R21W, 
SBM, 15 miles west- 
northwest of Lebec, 
on north slope of 
Antimony Peak, in 
vicinity of San 
Emigdio mine 


Big Pine Mining Co. 
Carl Hartzell, 
P.O. Box 102, 
Oildale, and 
Ernest E. Meadows, 
408 Locust St. , 
Bakersfield (1958) 


Stibnite and other antimony 
minerals in siliceous lenses 
along a shear zone which strikes 
N. 40° W. and dips about 55° SW. ; 
in quartz diori te . Same vein as 
at San Emigdio mine. 

Stibnite in quartz diorite. 


Seven claims surrounding and between 
patented claims of San Emigdio mine. 
In 1957-1958, the owners constructed a 
road to the north side of Antimony Peak 
from Cuddy Valley and cleared out a 
110-foot segment of an old adit. About 
5 tons of selected ore was stockpiled 

mile south of the mine. See San Emigdic 
mine for production history from this 
vein. Part of these claims formerly 
held by Kern County Land Co. 

See Susie Q mine under tungsten in 
text. 

96:31). 9 

See San Emigdio mine in text. (Angel 
90:225; Crawford 94:21; 96:31). 


6 


Buffalo 


Reported in sec. 7, 
T9N, R20W, SBM, 3 
miles north of 
Cuddy Valley, 
about 3 miles east 
of Antimony Pk . 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
A. Bessueille, 
Kern City (1904) 


Two veins, each 4 feet wide, 

strike NW. , dip NE. , in porphyritic 

rock. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under di f f erent name . Developed 
in 1904 by 15-foot shaft, 60-foot 
inclined shaft and 30— foot drift adit 
Probably no production. (Aubury 04: 
19t) . 


7 


Cowboy No. 1 
Erskine Creek 


NW*5 sec. 8, T31S, 
R36E, MDM, on 
south edge of 
Antimony Flat, 6 
miles west- south- 
west of Cinco 


Harry and Agnes R. 
Weldon, address 
undetermined (1954) 


Small nodules and clusters of 
radiating stibnite blades dissem- 
inated along poorly-exposed quartz 
vein that strikes N. 80° E. , dips 
75° S.; in granodiori te . 


Caved shaft about 20 feet deep and a 
shallow 70-foot trench along vein. 
May be Amalia mine. Long idle. 

See Tom Moore mine. 




Grace Darling 


Reported in Er skint 
Creek (1896; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined , 1957 




Listed as old location in 1896. Ten 
tons of ore shipped from mine in 1893. 
(Crawford 94:21; 96:31). 


8 


Jenette-Grant 


NW^ sec. 18, T28S, 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mtns. , 10 miles 
southeast of Bod- 
fish, near south 
fork of Erskine Cr. 


Delia Bergner, 
pres. , Jenette- 
Grant Mining Co. , 
Mechanicsburg, 
Pennsylvania (1958) 


Stibnite with quartz along contact 
of limestone and schist. 


Antimony ore valued at $13,000 mined 
and shipped in 1918. See under gold 
(Goodwin 57:529t; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:207, 225-226, 261t) . 



58 California Division of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 



ANTIMONY, com- 



Map 


Name or cioim t 


Location 


Owner 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


No 


mine, or group 


( Nome, address J 






Julius Shades 


El Paso Mts. (?) 






Uncorrelated old name; probably long 












abandoned prospect. (Boalich, Castello 












18b:llt) . 


9 


Maharg and Hough- 


Reported in sec. 4 


Undetermined , 1958 


Stibnite occurs in E. -striking. 


Developed by 30-foot shaft in 1924. 




awott (Mahary 


T10N, R15W, SBM, 


Earl Maharg, 


N. -dipping vein at contact between 


Probably some production. Long idle. 






18 miles s ou thwe s t 


F . B . Houghawot t , 


1 imes tone and a porphyr i t i c rock . 


(Tucker 24 : 367 ; 29:21; Tucker , Sampson , 




group) mine 


of Mojave, south- 


Long Beach (1924) 


Lens of ore exposed in shaft in 


Oakeshott 49: 252t) . 




east slope of 




1924 was 1 to 2 feet wide and 








Tehachapi Mts. 




reported to contain 20 percent 








(1924) ; not con- 




antimony. 








firmed, 1958 








10 


Mammoth 


SE^ sec. 33, T30S, 


Clyde E. Mallacho- 


Stibnite in quartz veins in sili- 


See text. (Boalich, Castello 18b:llt) . 




Eureka mine 


R34E, MDM, 17 


witz, 1102 Kern St 


ci f ied andes i t i c r ocks . 








miles east of Cal- 


Bakersfield (1958) 










iente, on top of 












ridge on north 












side of Indian Cr. 










Mojave Antimony 








See Antimony Consolidated mine 




mine 








(Aubury 04:19t; 06:374; Brown 16:475). 




Old Mill No. 1 


Reported in Lorain 


Undetermined, 1958 


Undetermined . 


Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 






dist. (1918) 


Mrs. Charles E. 




herein under another name. (Boalich, 








Bennett, 




Castello 18b:llt) . 








Piute (1918) 






11 


Padre mine 


SW^ sec. 11, T9N, 


Undetermined, 1958; 


Stibnite and other antimony 


Discovered in 1892 and developed by a 






R21W, SBM, 3 miles 


may be part of Big 


minerals in 1 5- foot-wide shear 


25-foot di^ift in 1893. About 3 tons of 






northwest of Cuddy 


Pine Mining Co. 


zone in granitic rocks. Zone 


high-grade stibnite ore on dump in 1893. 






Valley, about a 


property 


strikes NW. approx. same as south- 


Not described since 1896 but claim 






mile east of Anti- 




east part of San Emigdio vein 


shown on map by Jermain and Ricker, 






mony 




which is hal f a mile to the west . 


(1949, fig. 2). Probably some pro- 












duction; long idle. (Crawford 94:21-22; 












96:31; Jermain, Ricker 49:fig. 2). 




Rayo mine 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1957. 


Three- to 10-foot-wide vein. 


Developed by shallow shafts and open 






36, T26S, R33E, 


Rayo Mining and 




cuts prior to 1916. Probably some 






MDM, 6 miles south- 


■ Dev. Co. , Los 




production; long idle. (Aubury 04:15t, 






east of Isabella 


Angeles (1904) 




19t; Brown 16:476; Tucker 29:21; 






(old site) ; not 






Tucker, Sampson 40b: 322). 






confirmed, 1957 








San Emidio mine 








See San Emigdio mine in text. (Bowers 












88:680-681) . 


12 


San Emigdio 


Sees. 9, 10, and 


Kern County Land 


Stibnite and oxides of antimony in 


See text. (Angel 90:225-226; Aubury 




(Antimony Pk. , 


11, T9N, R21W, 


Co. , 2920 H St. , 


lenses in shear zone which strikes 


04:196; Bowers 88:680-681; Brown 16: 




Bousby, Boushy, 


SBM, high on north 


Bakersfield (1958) 


northwest and dips southwest in 


476; Crawford 94:21, 22; 96:31; 




Padre) mine 


slope' of Antimony 




granitic rocks. 


Jermain, Ricker 49:1-5; Tucker 29:22; 






Pk. , 8 miles north 






Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 49:207, 252t' 






west of Frazier 












Park 










Standard 


Reported in east 


Undetermined, 1957 


Pocket of stibni te-bear ing ore at 


Fifteen-ton shipment made in 1893. Ore 






fork of Erskine 




contact between slate and limestone. 


valued at $45 per ton delivered at 






Cr. , Piute Mts. ; 




Ore contained 60 percent antimony 


Caliente, 40 miles from mine. (Craw- 






not confirmed. 




by assay. 


ford 94 : 22} . 






1957 








13 


Studhorse Canyon 


mh sec. 4, T31S, 


Undetermined, 1958; 


Three- foot-wide brecciated blue- 


Developed by 100-foot crosscut adit to 




mine 


R33E, MDM, Loraine 


J. R. Stubblefield 


gray quartz vein strikes N. 80° E. 


bottom of 40-foot shaft on vein and 






dist. , 3 miles 


and R . Ramey , 


and dips 73° NW. ; in bleached and 


drift 30 feet N. 80° E. from shaft. 






south- sou thwe st of 


Caliente (1949) 


highly altered rhyolite dike. 


Near collar of shaft an 80-foot drift 






Loraine at crest 




Stibnite and yellow antimony oxides 


was driven S. 65° E. Several small 






of ridge between 




in thin streaks and small pods . 


shipments made to Harshaw Chemical Co. , 






Studhor se and Hog 






El Segundo. Idle. (Tucker, Sampson, 






Cyns. 






Oakeshott 49:207, 252t) . 




Tabasco 


Reported in vicin- 


Undetermined, 1958; 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 






ity of Garlock 


Thomas Royal, 




abandoned prospect. (Boalich, Castello 






(1918) ; not 


G. Phillips, 




18b: 11 t) . 






confirmed, 1958 


Randsburg (1918) 






14 


Tom Moore 


SW^SW^a sec. 24, 


Undetermined, 1955; 


Aggregates of bladed and massive 


Ten acres patented. Vein mined and 






T27S, R33E, MDM, 


Kern Land and De- 


stibnite and native antimony in 


prospected for 250 yards along strike 




6k miles south- 


velopment Co. , 


quartz vein in shear zone about 


by trenches, several shafts 25-feet or 






east of Bodfish, 


Bakersfield (1949) 


5 feet wide. Country rock is 


less in depth, and several short adits; 






% mile east of 




phyllite, slate, quartzite, and 


workings largely caved. By 1893, three 






Erskine Cr . rd. , 




other metamorphic Carboniferous 


and a half tons of metallic (native) 






4 mile southwest 




(?) rocks. Vein is 1 to 2 feet 


antimony which occurred in nodular 






of Laura Pk. 




wide, strikes N. 20° W. , and dips 


masses from 1 oz. to 300 pounds in 










steeply eastward. 


weight had been mined. Some ore 












reported to contain 65 percent antimony. 












Idle since 1916. (Boalich, Castello 












L8b:llt; Brown 16:475, 476; Crawford 












94:21; 96:31; Tucker 29:22; Tucker, 












Sampson 40b:322-323; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:252t; Watts 93:237). 



1962] Kern— Antimony, Arsenic, Asbestos 59 



ANTIMONY, conl. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


15 


Top of the World 
nine 


SE*s sec. 34 T30S, 
R32E, MDM, in Devil 
Canyon, 11 miles 
east-southeast of 
Caliente 


Undetermined, 1954; 
Henry G. Hubbard, 
Eagle Rock (1949) 


Kidney-shaped bodies of auriferous 
stibnite in vein at contact trend- 
ing NNE. between schist and quartz 
diorite. Scheelite found at one 
point. 


One patented claim and 3 unpatented 
claims (1943) . Developed by 230-foot 
adit (partly caved) , 10-foot winze near 
portal of adit, and 25-foot drift at 
bottom of winze. Production undeter- 
mined. Idle. (Jenkins 42:330t; Tucker, 
Sampson 43:61-62; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:252t, 275t) . 


16 


Wiggins mine 


Reported in sec. 8, 

T31S, R33E, MDM, 

Loraine dist. , 

4 miles southwest 

of Loraine at the 

head of Studhorse 

Cyn. 


Undetermined, 1958; 
A. B. McAdams and 
J. M. Wiggins, 
Mojave (1949) 


Three to 4-foot-wide vein in quartz 
diorite. Principal antimony mineral 
is stibnite. 


Developed by 75-foot adit on vein and a 
few open cuts. Shipped 62 tons of ore 
in 1918. Idle. (Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:207, 252t) . 



The lenses are as much as several feet in width. Some of 
them pinch out abruptly within a few feet downward, 
or narrow to a few inches in width. Stibnite is the prin- 
cipal antimony mineral, but much of it is altered to red, 
white, and yellow oxides of antimony. In general, the 
lenses are composed of a matrix of quartz diorite and 
quartz containing isolated crystals and veinlets of the 
antimony minerals. The higher-grade ore contains fine- 
grained stibnite in quartz. Calcite, pyrite, and arsenopy- 
rite are present locally in the wall rocks. The ore com- 
ll monly contains traces of copper, lead, silver, and gold. 

Surface trenching and sampling conducted by Jermain 
I and Ricker in 1940 and 1941 indicated a reserve of be- 
I tween 3,000 and 9,000 tons of metallic antimony available 
I from 19 lenses in the shear zone along a horizontal dis- 
I tance of 2,100 feet and a vertical distance of 800 feet 
(U. S. Bur. Mines and U. S. Geol. Survey, 1951, Ch. Ill, 
p. 9). The 19 lenses have an average length of 8"0 feet, an 
average width of 8.5 feet, and contain an average of 2.5 
percent of antimony. The highest assay obtained was 
30.88 percent of antimony across 1 '/ 2 feet of a 49-foot 
trench across the southeast part of the shear zone. Ore 
mined before 1900 has been variously reported as con- 
taining between 30 and 40 percent of antimony, 4 to 16 
dollars in gold, and 4 to 16 dollars in silver (Angel, 1890, 
p. 225-226; Bowers, 1888, p. 681). 

When the property was visited by the writers in 1958, 
most of the mine adits were caved and the sample 
trenches cut in 1940 and 1941 were indistinct. The dumps 



ARSENIC 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


17 


Contact group 


Reported in SWs 
sec. 10, T10N, 
R15W, SBM, 19 miles 
northwest of Rosa- 
mond in Tylerhorse 
Cyn . on southeast 
flank of Tehachapi 
Mts. (1949) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
B. D . Standeford, 
Rosamond (1924) 


Arsenopyrite and pyrite occur as 
irregular lenses along western 
contact of a limestone-schist roof 
pendant in quartz diorite. Lenses 
range in width from 6 to 12 inches 
in the contact zone which strikes 
E. and dips 80° N. 


Consisted of Contact, Music and Taylcr 
Horse claims in 1924. Developed by 
50-foot vertical shaft, 20-foot drift 
to west, and 50-foot drift adit. 
Reported production in 1923 was 27 tons 
of ore which contained 40 percent 
arsenic. An additional 25 tons of ore 
was mined and hauled to Rosamond in 
1924. Idle. (Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 
shott 49:207, 252t) . 



were overgrown, and the adits could not be correlated 
with previous descriptions of them. Apparently five 
crosscut and drift adits, ranging in length from 45 to 600 
feet (Angel 1890, p. 225; Brown, 1916, p. 476; Jermain 
and Ricker, 1949, p. 5), were the principal workings. 

Arsenic 

Many of the metal mines in Kern County contain 
arsenic-bearing minerals, but only the Contact mine 21 
miles northwest of Rosamond has yielded arsenic ore. 
Twenty-seven tons of ore containing 40 percent of 
arsenic by assay was reported to have been shipped in 
1923 (Tucker, 1924, p. 368). 

At the Contact mine, arsenopyrite (FeAsS) is found in 
lenses in metamorphosed, shale along a contact between 
granite and metamorphic rocks. Arsenopyrite is a com- 
mon gangue mineral in other metal-bearing veins in the 
county, particularly gold, silver, and antimony. 

Asbestos 

Two deposits in Kern County are reported to contain 
asbestos. One, near Jawbone Canyon, is reported (Brown, 
1916, p. 476) to contain chrysotile asbestos in serpentine; 
the other near San Emigdio Canyon, is reported to con- 
tain amphibole asbestos in serpentine (Tucker, 1929, p. 
63). Neither deposit has any recorded production, nor 
were the locations confirmed in 1958 by the writers. Pre- 
vious descriptions of the deposits are summarized in tabu- 
lated form below. 



60 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



ASBESTOS 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




San Emigdio 
deposit 


Reported 3 miles 
northwest of Cuddy 
Ranch, west of 
Frazier Park 
(1949) f not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
R. C. Cuddy, 
Frazier Park (1949) 


Described by Tucker (1929, p. 63) 
as aifiphibole asbestos in serpentine 
on a ridge west of San Emigdio Cyn. 
Asbestos occurs in horizontal 
planes 6 to 8 inches wide in north- 
west-striking serpentine . 


Three claims developed by short adits 
and open cuts in 1925. No production; 
idle. (Tucker 29:63; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49: 276t) . 




Sunshine claim 


Reported in sec. 7, 
T30S, R36E, MDM, 
23 miles north of 
Mojave (1916) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957; 
J. H. Durnal, 
Tehachapi (1912) 


Asbestos-bearing rock strikes north- 
east, dips 40° S. between serpen- 
tine walls. Reported to be 10 feet 
wide and 150 feet long. 


Three claims located in 1912; no known 
activity since. (Brown 16:476). 



Barite 

The only confirmed barite deposit of potential com- 
mercial interest in Kern County is the Ritter Ranch 
deposit described below. Barite crystals are reported 
from Pine Canyon north of Mojave (Murdoch and 
Webb, 1956, p. 69), and in El Paso Mountains, but these 
reports were not confirmed. 

Barite veins in the limestone roof pendants at the Rit- 
ter Ranch deposit and at the Paso-Baryite deposit near 
the Kern-Tulare County border (Goodwin, 1958, p. 372) 
suggest the possible existence of other similar deposits 
in the southern Sierra Nevada batholith. 

Ritter Ranch Barite (Iron Blossom) Deposit* Loca- 
tion: SW!4 sec. 4, T. 31 S., R 33 E., M.D.M., Loraine 
district, 3 miles south of Loraine on a narrow ridge be- 
tween Studhorse and Hog Canyons. Ownership: The 
deposit is on the Ritter ranch, owned by E. M. Ritter, 
Caliente. Rex E. Thomson, 2067 236th St., Torrance, Sim 
Bramlett, and Ray Johnson leased the deposit from Mr. 
Ritter in 1958 and subleased it to Baroid Division of Na- 
tional Lead Co., Houston, Texas. 

The Ritter Ranch barite deposit was discovered in 1932 
by E. C. Stirling of Lone Pine. It had been previously 
worked as a gold prospect. No barite has been produced 
from the deposit, but it was being developed in mid-1959. 

Bluish-white, very fine-grained barite crops out as two 
irregular exposures about 250 feet apart on opposite sides 
of a north-trending ridge underlain by coarsely-crystal- 
line, gray to white dolomitic limestone. The limestone 

* Patt of this information provided by G. K. Williams, Consulting Geologist, 
Santa Ana, California. 



is part of a large north-northeast-trending roof pendant 
in Mesozoic granitic rocks. Barite in the eastern exposure 
is about 150 feet downslope from the crest of the ridge. 
It lies in layers parallel to northwest-trending fractures 
and bottoms against fractures that trend N. 10° W. and 
dips 25° SW. The eastern mass is from 75 to 100 feet 
in length, breadth, and height and it contains interlayers 
of limestone that trend northwest. The western outcrop, 
in the steep cliff on the west face of the ridge, was not 
observed by the writers. Some of the layers of nearly 
pure barite in the eastern mass are as much as 10 feet 
wide; the thickest layer of limestone is 10 feet. Barite 
samples consisting of 97.08 BaS0 4 and having a specific 
gravity of 4.39 were obtained from the deposit by the 
lessees. 

Trenching and drilling in the limestone a few tens of 
feet upslope from the eastern exposure since September 
1958 have revealed the presence of barite a few feet 
beneath the surface at a point between the two outcrops. 
If the two exposures of barite are the ends of a continu- 
ous body of barite, then the body probably contains 
as much as several tens of thousands tons of barite. 

Development consists of several shallow open cuts 
across the eastern exposures of barite, a 30-foot drift adit 
driven northwest in granitic rocks from a point about 50 
feet downslope from the open cuts, and a shorter north- 
west-driven drift adit about 30 feet downslope from the 
open cuts and 50 feet south of the 30-foot adit. The 
prospect adits were driven in the search for gold. Since 
September 1958, benches have been cut upslope from 
the eastern barite body and access roads have been made. 



[SAHITK 



Mop 
A/a 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


L oca t ion 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


18 


Iron Blossom 

Ritter Ranch 
(Iron Blossom) 


SW*j sec. 4, T31S, 
R33E, MDM, Loraine 
dist. , 3 miles 
south of Loraine 


Earl M. Ritter, 
Caliente (1958) 


Barite in white limestone. 


Name of claims on Ritter Ranch deposit 
in 1932. See Ritter Ranch in text. 

See text. 



1962] 

Bismuth 

Bismuthinite (Bi 2 S 3 ) is one of the metallic minerals 
;in the gold-quartz veins at the Big Blue mine near Kern- 
iville. Prout (1940, p. 412-413) estimates that the ore re- 
covered at the Big Blue mine has contained 1 to 2 percent 
[metallic sulfides and that bismuthinite comprises about 
0.7 percent of the sulfides. It has probably not been re- 
covered as a byproduct. No other occurrences of bis- 
muth have been reported in Kern County. 

Bituminous Diatomite (See Diatomaceous Earth) 

Borates 

By William E. Vei Planck 

In recent years, bedded deposits of the sodium borate 
minerals— borax and kernite— in the Kramer borate dis- 
trict, Kern County, together with the sodium borate- 
bearing brines of Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, 
have supplied 95 percent of the world's requirements 
I of boron compounds. Prior to the first production of 
borates from the Kramer deposits in 1927, borates in the 
United States were obtained from deposits of the cal- 
cium borate mineral colemanite associated with folded 
Tertiary lake bed sediments and volcanic rocks. In 1925, 
a small quantity of colemanite was obtained from an 
outlying part of the Kramer district; and about 1917 
prospecting for colemanite was carried out in Cuddy 
Canyon, north of the Frazier A4ountain colemanite dis- 
trict of Ventura County (Gale, 1914b, p. 455, 456). A 
small amount of colemanite is still produced annually 
from California sources for purposes in which coleman- 
ite is used as such; but because of the higher cost of 
mining and treatment it cannot compete with sodium 
I borate minerals and brines as a source of borax. Still 
earlier, from 1872 to about 1900, borax was obtained 
from the efflorescent crusts of certain playas including 
Koehn Lake in Kern County. These crusts contain 5 per- 
cent or less B 2 O s in the form of borax and the sodium- 
calcium borate mineral ulexite mixed with various pro- 
portions of other saline minerals and insoluble matter. 

At the Kramer borate district (fig. 25), in which lie 
the mines and plants described below, borate minerals are 
found in a buried, tabular mass estimated to be 1 1 / 2 to 2 
miles long, half a mile wide, and more than 200 feet in 
maximum thickness (Gale, 1946). The geology and his- 
tory of the Kramer borate district are described in the 
Mining District section. 

Boron Operations, United States Borax & 
Chemical Corporation 

Location: East-central portion T- 11 N., R. 8 E., 
S.B.M. north and west of Boron. Owner and operator: 
United States Borax & Chemical Corporation, 630 Shatto 
j Place, Los Angeles. 

The United States Borax & Chemical Corporation, an 
American Corporation, was formed in 1956 with the 
merging of United States Potash Company into Pacific 
Coast Borax Company. Borax Consolidated, Limited, was 
formerly the parent company of Pacific Coast Borax 
Companv. 



61 

Baker Mine* Location: near common corner of sees. 
13 and 24, T. 11 N., R. 8 W., S.B.M., and sees. 18 and 
19, T. 11 N., R. 7 W., S.B.M., about 3 miles north of 
Boron and near the eastern limits of the sodium borate 
body. 

The Baker mine yielded a substantial proportion of the 
borates produced in the Kramer area from 1927 until 
1935 when the Suckow mine was taken over by Pacific 
Coast Borax Company and subsequently known as. the 
West Baker mine. Borax production from the Baker and 
West Baker mines continued until the early 1950s when 
production from the Jenifer mine, which was opened in 
1951, ultimately supplanted them. The mine has been idle 
since, but large reserves undoubtedly remain in the Baker 
mine area. According to Gale (1946, p. 369), the. sodium 
borate body in the Baker mine is in the form of a broad, 
flat-topped anticlinal nose that plunges southeast. The 
mine was developed by three vertical shafts of which 
the main or No. 2 shaft is in the northwest corner of 
section 19, close to the point where the sodium borate 
body is thickest in this area. The log of this shaft follows 
(Gale, 1946, p. 370): 

0-375 feet: Alluvial sediments; shale in lower part 
375-393 feet: Blue shale with colemanite and ulexite 
393-498 feet: Crystalline kernite and borax; some interstrati- 
fied shale 

498-540 feet: Brownish gray shale with small amount of ulexite 
in upper part. 

Both borax and kernite are present in large masses. Be- 
cause the two minerals required different processing 
treatment, they were mined separately. The main shaft 
had three compartments, two of which had cages for 
handling men and materials and skips for hoisting ore be- 
low them. The main mining level was at 485 feet, and 
where the ore body dips below this level, it was de- 
veloped by winzes. 

In a considerable area near the main shaft, where the 
ore body is flat, it was mined by shrinkage stopes sepa- 
rated by pillars. The completed stopes were 20 feet wide, 
more than 100 feet long, and as much as 100 feet high. 
In 1951 borax was being mined at some distance from the 
main shaft where the borate body dips at an estimated 
15° southwest. The area was reached by a main winze 
sunk close to the footwall at an inclination of 9°. Entries 
parallel to the strike of the borate body were driven in 
both directions from the winze, and from the entries 
stopes were started both up dip and down dip. Blast 
holes 10 feet long were drilled with post-mounted elec- 
tric-powered augers. Each crew drilled two entry faces 
or the equivalent in the stopes per shift. The blast holes 
were detonated by cap and fuse. 

After blasting, stopes and entries were mucked with 
hoe-type scrapers operated by track-mounted three-drum 
electric hoists powered by alternating current. By means 
of loading-slides, the scrapers loaded the broken ore into 
cars of 2 % tons capacity that were trammed to the winze 
by locomotives powered by storage battery. Each entry 

* Plant visited by writer May 1951. 



Kern— Barite, Bismuth, Borates 



1962] 



Kern— Borates 



63 



track joined the winze track with a switch, allowing a 
dummy winze car operated by a single-drum hoist above 
the main haulage level to enter the entry mouth. Ore cars 
were coupled to the dummy car, raised to the haulage 
level, and emptied into a transfer chute. Storage battery 
locomotives then took the ore in 4-ton cable bottom cars 
to a loading pocket at the main shaft. 

To prevent subsidence, completed stopes were filled 
with sand introduced from the surface through large dia- 
meter drill holes. The connections to the entries were 
closed with heavily braced timber bulkheads. The sand 
was distributed and packed tightly in the stopes by 
means of high speed horizontal sand wheels fitted to 
chutes at the bottoms of the drill holes. 

Boron Mine* Location: NEJ4 sec. 23, T. 11 N., R. 8 
W., S.B.M., about 4 miles northwest of Boron near the 
western limits of the sodium borate body. The Boron 
mine is the name given to the open pit (fig. 27), which 
was formally opened in November 1957, and which since 
that time has been the only mine in operation in the 
Boron area. Stripping of overburden, which was done by 
the Isbell Construction Company of Reno, Nevada, began 
in January 1956. Approximately 9 million tons of over- 
burden was removed, forming a pit 1,500 to 2,000 feet 
in diameter at the top. The upper surface of the sodium 
borate body was reached at 137 feet in May 1957, and 
in the following month limited production began. 

In the open pit area the sodium borate body consists 
of borax with some kernite. It is overlain by greenish 
shale, which in turn is overlain by sand and compara- 
tively fine gravel that contains sparsely distributed cob- 
bles and layers cemented by calcite. 

The overburden is first loosened with a scarifier pulled 
by a Caterpillar D9 tractor. The calcite-cemented layers 
occasionally encountered are drilled and blasted. Rubber- 
tired scrapers of 24 yards struck capacity, assisted by 
Caterpillar D9 tractors, excavate the material. 

Some of the overburden has been used for the con- 
struction of diversion dikes to protect the pit from flash 
floods. Benches, which are at 50-foot intervals in both 
overburden and ore, are connected with an access road 

* Information obtained partly from a description by Wamsley (1957); plant 
visited by writer October 1956. 



having a maximum grade of 7 percent. All haulage roads 
are 50 to 60 feet wide. The overall pit slope is 1.4 to 1. 

In mining the borax that has been uncovered, vertical 
blast holes are bored with McCarthy auger drills. The 
holes are loaded with ammonium nitrate-base explosive 
and detonated by primacord and fuse. Bucyrus-Erie 54-B 
electric shovels equipped with 3-cubic-yard buckets load 
the broken ore into 24-ton rear-dump trucks that haul 
it out of the pit to the primary crusher. When the pit 
has been sufficiently enlarged in the course of mining, 
the company plans to move the primary crusher to the 
floor of the pit, and to transport the crusher product to 
the surface with a belt conveyor. 

Jenifer Mine*. Location: NE!4 sec. 23, T.'ll N, R. 8 
W., S.B.M., about 3'/ 2 miles northwest of Boron in the 
western part of the sodium borate body. This under- 
ground mine was worked continuously from 1951 to 1957 
and was probably the largest underground operation in 
California at that time. High output per man-shift and 
low unit costs were achieved through the use of con- 
tinuous mining machines. 

In the Jenifer mine the sodium borate body consists 
of three borax beds separated by 30 to 40 feet of low- 
grade, borax-bearing shale. These beds dip at generally 
low angles but locally as much as 15°. The main Jenifer 
shaft was constructed by enlarging a 20-inch bore hole 
that connected with a drift extended from the West 
Baker mine workings. A service shaft was located about 
350 feet from the main shaft. The main level was at a 
depth of about 370 feet. The deeper portions of the mine 
were reached from the main winze, sunk 1,100 feet on 
a 20 percent grade from the vicinity of the two shafts. 

Mining was by a modified room and pillar method 
with 22-foot by 27-foot pillars oriented so that haulage 
paralleled the strike of the beds as closely as possible. 
A double-entry system was used with the fresh air course 
on the right and break-throughs at 100-foot intervals. 
Each borax bed was mined separately, leaving the low- 
grade material between the beds as horizontal pillars. 
Where stoping was carried out in two or more beds in 
the same area, the vertical pillars were superimposed. 

* Information obtained partly from a description by Dayton (1957); plant 
visited by writer October 1956. 



Table 4. Physical properties of rocks from the Jenifer mine* 



Group no. 


Apparent specific 
gravity 


Compressive strength 
(lbs./sq. in.) X 1000 


Modulus of rupture 
(lbs./sq. in.) X 1000 


Young's modulus 
(lbs./sq. in.)X 10 6 


Poisson's ratio 


68 1 


2.14 


6.4 


0.4 


0.61-1.69 




68 2 


1.74 


1.1 


0.1 


0.94-2.08 


0.26-0.42 


16&' 


1.72 


3.3 


0.3 


1.52-2.06 


0.20 



• Blair," 1956, p. 7, 51-52. 

1 Borax-clay mixture from below lower ore. 

2 Clear borax with thick coating or tincalconite from upper part of middle ore. 
8 Powdery tincalconite with borax and clay from lower part of upper ore. 



64 

Artificial support of the mine workings was not required 
except that roof bolts were used to hold up loose slabs. 

All mining was done with Joy continuous mining ma- 
chines which cut and loaded the ore in one operation. 
These machines, mounted on caterpillar tracks, had 440- 
volt alternating current motors and hydraulic controls. 
A cutting head in the front, that could be swung about 
both the vertical and horizontal axes, carried parallel 
chains fitted with many closely spaced tungsten-carbide- 
tipped teeth. In operation, the machine was crowded 
against the face; and as the cutter was raised, the teeth 
ripped borax from the wall. These machines made a 
heading 17 feet wide and 8 feet high; in thick ore as 
many as three cuts were taken, the uppermost first. About 
20,000 cubic feet of free air per minute were directed 
past the cutting head to pick up the dust formed and 
carry it into the return air course. 

Each mining machine was served by two Joy shuttle 
cars of 8 tons capacity that had four-wheeled steering 
and 250-volt direct-current motors supplied by trailing 
cables. They were unloaded by means of chain flight con- 
veyors in the bottom. One shuttle car stayed at the mining 
machine to serve as a temporary storage and surge bin, 
allowing the mining machine to operate continuously. 
The other shuttle car carried the broken ore a maximum 
of 500 to 600 feet to a transfer point. Ore from the 
upper workings was dropped by means of ore passes to 
a belt conveyor in an entry at a lower level, while shuttle 
cars in the lower workings discharged onto entry con- 
veyors. All broken ore was delivered to the main winze, 
which was equipped with a skip for handling men and 
materials and a belt conveyor for raising the ore to a bin 
near the shaft bottom. The winze conveyor, which was 
30 inches wide, was driven by a 100-horsepower motor 
and had a capacity of 350 tons per hour. The ore, after 
being reduced to minus 4 inches with a Pennsylvania 
single roll, toothed crusher, was automatically loaded 
into skips of approximately 5 tons capacity. The skips, 
which were in balance, were raised at the rate of 1,200 
feet per minute by a two-drum Nordberg hoist powered 
by a 500-horsepower motor. The hoist drums measured 
52 inches in width and 7 feet in diameter. 

West Baker Mine. Location: SE'/i sec. 14, T. 11 N., 
R. 8 W., S.B.M., about 4 miles northwest of Boron and 
in the western part of the sodium borate body. The West 
Baker mine, then called the Suckow mine, was opened in 
1929 by Dr. Suckow and was operated on a large scale 
from 1935, when the operation was taken over by Pacific 
Coast Borax Company, until 1953. 

In the West Baker mine, three borax beds totalling 
about 100 feet in thickness are separated by borax-bearing 
shale which was not mined. Borax is the only sodium 
borate mineral that has been reported. The borax and 
shale bt dip 6° to 8° N.E. The following is the log of 
the No. 1 shaft, located 750 feet east and 80 feet north 
of the south quarter corner of section 14 (Gale, 1946, p. 
360, fig. 3): 



[County Report 1 



f\ IOC ( , i- . 

U-185 ieet: 


Unconsolidated alluvial sediments 


iof inn fa*.*- 


Arkosic sandstone 


1\a)-zw ieet: 


Red clay 


ion f,.,<r ■ 

ztu-zyu reet. 


Green shale 


290-331 feet: 


Blue and green shale with nodules of colema- 




nite and ulexite 


ni.ng feet-- 

J J l J J O ltd. 


Crystalline borax 


;jo-;1/.j I cel. 


Blue clay 


347.5-384 feet: 


Crystalline borax with minor bands of hard 




shale 


384-405 feet: 


Hard shale with seams of borax and ulexite 


405-417 feet: 


Crystalline borax 


417-431 feet: 


Hard shale with some borax and ulexite. 



The mine was worked through a main three-compart- 
ment shaft 225 feet north of the No. 1 shaft. The main 
level was at 380 feet, and the parts of the mine that were 
deeper than this level were reached by an inclined winze. 

Boron Concentrator-Refinery * Location: sec. 23, T. 
1 1 N., R. 8 W., S.B.M., west of the Boron mine. The 
concentrator-refinery was constructed to process the ore 
from the Boron open pit. It combines the functions of 
the Boron mill which produced borate concentrates by a 
dry process, and of a large part of the refinery at Wil- 
mington, Los Angeles County, which produced refined 
borax, boric acid, and specialty products. The new plant, 
which went into production late in 1957, was designed to 
use ore of lower grade than could be handled previously, 
and it eliminates freight charges on the unprocessed ore 
that was formerly shipped to Wilmington for refining. 
The production of refined borax at Wilmington has been 
discontinued, but boric acid and specialty products are 
still made there. 

In the new refinery the process consists of dissolving 
the soluble fractions of the ore in water, removing the 
insoluble matter, and recovering borax by crystallization. 
Ore is trucked from the open pit to a primary crusher of 
the hammer-mill type that reduces it to minus 4 inches. 
A travelling stacker blends and stacks the coarse ore in 
a pile of 60,000 tons capacity over a reclaiming tunnel. 
The ore is then crushed to %-inch with an impact-type 
crusher in closed circuit with vibrating screens. Four 
elevated tanks provide storage for 4,000 tons of fine ore. 
The tanks are continuously sampled in order that the cor- 
rect proportion can be drawn from each and blended to 
furnish uniform feed for the dissolving plant. At the dis- 
solving plant, the ore is mixed with process end liquors 
and agitated in a series of tanks heated with steam. The 
borate minerals dissolve, and the larger fragments of in- 
soluble matter are removed with a vibrating screen. The 
strong borax liquor goes to four thickeners 230 feet in 
diameter, where most of the suspended solids are re- 
moved. Because the liquor must be kept hot, the thick- 
eners are insulated and provided with steel covers. The 
presence of the covers requires that the revolving blades 
be driven from the center instead of from the periphery. 
These are believed to be the largest center-drive thick- 

* Information obtained partly from a report by Dayton (1958, p. 47-49); 
plant visited by the writer October 1956. 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



1962] 



Kern— Borates 



65 



eners ever constructed. The insoluble sludge and the 
waste removed by screening are pumped to a tailings 
pond west of the plant. 

The overflow liquors from the thickeners are pumped 
to the granulating plant, which contains filters, crystal- 
lizers, centrifuges, and final product driers. Here the dif- 
ferent grades of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) 
and sodium tetraborate pentahydrate are produced. 

In the anhydrous borax plant, granulated borax is cal- 
cined in rotary kilns to remove part of the water of crys- 
tallization and then completely dehydrated by melting in 
furnaces. The fused borax, after flowing from the fur- 
naces, is cooled, crushed, and screened to specifications. 

Boron Mill* Location: northwest corner sec. 19, T. 
11 N., R. 7 W., S.B.M., adjacent to the main shaft of 
the Baker mine. A considerable part of the ore from the 
Baker, Jenifer, and West Baker mines was processed in 
the Boron mill and required no further treatment; the 
rest of the crude ore was shipped to the refinery at Wil- 
mington, where refined borax, boric acid, and specialty 
products including Boraxo were made. When the Boron 
concentrator-refinery came into full production late in 
1957, the Boron mill was closed. 

Because borax and kernite have very different physical 
properties, separate methods were required for treating 
them. In 1951, both the mill and the refinery were 
equipped to treat borax only, and no kernite was mined. 
The milling process consisted of magnetic separation to 
remove part of the slightly magnetic shale from the ore, 
followed by calcination to remove water of crystalliza- 
tion. Ore was first reduced and sized with hammer mills 
and rolls in closed circuit with Tyler hummer screens. 
The plus 35 mesh material then passed through a large 
number of high intensity Exolon magnetic separators of 
the induced-roll type that reduced the shale content of 
the ore to 4 or 5 percent. Magnetic separation was not 
applicable to the minus 35 mesh material, which was not 
treated in the dry mill. 

Some of the concentrate from the magnetic machines 
was sold, but most of it was calcined to pentahydrate 
borate (NaaB^^HoO) in direct-fired, countercurrent, 
rotary calciners. Much of the pentahydrate borate was 
sold for industrial and agricultural use. A product known 
as Rasorite Anhydrous was made by the fusing of con- 
centrates in furnaces. The resulting glass-like product 
was chilled, crushed, and ground. All dust-producing 
machines in the mill were enclosed. The dust was col- 
lected with a vacuum system and brought to a small plant 
where borax was recovered from it. 

During World War II a boric acid plant was con- 
structed at Boron. Here fines from the mill were dis- 
solved in hot process end liquor and treated in Dorr 
thickeners to remove insoluble matter. The clear borax 
liquor was then reacted with sulfuric acid, and boric acid 
crystals that formed were recovered. 

» Plant visited by the writer May 1951 and October 1956. 



Other Operations 

Mudd (Western) Mine* Location: Near center of 
sec. 24, T. 1 1 N., R. 8 W., S.B.M., approximately 3 miles 
northwest of Boron and on the south edge of the sodium 
borate body. Ownership: Seeley G. Mudd, Henry T. 
Mudd, Caryl M. Sprague, and George D. Dub, 523 W. 
6th St., Los Angeles 14, own the former Western mine 
property in the S'/j sec. 24, and leases from the Federal 
Government the 10-acre Little Placer in SW'/ 4 SW/ 4 
NE'/i sec. 24. The mine was developed by the Western 
Borax Company which produced 160,000 tons of sodium 
borates, mostly kernite, from 1927 to 1933 (Gale, 1946, 
p. 369). In 1954 the owners obtained a Federal lease on 
the adjoining Little Placer. This group has been exploring 
and developing the sodium borate body in the Little 
Placer from the old Western mine workings; but by mid- 
1959, production had not been achieved. 

The holdings contain a small part of the south margin 
of the sodium borate body. The old Western Borax 
Company property, the south half of section 24, lies 
south of the sodium borate body except for a strip ap- 
proximately 2,500 feet long and 200 to 300 feet wide 
(Gale, 1946, plate 52). Little Placer, so far as is known, 
is entirely within the sodium borate body. 

In the Mudd mine the ore forms a massive bed of 
sodium borate minerals 50 to 100 feet thick at an average 
depth of 1,000 feet beneath the surface. Crumpled shale 
containing scattered crystals and seams of the sodium 
calcium borate minerals, probertite and ulexite— enclose 
the sodium borate bed, and the shale in turn is enclosed 
in water-bearing granitic sand and conglomerate. The 
basalt present at depth elsewhere in the Kramer basin has 
not been found in the Mudd mine. The borate bed and 
the enclosing shale have been folded into an anticline, the 
axis of which plunges 10° to 15° northeast. The beds dip 
gently northeast except in the western part of the old 
mine workings where north and northwest dips were 
observed. To the south the borate bed lenses out 
abruptly. 

The sodium borate bed consists mostly of kernite, but 
borax forms an envelope 10 to 25 feet thick around the 
kernite. The contact between the kernite and the borax 
is gradational; and in the contact zone, masses of kernite 
have borax rims. In some areas the borate bed is nearly 
pure kernite, but in other areas it contains as much as 
25 percent shale in layers half an inch thick. Much of the 
kernite is in transparent crystal masses 6 inches to 2 feet 
long, but some of it is dark because of a small amount of 
included matter. Some ore that is rich in kernite consists 
of comparatively small crystals of kernite surrounded by 
clay films. 

Openings in the sodium borate body require no arti- 
ficial support, but openings in the associated shale and 
sand require comparatively heavy timbering. Although 
the sand is water-bearing, the shale that encloses the bor- 
ate body is impervious and keeps water away from the 
area. Any water that finds its way into the workings in 

* Information obtained partly from an article in Mining World (1955); plant 
visited by writer March 1957. 



66 



California Division of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Boron open pit 



Bor on ope r a t i on s 
(Baker, Boron 
open pit, Jenife 
Pacific Coast 
Borax Co. , 
Suckow mine, 
West Baker) 



Buckhorn Springs 
deposit 



Stuart Chevalier 



China Lake 
(Teagle-Church- 
hill Potash Co. 
deposit 



Cotton Ball 
(Desert Spri 
Kane Springs 
Koehn Lake) 
deposit 



Cuddy Canyon 



st, 



NW. cor. sec. 1 
TUN, R7W, SBM, 
Kramer borate d 
3 miles north of 
Boron (main shaft) 



SE. cor. sec. 24, 
TUN, R9W, SBM, 
Kramer borate dist, 
7 miles west-north 
west of Boron 

NE^SE^ sec. 18, 
TUN, R7W, SBM, 
Kramer borate 
dist. , 3h miles 
north of Boron 



SE^ sec. 19, TUN, 
R8W, SBM, Kramer 
borate dist. , bh 

es west-north- 
west of Boron 



NEk sec. 23, TUN, 
R8W, SBM, Kramer 
borate dist. , 4 

es northwest of 
Boron 

Sec. 17, SWh sec. 
18, S%SE% sec. 18, 
S^SS^SE^ sec. 18, 
:. 19, NW^i sec. 

20, TUN, R7W, 
SWh sec. 2, SEh 
sec. 3, sees. 11 , 
13, 14, 15, 16, 

21, 23, Nh sec. 24 
(except sw^sw^) , 
hlEh sec. 27, TUN 
R8W, SBM, Kramer 
borate dist. , 3 
miles north-north- 



Undetermined, 1958 



T9N, R9W , SBM, 
near south end of 
Rogers Dry Lake, 
25 miles southeast 
of Mojave 

SW*s sec. 35, T31S, 
R40E, MDM, 6 miles 
south of Randsbi 



Ridgecres 
Partly in 
Bernardin 



San 

) County 



Sec. 8, T30S, 
R38E, MDM, east 
end of Koehn Lake, 
near Gypsite 



Sees. 34, 35, T9N, 

R20W, SBM, on 

south side of 

Cuddy Cyn. 



est of 
Park 



ined, 1958 



ted States 
ax & Chemical 
Corp. , Pacific 
Coast Borax Co. 
Division, 630 
Shatto Place, 
Los Angeles 5 
(1958) 



Undetermined, 19 58 



Undetermined, 1958 



China Lake Naval 
Ordnance Test 
Station (1958) 



Estate of A. D. 
Daly, Lancaster 
(1958) 



Undetermined, 1958 



Two boreholes, 1,138 and 1,400 feet 
deep. Encountered lake beds but no 
borates . 



Three boreholes. No. 1 encountered 
gravel only. No. 2 encountered 
colemanite-bearing shale, 254-290 
feet, basalt at 299 feet. No. 3 en- 
countered colemanite-bearing shale , 
443-462 feet. 

Borehole; total depth 1063 feet. 

ountered unconsolidated sand 
and gravel, 0-576 feet; clayey, 
blue-green sediments, 576-711 feet; 
black basalt, 711-753 feet; brown- 
ish sandy shales and sands, 753- 

75 feet; greenish-gray tuffaceous 
beds, 875-930 feet; white to green- 
ish tuff, 930-983 feet; greenish to 

ay shale containing tuff and 
grading into scoriaceous basalt, 
983-1043 feet; black basalt. 



ates reported in e f f lore scent 



Borehole 1750 feet deep; cored 
below 735 feet. Encountered mixed 
volcanic sediments and decomposed 
granitic materials. In detail: 
light chocolate-brown sandstone 
and white ashy beds, 700-1000 feet; 
tile-red sandstone , grayish in 
places , including some greenish- 
gray tuff-like clay mixed with 
arkose or gritty sands of various 
colors, 1000-1260 feet; gray clay, 
arkosic beds, volcanic breccia, 
1260-1750 feet. 



ing 



2f flC 



Hexite cotton balls 1 to 3 inches 
.n diameter in efflorescent crust 
>f Koehn Lake . 



Gypsiferous-shale associated with 
basalt. Similar to the colemanite 
bearing beds in the Frazier Mt. 
borate district, Ventura County. 



See Boron operations in text. (Gale 
46:369; Schaller 36b; Tucker, Sampsc 
Oakeshott 49: 243) . 



Prospected by W. M. Balling and 
Associates, 1940 (Gale 46:375). 



Prospected by W. M. Balling. (Gale 
46:373) . 



Prospected in 1940. (Gale 46:339, 375). 



See Boron operations in text. (Wamsle 
57:60-62) . 



See text. (Gale 46; Mead 33; Pacific 
Coast Borax Co. 51; Schaller 29; 36; 
36b; Tucker 29: 77 ; Tucker , Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:241; Wamsley 57:60-62). 



(Bailey 02:50; Brown 16:477). 



(Gale 46:373) . 



Probably some production before 1895. 
In 1911 Teagle-Churchill Potash Co. 
located 5,792 acres and planned to 
produce borax and potash from brine 
pumped from wells. (Bailey 02:50; 
Brown 16:477; Gale 15:269). 

Discovered 1873 by H. G. Lent. Probably 
some production before 1890 . About 
car 1 oads hand picked and shipped by 
C. A. Koehn, 1898-1929. (Bailey 02:50; 
Brown 16:477; Dibblee, Gay 52:45-46, 
55t; Hanks 83, pt. 2:29) . 

Prospected with pits and shafts. No 
record of production. See also under 
Gypsum. (Gale 14:455). 



See Cotton Ball (Hanks 83, pt . 2:29). 



1962] 



Kern— Borates 



nilUTRS. com- 



Map 

No 


Name of c/a/m, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




El Paso Wells 
prospect 


Reported in T28S, 
R40E, MDM, 12 
miles north of 
Randsburg (1902) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958 


Borates reported in efflorescent 
crust. 


(Bailey 02:51) . 


26 


Four Corners 2 


Near N*s cor . sec. 
5, T10N, R8W, SBM, 
south of Kramer 
borate dist. , 5*5 
miles west of 
Boron 


Edwards Air Force 
Base (1958) 


Borehole. Encountered sand, 0-100 
feet; clay and silt, 100-536 feet: 
fine to coarse sand, silt and clay, 
some pebble gravel, 536-1202 feet; 
gravel of granitic and volcanic 
material, sand and silt, 1202-1679 
feet; greenish gray arkosic sand, 
minor silt and clay with dip 15°- 
20° , 1679-1913 feet ; sand , some 
granitic cobbles, 1913-2328 feet. 
No borates or lake beds found. 


Drilled in 1955 and deepened in 1957 
by U. S. Geol. Survey (Benda, Erd, 
Smith 57; Dickey 57). 




Indian Springs 
prospect 


Reported in T26S, 
R38E, MDM, west 
side of Indian 
Wells Valley 
(formerly Salt 
Wells Valley) , 3 
miles northwest of 
Inyokern (1916) r 
not confirmed , 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958 


Borates reported in efflorescent 
crust. 


Bailey 02:50; Brown 16:477). 


29 


Jeni f er mine 

Kane Springs 
Koehn Lake 


Main shaft near 
east edge NE*3 sec. 
23, TllN, R8W, SBM, 
Kramer borate 
dist. , 3*5 miles 
northwest of 
Boron 






See Boron operations in text. (Dayton 
57) . 

See Cotton Ball (Bailey 02:50; Brown 
16; 477) . 

See Cotton Ball. 


30 


Kohler 


NE*s sec. 20, TllN, 
R8N, SBM, Kramer 
borate dist. , 5*5 
miles west-north- 
west of Boron 


Undetermined, 1958 


Three boreholes in a SE. line, 500 
feet apart. Top of Saddleback 
basalt found in No. 1 at 257 feet; 
in No. 2 at 335 feet; in No. 3 at 
240 feet. Lake beds overlie the 
basalt. No borates found. 


Prospected in 1924 and 1925. (Gale 
26:457; 46:374) . ■ 


31 


Leopold 

Little Placer 
claim 


Sec. 24, TllN, 
R9W , SBM , Kramer 
borate dist. 8 
miles west north- 
west of Boron 


Undetermined, 1958 


Two boreholes. No. 1 encountered 
basaltic mud with a few specks of 
ulexite, 693-702 feet; total depth 
900 feet. No. 2 encountered sands 
with interbedded shale, 0-625 feet; 
bluish bentonitic clay and some 
sand, 625-678 feet, with sample 
containing 1.75 percent B2O3 at 
640 feet; hard basaltic lava, 679— 
692 feet; chiefly sands, 692-955 
feet. Total depth, 955 feet. No 
sodium borates found. 


Prospected in 1935 and 1936. Addi- 

by Victory Associates, Los Angeles. 
(Gale 46:374) . 

See Mudd mine in text. 


32 




Sec. 8, TllN, 
R7W, sees. 1, 12, 
TllN, R8W, SBM, 
Kramer borate 
dist. , 4 miles 
north of Boron 


Joseph McGinty 
(1955) 


Five to 10 boreholes . Encountered 
500 to 600 feet of unconsolidated 
sand and gravel underlain by the 
Saddleback basalt. No borates 
found . 


(Gale 46 : 373) . 


33 


Mudd (Little 
Placer, Western) 
mine 


Main shaft near 
center sec. 24 , 
TllN, R8W, SBM, 
Kramer borate 
dist. 2*5 miles 
northwest of 
Boron 






See text. (Gale 46:363; Schaller 36b; 
Tucker 29:80) . 


34 


Pacific Alkali 
Co. 

Pacific Coast 
Borax Co. 
holdings 


NE*a sec. 18, TllN, 
R7W, SBM, Kramer 
borate dist. 3*s 
miles north of 
Boron 


Arthur S. Crites , 
et al. (1955) 


Two boreholes; total depths 855 feet 
and 940 feet. Encountered gravel- 
bearing alluvial sediments over- 
lying thin-bedded, pinkish lime- 
stone, tuffaceous silt, and clay. 
No borates found. 


(Gale 46:373) . 

See Boron operations in text. (Tucker 
29:77) . 


35 


Russell I 


NE corner sec. 21, 
TllN, R8W, SBM, 
Kramer borate 
dist. 5 miles 
northwest of 
Boron 


U. S. Borax & 
Chemical Corp. , 
630 Shatto Place, 
Los Angeles 5 
(1958) 


Borehole. Encountered green shale 
at 120 feet; showing of colemanite, 
160-180 feet. 


An early test boring. (Gale 26:457). 



68 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


L oc a t ion 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Ge o lo gy 


Re m arks and references 


36 


Russell II 


S&k sec. IS, NisNWJs 


Arthur S. Crites 


At least 7 boreholes. Encountered 


(Gale 46: 372) . 






sec 18 E^SE'sNW'^ 


et al . (1955) 


colemanite earing a e e s. 








sec. 18^ TUN, R7W 












SBM, Kramer borate 












dist. 4 miles nortt 












of Boron 








37 


Slosser shaft 


Near center NE% 


U. S. Borax & 


Prospect shaft. Encountered cal- 


Early prospect of Pacific Coast Borax 






sec. 22, TUN, 


Chemical Corp. , 


cium borate minerals in a bed 10 


Co. (Gale 26:456; Noble 26). 






R8W, SBM, Kramer 


630 Shatto Place, 


to 14 feet thick at 110 feet and 












resting on vesicular basalt. 








miles northwest 


(1958) 9 










of Boron 








38 


Suckow coleman- 


South edge NE>s 


U. S. Borax and 


Log of shaft : Sand , gravel , and 


Shaft sunk by J. K. Suckow, 1924. A 




ite mine {Suckow 


sec. 22, TUN, 


Chemical Corp. , 


boulders, 0-105 feet; "green" shale 


small production of colemanite, 1925. 




shaft No. 2) 


R8W, SBM, Kramer 


630 Shatto Place, 


105-170 feet; arkosic sandstone and 


(Gale 26:457; 46:371; Noble 26; 






borate dist. , 4 


Los Angeles (1958) 


conglomerate, 170-210 feet; dark 


Schaller 36b) . 






miles northwest of 




shale with lenses and masses of 












colemanite 210-280 feet" basalt 












280-310 feet. Total depth, 330 












feet. 




39 


Suckow discovery 


Near center NW^g 


U. S. Borax & 


Partial log of well: dark putty- 


Colemanite discovered October 1913 in 




well and shaft 


sec 22 Tl 1 N 




like clay 190—331 feet* blue shale 


water well sunk by J K Suckow Shaft 






R8W, SBM, Kramer 


630 Shatto Place, 


331-369 feet; colemanite, 369-410 


sunk near by did not reach the borate- 






borate dist. , 4*s 


Los Angeles 5 


feet; blue shale, 410-435 feet; 


bearing horizon. (Gale 26:453; 46:371; 






miles northwest 


(1958) 


"gypsum", 435-445 feet; rock form- 


Noble 26) . 






of Boron 




ation (basalt), 445-450 feet. 












Shaft encountered "green shale." 












Depth of shaft, 200 feet. 






Suckow mine 








See Boron operations in text. Called 












West Baker mine 1935 and after. 












(Gale 46 : 361 ■ Mead 33 * Schaller 36b ; 












Tucker 29:79) . 




Su ckow sha ft 


Near center NE^ 


U. S Borax and 


Encountered basalt at 180 feet. No 


Prospect sha ft sunk 1924 by J . K. 




No. 1 


sec. 22, TUN, 


Chemical Corp. , 


borates found. 


Suckow. (Gale 26:457; Noble 26). 






R8W, SBM, Kramer 


630 Shatto Place, 










borate dist., 4 


Los Angeles 5, 










miles northwest 


(1958) 










of Boron 










Suckow shaft 








See Suckow colemanite mine. (Gale 26: 




No. 2 








457; Noble 26; Schaller 36b). 




Teagle-Chur chill 








. 

See China Lake (Brown 16:477). 




Potash Co. 












Ulexite shaft 


NEij sec. 22 , TUN, 


U. S. Borax & 


Encountered ulex i te at 110 feet. 


Early pr ospect of Pacific Coast 






R8W, SBM, Kramer 


Chemical Corp. , 


Total depth, 120 feet. A nearby 


Borax Co. (Gale 26:456; Noble 26). 






borate dist. , 4 


630 Shatto Place, 


borehole encountered basalt at 








miles n or thwe s t 


Los Angeles 5 


190 feet. 








of Boron 


(1958) 






40 


West Baker mine 


Main shaft in SW^ 






See Boron operations. Called Suckow 






SE^s sec. 14, TUN, 






mine before 1935. (Tucker, Sampson, 






R8W , SBM, Kramer 






Oakeshott 49:244) . 






borate dist. , 3h 












miles northwest 












of Boron 










Western mine 








See Mudd mine in text. (Gale 46:363; 












Schaller 36b; Tucker 29:80). 



the borate body is likely to soften the shale and contrib- 
ute to caving. 

Most of the old Western Borax Company workings 
(Gale, 1946, plate 55) were driven from the No. 1 shaft, 
which was sunk south of the borate body. A single sta- 
tion was established at a depth of 856 feet from which 
a crosscut extends northeast through the gently north- 
east-dipping footwall of the borate body and almost to 
the north boundary of the property. The workings 
driven east and west from this crosscut comprise B level. 
The workings above B level are called A level and are 
connected with B level by a number of raises. Both east 
and west of the crosscut, the footwall gradually passes 
below B level and is followed by winzes. No. 3 winze 
was driven eastward about 650 feet, and at its east end 
it is 110 feet below B level. C level, at 900 feet below the 
surface, and D level, at 952 feet are lower levels that con- 
nect with No. 3 winze. D level is connected by a long 
crosscut with No. 3 shaft, which the Western Borax 
Company us. I as an auxiliary shaft. Ore was removed 



by open stoping, and casual pillars were left for support. 
About 50 percent recovery was realized. When the 
owners reopened the mine, most of the old workings 
were in good condition except that some of the stopes 
driven from No. 3 winze had caved, allowing water to 
enter the mine. 

In order to develop ore in the Little Placer, the owners 
have rehabilitated the No. 1 shaft to serve as an auxiliary 
shaft, and the No. 3 shaft was equipped with a steel head 
frame, ore bin, 300-horsepower Nordberg hoist, and a 
3-ton Kimberly skip and cage balanced with a counter 
weight. No. 3 shaft was deepened 200 feet, and E level 
was established at about 1,140 feet. A crosscut has been 
driven northeast to the footwall of the borate body near 
the southeast corner of Little Placer and thence north to 
the northeast corner of the property. A winze from the 
938-foot level in the old workings follows the hanging 
wall along the west side of Little Placer and connects 
with a raise from the north end of the E level crosscut. 
All blast holes were made with hammer drills. 



1962] 



Kern— Clay 



69 



Cement (See Limestone, Dolomite, and Cement) 
Clay 

By George B. Cleveland 



Bentonite, oil-well drilling mud, and kaolinite are the 
three principal types of clay found in Kern County. 
Drilling mud is not a true clay but consists mainly of 
silt- and clay-size particles of detrital minerals and rocks, 
and is often considered a bentonite. 

Probably more bentonite, especially the variety fullers 
earth, has been mined in Kern County than any other 
type of clay. Mining of bentonite began in the early 
1900s, but the greatest activity was during the period 
between the late 1920s and 1945; little has been mined 
in recent years. Dry lakes in Kern County have yielded 
many hundreds of thousands of tons of oil-well drilling 
mud. This clay material was vigorously mined during 
the 1940s and until about 1954. In 1948 the Federal gov- 
ernment began acquiring the dry lake areas for military 
sites. By 1954, all the larger lakes were within military 
reservations and mining in them had ceased. A few sig- 
nificant deposits of kaolinite occur in the county and 
one of them, the White Rock mine, has been continu- 
ously operated since about 1930. Common clays, suitable 
for making structural clay products, occur in alluvial 
deposits in the San Joaquin Valley and have been mined 
along the Kern River near Bakersfield. In early 1959 
five clay deposits were being mined in Kern County. Of 
these, one was a bentonite deposit (Amargo); one a 
bentonite-like deposit (Excel Mineral Company); one a 
common clay deposit (Tehachapi Lake) one a drilling- 
mud deposit (McKittrick Mud Company) and one a 
kaolinite deposit (White Rock). 



The yearly production records of clay and clay prod- 
ucts in Kern County are incomplete, but the available 
figures are shown in table 5. 

The principal deposits of clay lie in the eastern part 
of Kern County (fig. 28). The deposits are centered 
mainly near Rosamond, Tehachapi, and in El Paso Moun- 
tains. Most of the bentonite occurs in El Paso Mountains 
and northeast of Tehachapi and northwest of Boron. 
The kaolinite deposits lie in two small areas; one area is 
west of Rosamond and the other area is in Jawbone 
Canyon. The principal dry lake deposits are directly east 
of Rosamond. 

The bentonite in El Paso Mountains occurs in a pre- 
dominantly clastic sequence of rocks of Pliocene age 
(fig. 29). The other bentonite deposits are nearly all 
associated with volcanic flows and tuffs of Miocene? 
age. The kaolinite deposits also are closely associated with 
volcanic rocks of Miocene? age. Some of the deposits 
occur as alteration zones around metalliferous veins and 
along the borders of acid intrusive plugs. The dry lake 
muds and the common clays are of Recent age. 

In general, the bentonitic clay deposits are moderately 
deformed, with dips averaging between 20 and 30 de- 
grees. These deposits are in beds only a few feet thick 
but some exceed 80 feet. Although these beds may have 
relatively steep dips they often can be traced for hun- 
dreds of. yards. For example, the main bentonite bed 
in the Ricardo formation crops out discontinuously for 



BAKERSFIELD® ' 



O IsobeMo 



O Mojove 



Figure 28. Distribution of clay deposits in Kern County. 



70 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Table 5. Production of clay and clay products in Kern County, 1891-1951. 
(From Division of Mines reports and Division of Mines— U .S. Bureau of Mines Cooperative "Program.) 



Bricks 


Clay* 


Fullers earth 


Year 


Thousands! 


Value 


Tons 


Value 


Tons 


Value 


1897 


1100 


26,600 










1898 


2000 


14,000 










1899 


1600 


11,400 






620 


312,400 


1900 


2525 


17,300 






500 


3,750 


1901 


4600 


23,400 






100 


19,500 


1902 


3500 


24,500 






987 


19,246 


1903 


9000 


30,000 






250 


4,750 


1904 


700 


4,900 






500 


9,500 


1905 


750 


6,000 


53 


354 




1906 - 


4275 


34,200 


215 


752 






1907 


2168 


18,428 










1908 


2080 


19,552 










1909. 


3365 


29,634 






359 


5,385 


1910 


8332 


63,711 


242 


121 




1911 


5603 


41,426 










1912 


1890 


23,120 










1913 


1625 


22,000 


208 


104 






1914 


3834 


29,214 


346 


172 






1915 








c 


■ 




1916 


3177 


23,824 




c 






1917 




22,785' 




c 






1918 


1678 


16,380 










1919 


1709 


175,112 2 










1920 


3850 


56,550 










1921 


5840 


85,820 










1922__ 


5082 


66,652 










1923 


5271 


68,375 










1924 


and clay 


23,058 










1925 


c 




c 






1926 


4591 


55,140 










1927 


4835 


50,438 




c 






1928 


2126 


30,791 




c 






1929 


3503 


44,681 


58,551 


85,845 






1930 




c 


371,123 


117,8342 






1931 




c 


27,499 


46,668 






1932 




c 


14,770 


22,871 






1933 




c 




c 






1934 




c 


19,526 


30,142 






1935 . 




c 




c 






1936 . 




c 




c 






1937 




c 


42,628 


130,482 






1938 




c 


38,910 


64,821 






1939 _ 




c 


23,213 


32,373 






1940 




c 




c 






1941 




c 


69,671 


242,547 






1942 . , 




c 


71,172 


118,694 






1943 




c 


96,619 


261,243 






1944# 






152,237 


522,711 s 






1945 






168,925 


711,676 






1946 .:. 






177,960 


544,841 3 






1947 






213,475 


746,372 






1948 






215,953 


768,280 






1949 






202,509 


699,635 






1950 






93,026 


524,084 






1951 






96,280 


70O,62O 4 






1952 






122,406 


831,901 






1953 ___ __ 






68,324 


599,704 






1954 






46,266 


433,994 






1955 






46,315 


456,115 






1956 






49,596 


208,016 






1957 






44,300 


268,437 







* May include opinion clay or oil-well drilling mud or both. 1 Fullers earth not included. 

t Four tons of clay will make about 1,000 standard bricks. c Combined with other mineral commodities. 

1 Includes tile Jt After 1943 clay and fullers earth production figures were not shown separately. 

2 Value reported ap( unreasonable. Values indicated include all three categories. 

3 Bentonite not inclut. 




at least 18 miles. The kaolin deposits are irregular and 
relatively small. The dry lake deposits are flat lying and 
generally less than 5 feet thick, but cover areas of sev- 
eral square miles. 

Types of Clay 

Bentonite. The development of the petroleum in- 
dustry created a substantial market for clay. This in- 
dustry, formerly used large quantities of clay mined in 
Kern County as an adsorbent in refining petroleum prod- 
ucts. The availability of higher-grade clay, obtained else- 
where, has' caused the mining of adsorbent clay in Kern 
County to nearly cease. The Filtrol deposit near Tehach- 
api, which was one of the most productive sources of 
adsorbent clay, has been idle since 1936. 

Rogers (Muroc), Buckhorn, and Rosamond dry lakes, 
east of Rosamond, have yielded nearly all of the drilling 
mud mined in Kern County. These areas are now within 
the boundaries of Federal military reservations and min- 
ing is prohibited in them. Immediately prior to the ac- 
cession of these lake basins for military sites, the gov- 
ernment allowed operators to stockpile several hundred 
thousand tons of clay. These stockpiles are still adequate 
for many more years at the rate of consumption in 1958, 
and new sources of material were not being sought in 
1958. The principal deterrent to the future use of these 
materials however, lies in the growing competition from 
other so called "drilling mud chemicals." 

The dry lake deposits and the stockpiles of clay are 
located near the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe Railroads 
and are marketed mainly in the southern San Joaquin 
Valley. Large quantities of clay are also transported 
south to the Los Angeles basin, but here sources in the 
Wilmington area supply part of the market. The Ven- 



tura County oil fields are also supplied from the Kern 
County deposits. 

Barite and clay are mixed by drilling-mud producers 
to control density. Barite for this purpose is mined in 
Nine Mile Canyon in southeastern Tulare County and 
near Barstow in San Bernardino County. 

The relatively long distance that the dry lake muds 
must be transported to the southern San Joaquin Valley 
gives some advantage to other lake deposits situated 
closer to the valley market. Deposits in western Kern 
County are smaller and occur in depressions along the 
west side of San Joaquin Valley near McKittrick. Al- 
though they supply only a small part of the local market, 
the desirable properties of these clays are such that, until 
1956, they were marketed for drilling mud as far away 
as Texas. These clays are also suitable for sealing reser- 
voirs and ditches and a small tonnage is sold annually for 
this purpose. 

Other bentonitic clays in the county have been used as 
fillers in hard rubber and soap products and as an adsor- 
bent of grease in commercial laundries. 

Kaolinite. Generally, the kaolinite deposits in Kern 
County do not compare in size or purity with the high- 
grade fire clays that occur in the lone or Silverado for- 
mations elsewhere in California. However, thousands of 
tons have been used in dinnerware, artware, and pottery 
and sold for minor uses in the Los Angeles area. The 
distance from market, the size and irregular shape of the 
deposits, and the generally impure grade of most of the 
material has restricted the mining of these clays. 

The growth of the petroleum and agricultural indus- 
tries in the southern San Joaquin Valley has created a 
market for structural clay products, especially in the 



72 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Bakersfield area where Kern County's only brickyard is 
located. This market is supplied to a minor extent by 
brick producers in Tulare and Los Angeles Counties. 

Future Sources 

Future sources of clay material suitable for drilling 
mud may be found in other dry lakes near those which 
have already been exploited and in smaller structural de- 
pressions along the Garlock and El Paso fault zones. The 
latter occur at Goler (Mingus deposit) and along U. S. 
Highway 6, one mile northeast of Cinco. A slightly swell- 
ing bentonite occurs in the tuffaceous beds exposed on 
the east side of Redrock Canyon about one mile north 
of its mouth. Thick and rather steeply dipping beds of 
bentonite occur interstratified with magnesite beds south- 
east of Mojave (see description of Bissell deposit in mag- 
nesite section). Dibblee (1952, p. 22) mentions several 
reddish colored clay beds in the Goler formation. This 
formation, which is Paleocene in age (McKenna, 1955, 
p. 514) is exposed in the central part of El Paso Moun- 
tains. These clays are associated with coal; the clay-coal 
association and the Paleocene age of the formation are 
characteristics of fire clay deposits elsewhere in Califor- 
nia. The nature of the clay beds in El Paso Mountains 
and their volume, however, are not yet determined. 
Rhyolite plugs, which are associated with the known 
kaolin deposits, occur in several areas in the county and 
bear closer inspection as future sources of this type of 
clay. The most promising area would be in Jawbone 
Canyon, south and west of the present productive area. 



Figure 30. Geologic sketch of the Amargo clay deposit. 




Amargo Bentonite Deposit (Vannray Claim). Loca- 
tion: N/ 2 NE'/ 4 sec. 26, T. 11 N., R. 8 W., S.B.M., about 
3 miles northwest of Boron and south of the Kramer 
borate mines. Ownership: Charles J. Roycroft, P.O. Box 
211, Boron. The property comprises 160 acres and is held 
by an association claim. 

The Amargo deposit was opened in 1939 by Kennedy 
Minerals Co. of Los Angeles who leased the property 
through 1941. These and later intermittent operations" 
have yielded about 6,000 tons of clay. 

A poorly exposed bentonite bed, about 20 feet thick, 
occurs in a lake-bed unit that apparently can be cor- 
related with the Mio-Pliocene? Tropico group that is 
exposed in the vicinity of the Kramer borate mines (Dib- 
blee, 1958, p. 139). The bentonite is underlain by a pale- 
gray, hard siliceous shale and overlain by other shales and 
2 to 3 feet of soil. The bed is poorly exposed for a dis- 
tance of about 150 feet. The clay is greenish-gray, sandy, 
and swells slightly when immersed in water. It contains 
minor amounts of carnotite, opal, and iron and man- 
ganese oxides as coatings on, shear planes (Walker and 
others, 1956, p. 19). The beds strike about N. 30° E. and 
dip 55° NW. and appear to be cut off by a fault on the 
north end of the deposit (fig. 30). 

The mine has been developed by an irregular pit that 
is about 150 feet long and as much as 15 feet deep. Both 
bulldozer and dragline have been used to mine the clay. 

The clay has been sold mostly to the laundry industry 
as a grease adsorbent. For this purpose soda ash was 
added to increase the cleansing properties of the clay. 
Most of the clay was sold in the Los Angeles area at 
$5.00 to $7.50 per ton. Bentonite from Utah has now 
replaced the Amargo material in this use. In recent years 
the clay has been sold only for reservoir lining at about 
$1.00 per ton, plus mining and loading costs. Small 
amounts are sold in the western Mojave Desert and some 
is marketed in Los Angeles. 

Because the deposit is poorly exposed, no estimate can 
be made of the total reserves. At least, several thousands 
of tons could probably be mined south of the present 
workings, where the deposit is covered by a thin mantle 
of soil. 

Bakersfield Sandstone Brick Company. Location: 315 
East 18th Street, Bakersfield. Ownership: Bakersfield 
Sandstone Brick Company. The property comprises sev- 
eral acres of patented land. 

The first plant on this site was built in 1886 by James 
Kurran who -utilized alluvial clay material, quarried on 
the property, to make bricks. The total production of 
clay from the property was not determined by the writer 
but in recent years about 500,000 bricks per year have 
been produced. No bricks were produced in 1958. 

Clay materia] is no longer mined on the property but 
is purchased on a contract basis and hauled to the plant 
from deposits east of the city. 

The bricks are made by the old sand-mold process. The 
clay material is dumped into a hopper from which it is 
fed into a trommel at a uniform rate. The trommel re- 



1962] 



Kern— Clay 



73 



moves any large rock fragments. Clay material from the 
trommel is reduced to a uniform size in a hammer mill, 
pugged with water, and fed into a press. The press forces 
the soft mud into a wooden mold which has a capacity 
of six bricks. The mold is lined with fine sand which 
prevents the bricks from sticking. After the mold is 
filled it is struck by mechanical hammers which jar the 
bricks out of the mold on to a moving belt. Fourteen 
molds are used in a closed circuit. The bricks are stacked 
on wooden pallets and dried in the sun for about a week. 
The green bricks are then fired in field kilns for about 
8 days. The finished bricks are somewhat pale in color 
and not as hard as those produced by the extrusion proc- 
ess. The plant has a capacity of 35,000 bricks per day. 
In early 1959, standard bricks were sold for 140 per 
thousand. 

The principal market area is in western Kern County 
although bricks have been sold in Santa Barbara, Fresno, 
and Los Angeles. 

Excel Mineral Company Mine* Location: NEV4 sec. 
5 and NW>/ 4 sec. 4, T. 30 S., R. 21 E., M.D.M., about 7 
miles northwest of McKittrick. Ownership: R. H. An- 
derson Inc., Bakersfield owns 1,300 acres of patented 
land; leased by Excel Mineral Company, 3461 East 26th 
Street, Los Angeles. 

The Excel Mineral Company mine, which has been 
operated since about 1942 has yielded an estimated total 
of 35,000 tons of clay shale through 1958. 

The deposit consists of poorly bedded white to pale 
gray tuffaceous shale at least 200 feet thick. This bed 
occurs as part of a thick succession of similar shale beds 
of middle Miocene Maricopa shale (English, 1921) which 
locally contains lentils of brownish-yellow dolomitic 
limestone. The Maricopa shale dips steeply to the north- 
east in the mine area and extends several miles farther 
northwest and southeast from the mine. The quarried 
material is hard, fine grained, and exhibits strong adsorp- 
tive properties. It is composed mainly of altered tuffa- 
ceous particles, which are now largely sericite, and minor 
amounts of quartz. 

The material is mined by open pit methods. It is trans- 
ported in 12-cubic yard trucks to a nearby plant where 
it is stockpiled and' allowed to dry. After drying it is 
crushed in a hammer mill and passed over vibrating 
screens which size the material to minus 8 and plus 35 
mesh. It is then kiln dried and bagged. The capacity of 
the plant is estimated to be 8,400 tons per year. The 
minus 8 to plus 35 fraction is sold to machine, aircraft, 
and other heavy industries as an oil adsorbent for floor 
sweepings; it is also marketed for general household pur- 
poses. The fines which pass the 35 mesh screen are sold 
for insecticide carriers and other special uses. 

Filtrol Bentonite Deposit (Filtrol Company's Clay De- 
posit; Filtrol Fullers Earth Deposit). Location: sec. 2, 
T. 32 S., R. 34 E., and sec. 34, T. 31 S., R. 34 E., M.D.M., 
about 9 miles northeast of Tehachapi. Ownership: Fil- 

* The information on this mine was provided by Earl W. Hart and Frederic 
R. Kelley. 1957. 



trol Corp., 3250 East Washington Blvd., Los Angeles. 
The property comprises 1,280 acres. 

The Filtrol bentonite deposit was. discovered by 
William Cuddeback, of Monolith, in 1927 and was leased 
to the Filtrol Corp. the same year. Mining began imme- 
diately (Tucker, 1929 p. 66) and continued until 1936 
but has been inactive since that time. Total production 
from the deposit is undetermined. 

The deposit is a claystone layer exposed on the east 
wall of a narrow canyon. It is part of the Kinnick for- 
mation which consists predominantly of volcanic rocks, 
and is of Miocene age. This formation crops out over 
an area of about 25 square miles (Buwalda, 1954, p. 134). 
The claystone is a small layer about 7 feet thick inter- 
calated with tuffaceous shales, mudstone, and tuff and 
overlain by andesite (?) flows. These beds dip gently 
southwest and strike about N. 50° W. The clay crops 
out for several hundred feet along the strike. The ma- 
terial is grayish-white, coarse grained, and breaks with 
an irregular fracture. It is composed principally of fresh 
volcanic ash partly altered to montmorillonite. It also 
contains angular fragments of sanidine, plagioclase feld- 
spar, hornblende, chlorite and a zeolite. The material is 
a non-swelling, naturally active, but not activatable ben- 
tonite (Kerr and Cameron, 1936) (table 6). 



Table 6. Chemical analysis of the Filtrol clay* 





Percent 




Percent 


SiOa 


53.88 


K*0 


0.39 


Al=Oa 


11.66 


Xa=0 


... 0.15 


FeO+Fe=0» 


4.60 


P=05 


0.16 


MnO 


0.18 


COa, SO,, ZrO* 


none 


CaO 


1.56 


H=0" 


8.21 


MgO 


8.61 


ILO* 


9.98 


TiO* 


0.44 












99.82 


* From Kerr and Cameron (1936). 







McKittrick Mud Co. ( Midway Mud Co.) Mine. Lo- 
cation: NE'/JSE'/J sec. 14 and NW'/ 4 SW'/ 4 sec. 13, T. 
30 S., R. 21 E., M.D.M., about 3 miles west of AlcKit- 
trick. Ownership: Shell Oil Company owns about 320 
acres of patented land; leased by William A. Wheeler, 
P.O. Box 356, McKittrick. 

The deposit at the McKittrick Mud Company was 
opened about 1938. Total production is undetermined. 

The deposit consists of horizontal layers of pale green- 
ish gray mudstone, about 18 feet thick. It is overlain by 
a pale brownish gray mudstone, about 8 feet thick. The 
mudstone has accumulated in a small depression, appar- 
ently a sag pond along an east-trending fault. It overlies 
shale and loose rock and is overlain by about one foot 
of soil. The operators refer to the lower mudstone as the 
"light clay", and the upper as the "heavy clay". The 
mudstone swells slightly and probably contains some 
bentonite. Gypsum is also present and may have been 
deposited by a sulfurous spring near the west end of the 
deposit. The beds gradually thicken from west to east. 
The clay was derived by erosion of surrounding rrurine 
formations, which are Miocene in age. Seasonal rains 
supply minor amounts of clay to the basin. Throughout 



74 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



the year the lowest part of the pit is filled with water. 
The operators state, however, that after an earthquake in 
recent years the lake drained within a few days and re- 
mained dry for two years. The deposit is probably 
Recent in age as at a depth of about 20 feet the operators 
state that a kitchen midden was uncovered. 

The clay material has been mined from a pit about 
1,800 feet long, 250 feet wide, and as deep as 40 feet. 
Mining is done during the summer months on a contract 
basis. The material is moved by bulldozer and scraper to 
the plant near the east end of the deposit where it is 
stockpiled according to grade. Three grades are recog- 
nized: (1) "heavy clay," which yields 80 to 82 pound- 
per-barrel mud; (2) "light clay," which yields 70 to 72 
pound-per-barrel mud; and (3) "salt" clay which is of 
a much lower grade. The material is dried, reduced to 
about 1 mm or less in a hammer mill, and then passed 
over a 10-mesh screen. Part of the material is bagged; 
the other part is sold in bulk lots. The mill is operated 
throughout the year and is capable of yielding 12 tons 
of "heavy" or 6 tons of "light clay" per hour. Annual 
production amounts to about 6,000 tons. The clay is sold 
locally for $10 per ton in bulk and $15 per ton in sacks 
(October, 1958). Most of the material is used as a base for 
oil well drilling mud and is said by the operators to be 
suitable for shutting off gas. Infrequently, small tonnages 
are sold for lining reservoirs and irrigation ditches. It is 
marketed for, this purpose mainly in the southern San 
Joaquin Valley agricultural area, but has been shipped as 
far north as Watsonville in Santa Cruz County. Prior to 
1956 a significant quantity of this clay was marketed in 
Texas to the Magnet Cove Barium Corp., who sold it 
for drilling mud. The freight rate was $14.80 per ton. 

As the reserves of this deposit are limited the company 
plans to develop a deposit about three quarters of a mile 
to the west which contains an estimated 20,000 tons of 
suitable clay material. 

Muroc Clay Deposit (Bager Placer Claim). Location: 
S!/ 2 SE'/ 4 and SE'/aSW 1 /. sec. 3, and SW'/ 4 SW'/ 4 sec. 2, 
T. 11 N., R. 9 W., S.B.M. (proj.) about 21 miles east 
of Mojave. Ownership: W. Herbert Allen, Title Insur- 
ance and Trust Company, 433 South Spring St., Los An- 
geles. Leased by Sunray Mid-Continent Oil Company, 
714 West Olympic Blvd., Los Angeles. The property 
comprises 160 acres and is a patented placer claim. 

The Muroc clay deposit was first developed by Wil- 
liam H. Allen Jr., who purchased it for $25,000 about 
1928. The mine was operated nearly continuously until 
about 1945. Only a small tonnage of clay was mined 
during the 1940s and the mine has been idle since 1945. 
The total production is estimated to be about 40,000 tons 
(W. Herbert Allen, personal communication, 1958). 

The ( lay deposit is exposed on the west, east, and 
north s of a low hill near its base. The clay occurs as 
a single r intercalated in a series of lacustrine sedi- 
ments and capped by basalt. This series is Miocene? 
in age and is included in the lower part of the Tropico 
group which also crops out in the Castle Butte area about 



5 miles northwest of the Muroc deposit (Dibblee, 1958, 
p. 139). The strata exposed at Castle Butte have an aggre- 
gate thickness of 1,445 feet and consist principally of 
lithic tuff, limestone, clay shale, arkosic sandstone, and 
basalt. Dibblee assigns all beds below the basalt to the 
lower part of the Tropico group. At the Muroc mine 
only tuff, clay, and basalt are exposed. 

The clay layer is about 6 feet thick and is exposed for 
about 400 yards along the strike. It overlies a tuff unit 
that has an exposed thickness of about 30 feet. The clay 
is overlain by about 35 feet of tuff, swelling bentonite, 
and ash, and about 10 feet of basalt. The beds dip gener- 
ally 20 degrees or less. A normal fault of small displace- 
ment strikes northeast through the deposit and the north 
block is dropped down (fig. 31). 

The clay is non-swelling, hard, nearly pure white, and 
breaks with a hackly fracture. The newly mined clay has 
a high moisture content (table 7) which is rapidly dissi- 
pated on exposure to air. 



Table 1. Chemical analysis'of the Muroc bentonite* 



Percent 
61.50 
..... 14.37 
1.36 



SiO* 

Al=Os 

Fe^Oa 

TiO= 0.08 

MnO trace 

CaO 0.15 



1 From Lamar (1953, p 302). 



MgO 
NasO 
K2O 
CO* _ 
H=0- 



Percent 
... 4.26 

0.62 

0.42 

0.19 

10.11 
6.80 



Total 99.8 



The deposit has been developed by numerous vertical 
and inclined shafts, adits, and trenches. Drifts into the 
clay bed were extended from the shafts and adits. These 
openings were made at various places around the ex- 
posed part of the deposit. Apparently as each under- 
ground working became too extensive, a new one was 
driven from the surface to shorten the haulage distance. 
Most of the workings were caved at the time that the 
deposit was visited in 1958. The present lessee has since 
filled in all but one access to the underground workings. 

The clay was mined by hand and stored on drying 
racks on the north side of the deposit. After drying for 
several weeks the clay was transported to Muroc, for- 
merly a station on the Santa Fe Railroad, from where it 
was shipped to the company's milling plant at Maywood. 
There the clay was kiln dried, ground, and sacked. 

The clay was marketed wholesale for $15 to $17 per 
ton and retail for $20 to $30 per ton. Most of the clay 
was marketed in the Los Angeles area where it was used 
as an adsorbent in refining petroleum products, but much 
of it went to the Mid-west states especially to the Mid- 
Continent Oil Company in Oklahoma. The freight rate 
at that time was about $15 per ton. Some of the clay also 
was sold in Texas. 

The Muroc clay is a naturally active and activatable 
clay and thus can be classified as a fullers earth. At the 
time that the Muroc deposit was being mined the activa- 
tion process was protected by patents which were un- 
available to the operators of the Muroc deposit. The 



1962] 



Kern— Clay 



75 




natural adsorptive properties of the clay were not as 
great as those of clay that had been activated, and it was 
difficult for the Muroc clay to compete in the market. 
When the patent rights expired the owners of the Muroc 
mine believed it was nearly worked out and that the cost 
of building an activation plant to treat the remaining clay 
was not warranted. The mine was a marginal operation 
and during some years it was operated at a loss (W. Her- 
bert Allen, personal communication, 1958). 
The present lessee was exploring and sampling the 
' property and nearby areas in late 1958. 

White Rock (Jawbone Canyon Clay; White Point No. 
2, No. 3, No. 4, and No. 5 Claims; Williams deposit) 
Mine. Location: NE!4 sec. 34, T. 30 S., R. 36 E., M.D.M., 
I about 16 miles north-northeast of Mojave and about l'/ 2 
| miles south of Jawbone Canyon. Ownership: Joseph 
ji Stanko estate and Branch Lawson, 2932 North Gains- 



borough Drive, San Marino; leased to American Mineral 
Company (a subsidiary of Desert Minerals Inc.), 840 
South Mission Road, Los Angeles 23. The property com- 
prises 80 acres of patented placer claims (White Point 
No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, and No. 5, 560 acres of patented 
land in sec. 34, T. 30 S., R. 36 E., and 650 acres of 
patented land in sec. 27, T. 30 S., R. 36 E., M.D.M.) 

The White Rock clay deposit was discovered in March 
1926 by C. G. Tailleur and seven others who located the 
four placer claims noted above. The first operators were 
the Vitrefrax Company of Los Angeles and Potters, Inc. 
of El Cerrito. Since the early 1930s the mine has been 
worked continuously by American Mineral Company. 
Although the total production is unknown to the writer, 
the present operators state that the mine has yielded about 
5,000 tons of clay per year since 1947 (W. A. Merle, 
personal communication, 1958). 



i 



76 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



CLAY 





Notne of cl aim, 


Location 




Geology 


Remarks and references 


No 


mine, or group 


(Name, address) 




41 


Aetna group 


Sees. 16, 17, 


Aetna Mines Corp. 


Nearly flat lying bentonitic clay 


Property comprises 34 placer claims 




T28S R40E MDM, 


126 West 3rd St. 


beds, 2 to 12 feet thick. Inter- 


(1,100 acres). Clay exposed by 






8 miles south of 


Nat. Title Build- 


calated with pale arkosic sand- 


numerous bulldozer cuts and shallow 






Ridgecr est 


ing, Los Angeles 13 


stone and tuf f , overlain in part by 


pits. Fifteen drill holes. May include 






(1958) 


dark volcanic rocks. Clay probably 


Duran bentonite deposit. Idle 1959. 










underlies an area of one square 












mile. Clay is pink to white, 












r el at ivel y pur e , and swel 1 s si ightl' 












when immersed in water (see geo- 












1 ogic sketch map . ) 






Alluvial Silt 








See Muroc Silt deposit. 




Company 










42 


Amargo bentonite 


N^NE^g sec. 26, 


Charles J. Roycroft 


Swelling bentonite bed, 20 feet 


See text. (Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 




deposit { Vanuray 


T11N, R8W, SBM, 


P.O. Box 211, Boron 


thick, occurs in steeply-dipping 


49:245, 276; Walker, Lovering, Stephens 






ab ou t thr e e miles 


(1958) 


sedimentary rocks of the Tropico 


56:19) . 




Minerals Company 


nor thwe s t of Bor on 




group . 






mine) 


and south of the 












Kramer borate 










American Mineral 








See White Rock Mine in text. 




Company 










43 


Antelope Material. 


Sees . 30 and 32 , 


Mac co Construction 


Playa silt deposit. Mineable 


Formerly produced many thousands of 






T9N, R10W, SBM, 


Company, 815 Para- 


material ranged from 6 inches to 


tons of clay material from 240-acre 




(Macco Construc- 


on Buckhorn dry 


mount Blvd. , Clear- 


4 feet in thickness under average 


area on Buckhorn and Rosamond dry 




tion Company) 


lake 


water (1949) . 


overburden of 3 inches. Under- 


lakes. Material was mined by open pit 






Area now part of 


lain by sand bed over area of one 


methods, ground to minus 40 - plus 150 








military reserva- 


square mile. 


mesh and packaged in 100 pound sacks. 








tion ; mining pro- 




Plant capacity 1 , 000 tons per day. 








hibited 




Material was mined for several weeks 












every year or so and stockpiled. 












Rosamond mine abandoned because of high 












salt and gypsum content. Rosamond and 












Buckhorn deposits withdrawn for military 












installation about 1954. Company has 












100,000-ton stockpile (1958) at Rosa- 












mond . Ma ter ial mar ke ted mainl y i n 












southern San Joaquin Valley area, also 












in Los Angeles and Ventura areas , some 












shipped as far north as the Rio Vista 












gas fields. Price $18 to $22 per ton 












F . . B . plant , Rosamond . ( Tucker , 












Sampson, Oakeshott 49:245, 277t) . 




Bakersfield Pat- 


Bakersfield 


Undetermined (1958) 




Made 600,000 bricks in 1895. Company 




ent Brick. Company 








no longer operating in county. 












(Crawford 96:614). 




Bakersfield Rock 


Bakersfield (1929) 


A. H. Kaspe and 




Production, if any, undetermined. See 




and Gravel Corn- 




W. J. Walters 




under sand and gravel. (Dietrich 28: 








(1929) 




89 ; Tucker 29 : 64) . 


44 


Baker s f ield 


315 East 18th St. , 


Bakersfield Sand- 




See text. (Aubury 06:167-168; Boalich 




Sandstone Brick 


Bakersfield 


stone Brick Company 




and others 20:48; Brown 16:477; Dietric] 




Company 








28: 89; Tucker 20:30; 21:307; 29:64). 


45 


Bissell Deposit 


NE^j sec. 11, T10N, 


Southern Pacific 


Several beds of impure swelling 


See Bissell magnesite deposit in text. 






R11W, SBM, 8 miles 


Co. , 65 Market St. , 


bentonite occur in sedimentary 








southeast of 


San Francisco 


magnesite deposit ; beds range from 








Moj ave 


(1958) 


one to three feet in thickness , 










strike N. 80° E . , and dip 35° to 












58° S. 






Br own-Whi te 








See Iron Canyon bentonite mine . 




(Iron Canyon) 








(Dibblee and Gay 52:55). 


46 


California 


SW^ sec. 14, T27S, 


Undetermined, 1958; 


Pale buff, silty, tuffaceous sand- 


Property comprises 140 acres of patentei 




fullers earth 


R28E, MDM, about 


C. Weighelt, 


stone which contains thin pebbly 


land. Mine developed by two small 




deposit 


13 miles northeast 


Bakersfield (1949) 


partings of quartzite, granite, 


open cuts, the largest is exposed for 












about 75 feet along a low ridge. Cut 










not e^osed^overlain^v abou^two 


exposes clay material in face about 










feet of overburden Bed is nearly 


20 feet high. Mine first worked in 










flat lying and may extend over wide 


1898. Material used as an adsorbent 












in refining animal and vegetable oil. 










above. g g p 


Chemical analyses given by Aubury 06: 












275 and by Brown 16:480. Long idle. 












(Aubury 06:274-275; Brown 16:480-481; 












Tucker 21:309; 29:65-66; Tucker, 












Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 277) . 




Duran deposit 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


White to pink bentonite, 4 to 12 


Exposed in open cuts. Probably now 






21, T28S, R40E, 


J. R. Duran , Rands- 


feet thick overlain by basalt. 


part of Aetna group. (Tucker 29:66; 






MDM, Rademacher 


burg (1949) 


Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:277t). 












Idle 1958. 






north of Rand 












Siding (1929) . 












Not confirmed. 












1958 










Eight Oil 


Not determined 


Undetermined, 1958; 




Reported production in Kern Co. Oper- 




Compaq .' 




Eight Oil Company, 




ated small grinding plant at Bakers- 








Bakersfield (1916) 




field; sold clay 1919-1920. Company 












no longer operating in county. 












Brown 16:481; Tucker 21:309). 



1962] 



Kern— Clay 



77 



CLAY. com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
( Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


47 


Excel Mineral 
Company deposit 


NE% sec. 5 and 
NW*a sec. 4, T30S, 
R21E, MDM, about 
7 miles northwest 
of McKittrick 


Undetermined, 1958; 
leased by Excel 
Mineral Co. 


Pale tuffaceous shale occurs -in 
gently dipping sedimentary strata 
of the Maricopa shale. 


See text. (Symons and Davis 58:127t) . 


48 


Filtrol Company 
clay deposit 

Gladding McBean 
and Company 
deposit 

Hamilton deposit 


Sec. 2, T32S, 
R34E and sec. 34, 
T31S, R34E, MDM, 
about 9 miles 
northeast of 
Tehachapi 


Filtrol Corp. , 3250 
East Washington 
Blvd. , Los Angeles 
(1959) 


Pale adsorbent bentonite occurs in 
nearly flat lying tuffaceous sedi- 
ments of the Kinnick formation . 


See text. (Tucker 29:66-67; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:245, 277). 

See White Clay No. 1 and No. 2. 

See Los Angeles Pottery Company deposit. 




Hancock deposit 


Reported in sec. 
30, T29S, R38E, 
MDM, (1952) ; not 
confirmed, 1959 


Undetermined, 1959; 
Han c ock Oil C omp any, 
P.O. Box 810, Long 
Beach, 1 




Filter clay produced. (Dibblee and 
Gay 52:55) . 


49 


Iron Canyon 
bentonite (Brown 
-White: Sesomo- 
tite mine) mine 

Jawbone Canyon 

Kennedy Minerals 
Company mine 


NE^SE^ sec. 25, 
T29S, R37E, MDM, 
about 5 miles 
north of Cantil 


E. M. Brown and 
others, P.O. Box 
11, Cantil (1952) 


Pale gray to tan, waxy bentonite 
which is locally gypsif erious , 
crops out at bottom of narrow 
canyon. Bentonite about 5-10 feet 
thick, underlain by dark greenish- 
gray to tan impure bentonite which 
is about 20 feet thick, and over- 
lain by about 50 feet of greenish- 
gray and pale tan tuffaceous sands 
and 10 to 1 5 feet of dark volcanic 

of the Ricardo formation (Dibblee, 
1952, p. 27) which is Plio-Pleis- 
tocene (?) in age. Beds strike 
N. 25° E. and dip 22° NW. Section 
may be repeated in vicinity of 
mine by faulting. 


Deposit developed by small cuts and a 
short adi t . Production several 
thousand tons, 1920-1924. Idle 1959. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:46, 55t; Tucker : 29 : 67 ; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:277t). 

See White Rock deposit in text. 

See Amargo bentonite deposit in text. 


50 


Kern County 
Brick Company 

King Lumber 
Company 


Sec. 21, T29S, 
R28E, MDM, East 
Bakersfield (1928); 
not confirmed , 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
King Lumber Company 
(1928) 




Deposit worked beginning about 1900. 
Company no longer operating in county. 
(Aubury 06:374; Boalich and others 20: 
48; Brown 16:478; Dietrich 28:89; 
Tucker 20:30; 21:307; 29:64). 

See Kern County Brick Company. 
Dietrich 28:89; Symons 28:263). 


51 


Koehn deposit 
(Red Rose claim, 
White Rose claim) 

Los Angeles Clay 
Company 


NE'aSW^ sec. 20, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
about 6h miles 
north -northeast of 
Cantil in Last 
Chance Cyn. 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Charles Koehn, 
Gypsite, (1949) 


Alternating layers of white swell- 
ing and non-swelling bentonite 8 
feet thick occur on steep western 
slope of Last Chance Cyn. Clay 

tuffaceous sands and overlain by 
pale greenish-gray shaley tuff, 
bright pink tuff, and thick black 
flow. Clay occurs in member 2 
of Ricardo formation (Dibblee, 
1952, p. 27) which is Plio-Pleis- 
tocene (?) in age. Beds strike 
N. 40° E. and dip 19° NW. 


Deposit developed by two adits; the 
north adit trends N. 75° W. and is 
about 35 feet long, the south adit 
trends N. 40° E. and is about 20 feet 
long. Idle 1959. (Dibblee, Gay 52: 
55t; Tucker 29:67; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:277t). 

See Snow White; Hancock; Iron Canyon 
(Brown-White) Deposits. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:46). 


51 


Los Angeles 

Los Angeles 
Pressed Brick 
Company 

Macco Construc- 
tion Company 


SE*s sec. 11, T9N, 
R13W, SBM, 5 miles 
northwest of 


Burton Bros. Corp., 
Tropico Mine, 
Rosamond, (1958) 


Greenish-gray faintly bedded or 
banded claystone apparently 
derived from altered vol canic 
rocks. Clay relatively hard, 
granular, and contains hard 
impurities. Banding dips generally 
to the south, clay overlain by 
reddish brown soil. See geologic 
sketch map (Fig. 32 above) . 


Mine developed by open pit about 150 
feet long, 75 feet wide, and 25 feet 
deep, and by a 200-foot adit, now 
caved. Material was shipped to Los 
Angeles for processing and sold for 
making pottery and fire brick. Long 
idle. (Aubury 06:212; Boalich and 
others 20:48; Brown 16:478). 

See White Clay No. 1 and No. 2. 
(Dibblee and Gay 52:46). 

See Antelope Materials Company mine. 


53 


McKinney deposit 


Reported in sec. 
20, T29S, R38E, 
MDM, (1952) ; not 
confirmed, 1959 


Undetermined , 1959 ; 
Charles McKinney, 
Saltdale (1949) 




No production reported. (Dibblee, Gay 
52:55t; Tucker 29:67; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:277t). 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



CI. AY. com. 



Maf 


Name o f ciaim t 
mine or group 


Loco t ion 


Owner 

(Name address) 
a , a re 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


54 




NE^a sec. 8, T30S, 


E . S . McKendry and 


Steeply dipping , greenish— gray , 


Developed by shallow pit. Used for oil 




M cKendry b ^ nton 
l e p 


R38E SBM 


Pancho Barnes 


plastic, bentonite, 6 feet thick, 








P.O. Box 37 , Can til 


exposed for several hundred feet 


200 tons produced 1928 to 1929. Proved 








(1959) 


in shallow pit. Clay slightly 


unsatisfactory for drilling mud. 










swelling and contaminated with 


Property comprises one association 










caus ti c sal ts . 


placer claim. Idle 1958. 




McKit trick Mud 


NE^SE^a sec. 14 anc 


Shell Oil Co. ; 


Brown to green mudstone exposed in 


See text. (Symons and Davis 58:127) 






NW^SW^a sec. 13, 


leased by William A 


depression along fault zone; clay 








T30S R21E, MDM, 


Whee ler , P.O. Box 


beds abou t 26 feet thi ck . 








abou t 3 miles we s t 


356 , McKit tr ick 










of McKittrick 


(1958) 








Merry Widow mine 


Reported in SW^ 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 




Two lode claims (gold) . No production. 






sec. 8, T9N, R12W, 


Mary Y. Smith, 




(Dietrich 28:90) . 






SBM, (1928) ; not 


Rosamond (1928) 










confirmed, 1958 








56 


Mingus deposit 


N*5 and sw^a sec. 7, 


Samuel M. Mingus , 


Playa lake deposit in structural 


Material may be useful as a base for 






T29S , R40E , and 


P.O. Box 94 , 


depression along El Paso fault. 


oil well drilling mud. Material fires 






E*s sec. 12, T29S, 


Randsburg (1958) 


Deposit is about 3/4 mile long and 


dark brownish— red and shows consider- 






R39E, MDM, about 




h mile at its widest point. A 


able shrinkage. No production or 






6 miles northwest 




well drilled near the center of the 


development work. 






o Ran sburg 




deposit penetrated 60 feet of fine- 












grained sedimen ts . 






Moiave Corp 








See Muroc silt depos it. ( Symons and 












Davis 58:127) . 




Monolith clav 








See Tehac?hapi Lake clay deposit. 




de t 
p 












Muroc Clay 








See Muroc clay deposit in text. 




Company 








(Tucker 29 : 67-68 ; Tucker , Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:277) 


57 


M 1 


S^SE^ and SE'jSW^ 


W. Herbert Allen, 


Six feet of non-swelling adsorbent 


See text . (Tucker 29 : 67 ; Tucker , 




deposit a ^ 


sec. 3 and SW^SW^ 




bentonite occurs in a predominantly 


Sampson , Oakeshott 49 : 277t) 






sec. 2 TUN R9W 


and^Trus^Company 


tuffaceous series of beds which 








SBM (proj . ) , about 


433 South Spring St 


are overlain bv basalt 








21 miles east of 














Leased^b^Sunray 












Mid— Continent Oil 












Co. 714 West 
























Angeles (1959) 






58 


Muroc Silt 


Sees. 21, 22, and 


Former ly Moj ave 


PI aya lake deposi t . Fine— grained 


Many thousands of tons mined before 




deposit 


23, T10N, R9W, 


Corp. , 1074 West 


sediments low in sand underlie 4 


area acquired by Federal government. 




(Alluvial Silt 


SBM, on Rogers 


Los Nietos Road, 


to 6 feet of overburden . 


Corp. has 500,000 ton stockpile near 




Co. ?) 


Dry Lake (Muroc 


Los Angeles (1949) . 




Boron (1958). Material sold for oil 






Dry Lake) 


Part of U. S. mili- 




well drilling mud mainly in southern 












San Joaguin Valley but also in Los 








mining S prohibi ted 












( 1 959) 




marketed in Australia, Alaska, and 












South Amer i ca . F.O.B. plant Los 












Angeles area S7 per ton -(1958). 












(Symons 28:263t; Tucker 29:64; Tucker, 












Sampson, Oakeshott 49:246) . 




Pacific Sewer 








See Los Angeles Pottery Company deposit 




Pipe Company 








(Boalich and others 20:48) . 


59 


Placer Claims 


Sees. 32, 33, T9N, 


Mineral Ma ter ial s 


Tertiary clay shale . 


Four unpatented placer claims total 






R 2 0W , SBM , a t the 


Co. , 1145 West- 




about 500 acres. No production. 






east margin of 


minster Ave. , 










Cuddy Va 1 ley , 


Alhambra (1959) 










between Lake of 












the Woods and the 












Kern Co . line 








60 


Red Hill deposit 


NE^SE^a sec. 29, 


Desert Irrigation 


Green veil owi sh-qrav bluish-arav 


Develo ed bv small open cut on north 






T30S, R37E, SBM, 


and Land Company 


and purple and gray mottled gritty 


wall of canyon Deposit was active 






about 2 miles 


Lancaster (1959) 


claystone intercalated with reddisr 


1920 to 1921. Production estimated to 






northeast of Cincc 




-brown agglomerates and flows are 


be 3,000 to 4,000 tons. P.C.E. 19 (?) 












(Martin Engel, personal communication. 










Aggregate" thickne sis of* 1 clay beds 


1959) 










is about 30 feet. Beds dip gently 












toward the north and are lenticu— 
























several^hundred feet^along both 












sides of the canyon. Clay 
























taTy^ rocks b^hydr othermai^ 1 " 16 " 












al teration? 






Red Rose claim 








See Koehn deposit. (Dibblee, Gay 












52:55t) . 


61 


Riley Clay 


Sec. 19, T9N, 


Formerly Southern 


Playa lake deposit of fine-grained 


Clay formerly mined from shallow cuts. 




deposit 


R11W, SBM, on 


Pacific Co; 


sediments. 


ground and packed at mill north of 






Rosamond Dry Lake 


leased to 0. L. 




mine and sold for oil well drilling 








Riley Co. , 1665 




mud. (Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 








North Ventura Ave. , 




49:246, 277t) . 








Ventura (1949) . 












Part of military 












reservation ; 












mining prohibited 












(1959) 







1962] 



Kern— Clay 



79 



Map 

No. 



Nome of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address/ 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



iosamond clay 
deposit 



Rosamond kaolin 
deposit 



Snow White 



Staats and Mahood 
deposit 



Stevens deposit 



Tehachapi Lake 
clay deposit 



Titus clay 
deposit 



Vanuray claim 
Webb deposit 



White Bluff clay 
claims 



White Clay No. 
and No. 2 
(Los Angeles 

ssed Brick 
Co.) claims 



NW^ sec. 1 
R13W, SBM, 
northwest 
Rosamond 



NW^NE^j sec. 30, 
T29S, R38E, HDM 



Middle Butte 
Mining Co. , Inc. 
c/o Emory L. Morris 
and Mary B. John- 
son, San Francisco 
(1958) 



Charles Apablasa 
and J. Sal isbury , 
Cantil (1959) 



Reported about 
nineteen miles 
north of Randsburg 
(1929) ; uncon- 
firmed (1959) 

SE^s sec. 17, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
about 7*s miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 

Eh sec. 12, T32S, 
■R33E; SW*s sec. 7, 
and NW^a sec. 18, 
T32S R34E, MDM, 
about 4 miles 
northeast of 
Tehachapi 



Reported in NW% 
sec. 10, T9N, 
R13W, SBM, (1945) 
not confirmed 
(1958) 

Reported in sec. 
18, T29S, R38E, 
MDM (1949); not 
confirmed (1959) 

SE^NE^ sec. 30 
and SW'jNW'a sec. 
29, T29S, R38E, 
MDM, 54 miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 



Undetermined, 1959 
Dave Staats, and 
J. S. Mahood, 
Randsburg (1929) 



Undetermined, 1959 
William Stevens, 
Cantil (1949) ; 
deceased (1952) 



Monolith Portland 
Cement Co. , Box 
65947 Glassell 
Station , Los 
Angeles 65 (1959) 



Undetermined, 1958 
W . S . Webb , 
Rosamond, (1949) 



Undetermined, 1959 
Walter Tisch, 
Cantil (1952) 



Gladding McBean 
and Company, 
2901 Los Feliz 
Blvd. , Los Angeles 
26 (1952) 



Clay occurs associated with 
metalliferous veins in irregular 
zones both at the surface and 
underground. The material is a 
highly altered volcanic rock 
consisting principally of kaolinite 
alunite, quartz, and hydrous iron 
oxide staining . The clay is 
probably part of the Tropico group 
which is of Mio-Pliocene age. 

Pale tan to white bentonite bed 15 
feet thick is exposed on south 
slope of a low hill. The bentonite 
bed is intercalated with siliceous 
and swelling clays and is overlain 
by greenish-gray tuff and dark 
volcanic flows. The bentonite is ii 
member 2 of the Ricardo formation 
(Dibblee, 1952, p. 27) which is 
Plio-Pleistocene (?) in age. The 
clay contains fresh, angular frag- 
ments of fine-grained volcanic 
rocks and quartz fragments as much 
as one inch in greatest diameter. 
The clay was probably derived from 
a lithic tuff. The clay bed strike: 
N. 45° E. and dips 17° N. See 
geologic sketch maps. 



White to pale gray, bedded lithic 
tuff partially altered to bentonite 



Dark brown 
clay occurs 



ine-grained alluvial 
at surface in hlghlan 
many tens of acres. 



White to pale gray bentonite occurs 
on the nose of a N. -trending spur. 
Clay is interbedded with thin 
siliceous layers and overlain by 
greenish basalt flow. Clay swells 
slightly and contains abundant 
angular fragments of fine grained 
rocks and quartz. Clay bed about 
8 feet thick and exposed for about 
60 feet. Clay is in member 2 of 
Ricardo formation (Dibblee, 1952, 
p. 27) which is Plio-Pleistocene (?) 
in age. Clay bed strikes N. 20° E. 
and dips 20° N. 



See Los Angeles Pottery Company deposit 

Property comprises 160 acres of 
patented land. No recorded clay pro- 
duction. The property was worked for 
gold between the years 1934 and 1941 
(see description of Middle Butte mine 
in gold section of this report) . Clay 
is reported to be refractory (Cone 31?) 
Idle 1959. 



Property developed by two open cuts. 
The east working is about 250 feet 
long, 75 feet wide, and 20 feet deep. A 
large room excavated near east end of 
pit on the north side is 125 feet long, 
100 feet wide, and from 12 to 18 feet 
high. This working is reported to be 
much more extensive but was partially 
filled with water in early 1959 
(Martin Engel , personal communication, 
1959) . The west pit lies a few hundred 
feet from the east pit and is developed 
on the same clay bed. It is about 200 
feet long, 100 feet wide, and as much 
as 30 feet deep. This property pro- 
duced many tens of thousands of tons of 
clay during the 1920' s and 30" s. Idle 
1959. (Dibblee, Gay 52:46, 55t; Tucker 
29 :68 ; Tucker , Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:277) . 

Bentonitic clay of good quality 
reported to be situated near Tracy 
(Teresa?) siding. May be same as 
Sweetheart (under Stone) or unnamed 
#1, which see. (Tucker 29:68). 

Property comprises four claims. Deposi' 
developed by three short adits. Prob- 
ably some production. Idle 1959. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:55t; Tucker 29:68; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:277). 

Source of clay material for manufacture 
of portland cement. Has been mined 
almost continuously since the early 
1900' s. Property developed by two 
rectangular pits which are several 
hundred yards long and wide and average 
about 10 feet deep. Most westerly pit 
is abandoned. Clay mined by dragline 
shovel, loaded into small ore cars, and 
transported on narrow-gauge railroad 
3 miles south to plant. Chemical 
analysis given in following reference. 
(Board of Public Service Commissioners 
16:98) . 

See Los Angeles Pottery Company. 
(Dietrich 28:89-90) . 

See Amargo bentonite deposit in text. 

Ten- foot- thick clay bed reported to 
have been developed by a 50-foot tunnel. 
(Dietrich 28:90; Tucker 29:64-65; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:277t). 



Two claims, no recorded production. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:55t; Tucker 29:68; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:277t). 



Property comprises two placer claims 
Developed by short hillside cut and 
adit about 20 feet long bearing N. 6 
No production. Idle 1959. (Dibblee, 
Gay 52:55t) . 



f 



80 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Location 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



White Rock (Jaw- 
bone Canyon clay; 
White Point No. 2, 
No. 3, No. 4, and 
No. 5 claims; 
Williams) deposit 



White Rose clai 



White Swan 
deposit 



depos 
(Bent 
#1, # 



ite Knoll 
and #3) 



Unnamed clay 
deposit #2 



NE^ sec. 34, T30S, 
R36E, MDM, about 
16 miles north- 
northeast of 
Mojave and about 
1*5 miles south of 
Jawbone Cyn . 



SW^NE^ sec. 14, 
T30S, R36E, MDM, 
h mile north of 
Jawbone Cyn. near 
Blue Point and 
about five miles 
northwest of Cinci 



sec. 7, 
T28S, R40E, and 
SE^a sec. 1 and 
NE^a sec. 12, 

T28S, R39E, MDM, 
about 8 miles 
southwest of Rid 
crest 



mh sec. 36, T12N, 
R13W, SBM, and SW*5 
sec. 34, T32S, 
R35E, MDM, about 
4 miles northwest 
of Mojave in the 
Horned Toad Hills 



SEi, sec. 32, T30S, 
R37E, MDM, 
directly southeast 
of U. S. Highway 
6 and 1 mile 
northeast of Cinco 



Joseph StanXo 
estate and Branch 
Lawson, 2932 North 
Gainsborough Drive, 
San Marino; leased 
to American Mineral 
Company, 840 South 
sion Road, 
Angeles (1959) 



Undetermined , 
Raymond Young 
Frank Miller, 
Mojave (1949) 



Undetermined, 1959 ; 
G. C. Kane 
G. N. Hadley 
Bert Johnson 
(1946) 



Undetermined, 1959 



White clays tone occurs in large 
.one of hydrothermally altered 
hyoli te . 



Pale gray to pale green, swelling 
bentonite intercalated in a series 
if pink, pale green, and pale gray 
tuffs ; crops out for several hundred 
yards. Clay bed is about 10 feet 
thick and has interbedded platy 
bands. Clay bed strikes N. 40° E. 
and dips 49° NW. 



Poorly exposed dark gray to nearly 
white , fine- to coarse-grained tuff 
locally altered to pale pink and 
white, swelling bentonite. Tuff 
bed, several tens of feet thick, 
locally cut by numerous thin 
veinlets of calcite. Tuff under- 
lain by metavolcanic rocks which 
are greenstones in part and over- 
lain by black vesicular basalt. 
Beds strike S. 75° W. and dip 10° S 

iwn to greenish-gray bentonite 
bed, 30 feet thick, crops out on 
the south flank of a low range of 
hills. Clay is locally gypsiferous 
. swells slightly. It is under- 
n by about 100 feet of grayish 
white fine-grained sediments which 
contain thin caliche beds . Benton- 
ite overlain unconf ormably by 

rse pink sandstone. Bentonite 
urs in Horned Toad formation 
which is early or middle Pliocene 

age. Clay bed strikes N. 55° E. 
and dips 26° NW. See geologic 
sketch map (fig. 33) . 

Playa lake deposit; apparently free 
soluble salts at surface. 



See text. (Tucker 29:65; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:246, 277t) . 



See Koehn deposit. (Dibblee, Gay 52:55t 

Clay bed developed by four shallow 
pits. Property comprises 2 claims. 
Idle 1959. (Tucker 29:68; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:277t). 



See White Rock deposit in text. 
(Tucker 29:65) . 

Property developed by three shallc 
trenches. May be same as Staats a 
Mahood deposit. Idle 1959. 



Deposit developed by sev 
trenches. Idle 1958. 



Undeveloped. 



The deposit is at the head of a box canyon in a 
brightly colored body of banded rhyolite of middle Ter- 
tiary age (Dibblee, 1958). The rhyolite is intrusive into 
Tertiary continental sediments which overlie Mesozoic 
granodiorite. The deposit is irregularly shaped and is 
exposed over an area of several acres. The claystone 
shows relic banding and is apparently an alteration of the 
rhyolite. The altered rock is fine grained. The claystone 
fractures along the banding planes and normal to them. 
The banding dips about 30° east to southeast, but locally 
is contorted into minor folds. 

The mineable claystone is partly to completely altered 
rhyolite and commonly contains opal as small pods and 
as thin veins along banding planes. The completely altered 
material is largely kaolinite (?). The claystone is ordi- 
narily white to burl but is stained dark brown along 
fractures. The principal chemical and physical properties 
of the White Rock clay are summarized in table 8. 

The White Rock deposit has been mined by means of 
a large irregular open cut on the south wall of a small 



Table 8. Chemical and physical properties of the 
White Rock clay. 

(Data provided by American Mineral Company, 1958.) 

Chemical analysis: 

Sia _ 75.56% 

AhOs . — _ ___ 14.82 

FezOs _ _ 09 

CaO .22 

MgO .20 

KsO 6.81 

NaiO .29 

Ignition loss 2.04 



Total. 



100.03% 



Fired color _ _ White 

P.C£ _ 17 

Water of plasticity 29.6% 

Dry shrinkage _ 4.5% 

Fired shrinkage 15.4% at cone 10 

Dry modulus of rupture 140 lbs./sq. inch 



1962] 



Kern— Clay 





FEET 

(appro*, scale) * 

50 100 ISO 



FEET 
(appro* scale) 



Figure 32. Geologic sketches of the Aetna group, and California Fullers Earth and Los Angeles Pottery Company clay deposits. 



82 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 





FEET 
(scole oppro») 



Figure 33. Geologic sketches of the Snow White and Unnamed No. 2 deposits. 



canyon. The cut is about 180 feet in maximum length, 
1 30 feet in maximum width, and as much as 80 feet high. 
The clay is blasted down to the floor of the cut where 
it is mucked into trucks by a power shovel and bulldozer. 
Mining is selective to avoid iron-rich zones. The mining 
is done by an independent organization on a contract 
basis. The material is trucked 9 miles to Cantil, a station 
on the Southern Pacific Railroad, from where it is shipped 
to the company 's mill in Los Angeles. 



At the mill the clay is reduced to 200 and 325 mesh, 
sacked, and stored for shipment. The mill has a capacity 
of 90 to 120 tons per day. The clay is sold for use in 
dinnerware, artware, tile, and as a filler in rubber. It is 
marketed principally in southern California, but some of 
the clay is shipped as far as New York. The processed 
clay is valued at between 25 and 35 dollars per ton in 
Los Angeles. Reserves are estimated to be sufficient for 
many years at the present rate of consumption. 



1962] 



Kern— Coal and Peat, Copper 



03 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Colorado Camp 
group (French, 
Randsburg Coal 



French deposit 



Pomona Mill and 
Mining Co. 

Randsburg Coal 



SE. cor. sec. 36, 
T28S, R38E , MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , at 
head of Last 
Chance Cyn. , 1 3/4 
miles southeast of 
Black Mt. 



Stanley H. Hultiq 

t, 3526 Corinth 
Ave. , Los Angeles 
(1958) 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Four layers of coal in the lower 
part of the Goler formation in 
what appears to have been a local 
basin during early Tertiary time. 
Coal layers reported to be 22, 26, 
14 and 18 inches thick at depths 
of 60, 100, and 145 feet. (Aubury, 
1904, p. 19) , probably measured on 
the incline of shafts now caved. 
Extent and grade of coal not 
determined in 1958, nor are coal 
seams exposed at surface. 



Fourteen inch coal 
sedimentary rocks. 



in Tertiary 



Remarks and references 



Coal seams were worked from three shafts 
80, 145, and 150 feet deep from which 
450 feet of drifts were driven. Work- 
ings have been caved for many years. An 
undetermined amount of coal was produced 
about 1900. May be same deposit listed 
under Pomona Mill and Mining Co. About 
1948 or 1949, fossil leaves were obtaine> 
from coal layer several feet beneath the 
surface exposed in the walls of a water 
well near the campsite. (Aubury 04:19t; 
Brown 16:479) . 

See Colorado Camp group. (Dibblee, Gay 
52:46, 56t; Fairbanks 94:457). 



See under gold. 
96:195) . 



(Crawford 94:147; 



See Colorado Camp group. 
Brown 16:479) . 



(Aubury 04:19t 



Coal and Peat 

An undetermined amount of low-grade coal was pro- 
duced for local consumption before 1900 from a deposit 
in El Paso Mountains. A reported production of 220 tons 
of coal valued at $1,100 in 1898 was probably from this 
deposit and now on property held in the Colorado Camp 
group. The deposit is of Paleocene age and of limited 
extent. 

Peat is the host for uranium mineralization in a bog 
on Pettit Ranch in the Sierra Nevada a few miles north- 
west of the Miracle uranium mine. A layer of peat about 
1 foot thick is exposed in Quaternary gravel along the 
edge of Kelso Creek at Rocky Point a few miles south 
of Weldon. Neither deposit has been mined. 



Copper 

Since 1900 about 1,152,000 pounds of copper valued 
at $206,000 has been mined in Kern County. Most of the 
copper has come from copper deposits in the Woody 
district in north-central Kern County but some has been 
obtained as a by-product mostly from widely distributed 
gold mines in the county (fig. 34). In the Woody dis- 
trict, a few miles west of Woody in the western margin 
of the Sierra Nevada, copper mineralization has occurred 
along shear zones and sheeted zones in granitic rock. The 
Greenback mine is the most productive copper mine in 
that district and in the county. 

Copper prospects are common in El Paso Mountains, 
mostly in the NE'/ 4 of T. 29 S., R. 38 E, M.D.M. 12 



WOODY DISTRICT^ 



© 



B A KERS FIELD 



RADEMACHER 
DISTRICT 



EL PASO MOUNTAINS 
DISTRICT — ' 



O Molovi 



\ 



Figure 34. Distribution of copper deposits in Kern County. 



84 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




miles northwest of Randsburg. Copper sulfides are dis- 
seminated in quartz veins in Mesozoic granitic rock and 
in the Precambrian (?) Mesquite schist. These veins 
strike northwest to west and dip moderately to steeply 
northe and north. In the Rademacher district, 3 to 
8 miles h of Ridgecrest, copper is in gold-bearing 
quartz vein:, v/hich strike mostly N. 40° W. to N. 40° E. 
and dip steeply eastward. They are in granitic rocks and 
very common!}' are associated with rhyolitic and dioritic 
dikes. 



Copper minerals are common in many other metal- 
liferous deposits in Kern County, especially gold, tung- 
sten, lead, and zinc deposits. 

Greenback Copper Mine* Location: Sees. 2, 3, T. 
26 S., R. 29 E., M.D.M., a quarter of a mile south of 
Woody, on top of a narrow west-trending ridge. Own- 
ership: F. G. Weringer, Woody, California (1957). 

The Greenback copper deposit was discovered in 1890 
and during the period 1890-1900 yielded 590 tons of ore 

* By J. Grant Goodwin. 



1962] 



Kern— Copper 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Apache (Holland) 



Austin group 



B. Copper 
prospect 



Big Blue mine 

Bimetallic 
Blue Chief 
Blue Eagle group 

Burning Moscow 
mine 

Carbonate Queen 



College Girl 
group 

(Confidence) 



Colorado Camp 
group 

(French, Layman, 
Walsh, and Waist 
Mc Claude) 



SW^SE^ sec. 29 and 
NW*s sec. 32, T28S 
R39E, MDH, El Pas. 
Mts. , 14 miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 



Center of Eh sec. 
16, and sec. 9, 
T29S, R39E, MDM, 
3/4 mile n 
of Gar lock 
canyons on 
east slope 
Paso Mts . 



c thwest 



SE cor. NE^ sec. 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , llh 
miles northeast o 
Cantil, on south- 
west tip of mesa 
on south slope of 
Black Mt. 



Sec. 13, T28S, 
R39E, sec. 18, 
T28S, R40E, MDM 
Rademacher dist 
9 miles south o 
Ridgecrest 



Repor ted in sec . 6, 
T31S, R34E, MDM, 
(1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 

Center sec. 17, 
T29S, R39E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , lh 
miles northwest of 
Garlock, Mesquite 
Cyn . 



mk sec. 5 and NE^s 
sec. 6, T29S, 
R39E, MDM, El Paso 
Mts. , 13 miles 
northeast of 
Cantil , at head of 
Last Chance Cyn. 



Wesley A. Smith, 
Neil Brown, 
John Hamblen , Jr . 
(on location notice 
dated Jan. 1954) 



Brantley, 
Mojave (1942) 

Maynard Schneider 

i. Box 282, 
Randsburg (1955) 



Walter Bickel , 

. Box 142, 
Inyokern (1958) 



E. Droubie, 
G. Switzer, et 
, Los Angeles 
(1957) 



Undetermined, 1958; 
J. S. Drury, 
Bakersfield (1904) 



Undetermined, 
Real Goulet, 
P.O. Box 864, 
Bishop (1952) 



.anley H. Hult- 
quist, 3526 Corinth 
Ave., Los Angeles 
(1958) 



Two areas of mineralization about 
half a mile apart. Northeastern 
area contains free gold, malachite, 
chalcopyrite, pyrite, and silver 
in fracture zone which strikes E. 
in argillite. Southeastern area 
contains traces of manganese and 
copper mineralization in vertical 
fault zone in limestone and as 
replacement of limestone by man- 
ganese oxides. Fault zone strikes 
N. 10° W. ; limestone strikes N. 50° 
W. , dips steeply NE. to vertical. 
Grade of ore is low. 



Bedding plane shear zones in meta 
morphic rocks strike NW. and dip 
30-50 p NE. Shear zones are 
moderately to weakly mineralized 
with gold, lead, and manganese. 
Tungsten also reported to occur c 
the property (ltr. from M. Schnei 
er, Feb. 1955) . 



North- trending, east-dipping quartz 
stringers a few inches wide in 
deeply iron stained schist. Quartz 
stringers contains small proportion 
of chalcopyrite and possibly tiny 
particles of native copper. 



Chalcopyrite and other sulfides 
gold-quartz veins . 



Poorly-exposed, discontinuous 
copper-stained and iron-staine 
fractures in granodiori te . 



in porphyritic 



NW. -trending, NE. -dipping shear 
zones and bedding plane shears in 
metamorphic and granitic rocks. 
Principal mineralization is assoc- 
iated with iron-stained quartz in 
shears. Quartz contains free gold, 
galena, sphalerite, and copper 
sulfides. Mineralization sparse 
in 200 foot-wide belt parallel to 
bedding planes of metamorphic 
rocks . 

Copper-bearing shear zones and 
quartz stringers in schist and 
argillite. Copper King vein is 
shear zone, 2 to 3 feet wide, along 
bedding planes in N. -striking, 
55° E. -dipping schist. Zone con- 
tains brecciated gray quartz or 
quartzite in fault gouge. Golden 
Imp vein is 2 to 8 inch-wide quartz 
vein which strikes about NW. in 
argillaceous rocks. Marty veins 
are weakly mineralized narrow 
shear zones and bedding plane 
shears. Copper minerals are 
chalcopyrite and green copper 
oxides. Some veins contain traces 
of gold, silver and lead. Iron 
oxides stains are very common. 
Manganese occurs as faint manganese 
oxide stains in fractures. Golden 
Imp vein reported to contain 6 per- 
cent copper by assay made in 1957. 



Northeast workings consist of an adit 
driven S. 50° W. at least 350 feet, open 
cuts, and prospect shafts. Southwest 
working is vertical shaft probably 
several tens of feet deep. Several 
ounces of gold recovered in mill con- 
structed at camp near northeast workings 
in 1940; also few tens of pounds of 
copper recovered. Gold ore contained 
about 0.5 oz. gold per ton. Idle sin< 
1940 (Dibblee, Gay 52:56t; Eric 48:254t; 
Trask, Wilson, Simons 43:63; 66tr 123t; 
Trask 50:84: Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:208, 253t) . 



Gold mine. 



(Eric 48:254t) 



Several claims. Probably formerly one o: 
the groups owned by J. D. Voss. 
Developed by several sha f ts and cross- 
cut adits. Adit in sec. 16 is driven 
N. 10° W. and is probably few hundred 
feet long. Two adits with moderate 
dumps in bottom of canyon in sec. 9 an 
several shafts 200 to 500 feet up slopes 
of steep canyon walls. Probably no 
production. (Dibblee, Gay 52:58t). 

Part of Iron Hat group. Developed by 
shaft inclined about 40° E. to depth of 
75 feet; filled to 45 feet from collar. 
No production; idle since early 1950 's. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:56t). 



About 6,500 pounds of copper was pro- 
duced as a byproduct from gold ore 
between 1932 and 1942. See under gold. 
(Eric 48:254t) . 

See Big Gold mine, under gold. 
(Eric 48:254t) . 

See under gold. (Goodwin 57:527t; Eric 
48:254t) . 

Nine unpatented claims. Exploration 
by bulldozed excavations and shallow 
open cuts. Several older shafts on 
the property. Idle. No production. 



See under gold. 



May be former 
ine (Aubury 04:9t) 



Formerly 10 claims along east side of 
Mesquite Cyn. May be included in part 
in Gateway group, which see under gold. 
Deposits have been prospected by 
numerous opencuts, shafts, crosscut 
adits, and drift adits along Mesquite 
Cyn. since 1894. No production. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:56t, 59t; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:296-297). 



also under coal. Formerly three 
groups of claims - Layman, Walsh, Walsh 
and McCloude - later included in French 
group after some claims were dropped; 
became Colorado Camp group after 1949. 
Copper and gold veins developed by 
several shafts east-southeast from camp. 
Shafts range from few feet to 200 feet 
deep. Copper King shaft, about 1,000 
feet east of camp, is about 200 feet 
deep on~ 55° NE. incline and connects 
about 500 feet of drifts, mostly to 
south. Other shallow shafts on Golden 
ip claim 1,500 feet farther east-south- 
st, and short adits and shallow shafts 
Marty claims 3,000 feet farther east- 
southeast. A crosscut adit was being 
driven southwest to intersect the Golden 
Imp vein at about 50-feet depth early in 
1958. No recorded production. (Dibblee 
Gay 52:57t; Eric 48:255t ( 256t; Trask, 
Wilson, Simons 43:123t: Trask, et al 
50:87; Tucker 21:308-309: 29:23-24; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:253t). 



86. 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



COPPER, cont. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Locarion 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Ge o lo oy 


Remarks and references 




Copper Basin 








Formerly 26 cl a ims owned by Wil 1 iam 




group 








Schmidt (deceased) and Mike E. Lee. 










Four of the claims retained by Lee are 












listed herein as Lee's copper claims. 












Other claims held by several individuals. 












No production. (Dibblee, Gay 52:56t; 












Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49 : 208 , 253t ) . 


79 


Copper Chief 


On sec. line in 


■ 

Delia G. Gerbracht, 


Quartz vein containing bornite , 


Five lode claims. Developed by 750-foot 




(Gold Badger, 


NW^SW^g sec. 7, 


and others, P.O. 


chalcopyrite , and copper and iron 


crosscut adit driven approximately west 




Zundra) group 


T29S , R39E , MDM, 


Box 346 , Randsburg ; 


oxides , occurs in quar tz monzoni te 


to intersect quartz vein exposed on 






El Paso Mts. , 10*5 


leased to Donald, 


and metasedimentary rocks. Vein 


surface. Seven tons of ore shipped 






miles northeast of 


Clarence, and 


strikes N. 40° W. and dips 65° SW. 


before 1949. Intermittent activity in 






Cantil , half a 


Richard Weiss 


One lens of copper-bearing quartz 


1958 . (Dibblee , Gay 52 : 56 t ; Tucker , 






mile west of 


( 1 958) 


about 6 feet wide was exposed in ar 


Sampson, Oakeshott 49:209, 253t) . 






Mesquite Cyn. 




opencut near the top of a hill . 




80 


Copper ol a (Zuna) 


NW'g sec. 13, T29S, 


Delia G. Gerbracht, 


Several parallel quar tz veins in 


Includes 21 lode claims. Principal 




prospect 


R38E, MDM, on 


and others, P.O. 


quartz diorite. Veins strike 


shaft is a 50-foot vertical shaft in 




narrow ridge at 


Box 346, Randsburg 


N. 40° W. and dip 60° SW. Four 


center of belt of quartz veins. No 






crest of El Paso 


(1958) 




production. Idle since 1940 's. 






Mts. , 9 3/4 miles 




occur in a 100-f oot-wide belt that 


(Dibblee, Gay 52:57t; Tucker, Sampson, 






northeast of 




is a few hundred feet long. Copper 


Oakeshott 49:208, 253t) . 






Cantil 




occurs in small grains and lenses 












of chalcopyrite and as thin seams 












of azurite and malachite. 






Copper King 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined , 1957; 


■ 

Quartz vein with sulfides, in 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 






26 , T2 7S , R40E , 


Underwood and 


granite . 


1 i s ted herein under different name . 






MDM , Rademacher 


McNi 1 1 , 




Devel oped by 18 — foot sha f t and 30- foot 






dis t . ( 1 904 ) ; 


Baker sfield (1904) 




shaft. (Aubury 04:9t) . 






not confirmed, 












1957 










Copper King 








Probably Silverado mine (Aubury 04:9t); 












Brown 16:479; Eric 48:254t). 


81 


Copper Queen 


SW'g sec. 27, T29S, 


Isaac Blum, 


Weak copper and gold mineral izati on 


Developed by vertical shaft probably 




claims 


R38E, MDM, 6S 


Santa Monica (1958) 


along west wall of a N. -trending 


about 250 feet deep on west wall of N.- 






miles northeast of 




lamprophyre dike and al ong NNW. - 


tr end ing dike and NNW . -driven dr i f t 






Cantil , in small 




trend ing , SW , -d ipping quar tz vein . 


adit few tens of feet northeast of 






canyon on south- 




Host rock is quartz diorite. 


shaft. Drift adit is about 100 feet 






east flank of El 




Quartz vein is few tens of feet 


long with 20-foot raise to surface 






Paso Mts. 




northeast of shaft on lamprophyre 


about 20 feet from portal and 30-foot 










dike and probably intersects dike 


winze bel ow. One carload ore shipped 










f ar ther nor th . Quar t z ve in 


in 1921. Long idle. (Dibblee, Gay 










averages about 6 inches in width 


52 : 56t) . 










and locally contains chalcopyrite 












grains . 




82 


Crystal Springs 


NW^NE^ sec. 22, 


Undetermined , 1958; 


Copper -bear i ng quar t z veins in 


No production; idle. (Dibblee, Gay 




prospect 


T29S, R38E, MDM, 


Frank Curtis , 


quar tz d i or i te . 


52:57t) . 






El Paso Mts. , 8 


Baker sfield (1952) 










miles northeast of 












Cantil, on crest 












o range 










Decker claims 








See Galena group. (Dibblee, Gay 52:57t). 




French group 








See Col or ado Camp gr oup . ( Dibbl ee , Gay 












52 : 57t ; Tucker , Sampson Oakeshott 












49:253 " 


83 


Galena (Decker) 


Central part of 


Donald C. Weiss 


Copper-bearing quartz stringers in 


Five lode claims. Development work 




group 


gij gee 7 T29S 


and others, 


me tased imen tar y r ocks . 


undetermined ; a prospect . (Dibblee , 






R39E, MDM, El 


addresse s unde ter — 




Gay 52:57t) . 






Paso Mts . , 11 


mined (1958) 








miles northeast 












of Cantil, on 
























Mesquite Cyn. 








84 


Gallow Glass 


T28S, R40E, MDM, 




Traces of copper-bearing minerals 


Several open cuts and shafts on 37 




group 


Rademacher dist. , 




in granitic rocks near northwest- 


claims (1905). See also under J. R. 










trending contact between granitic 


Manning . Numerous claims ha ve since 






southwest of 




rocks and metamorphosed carbonate 


been located and abandoned in the area . 






Ridgecrest 




rocks. 


(Aubury 05:241; 08:297; Eric 48:255t). 




Gem prospect 


SW*i sec. 34 , T29S, 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 




Shallow open pits along contact between 






R30E, MDM, 2^2 


Wm. Harmon, 




schist and sandstone . Long idle . 






miles north of 


address undeter- 








Bena 


mined (1938) 








Gessell, w. J. 








See Mineralite-Azurite prospect. 












(Eric 48:254t) . 




Gladys prospect 








See under gold. 




Gold Badger 








See Copper Chief group. (Tucker, Sampson, 




claims 








Oakeshott 49: 253t) . 


86 


Golden Eaglet 


Approx. center 


Delia G. Gerbracht, 


Copper-stained quartz stringers in 


Fifteen claims. Developed by shallow 




and Queen claims 


sec. 5, T29S, 


P.O. Box 346, 


Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. 


excavations. An idle prospect. 






R39E, MDM, El 


Randsburg (1958) 




(Dibblee, Gay 52:57t) . 






Paso Mts. , 12*s 












miles northeast 












Of Cantil 









1962] 



Kern— Copper 



COPPER, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


87 


Golden View 
claims 


Sec. 4, T29S, 
R39E, 'MDM, El Paso 
Mts. , 13*5 miles 
northeast of Canti 


W. B. Gerbracht and 
others, c/o Delia 
G . Gerbracht , P.O. 
Box 346 , Randsburg 
(1958) 


Numerous copper -bearing quartz 

stringers which trend northwest 

in Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. 


Eighteen lode claims. Developed by 
many shallow excavations and short 
adits. No production. (Dibblee, Gay 
52 : 57t) . 


88 


Gold 'Peak claims 


NE% sec. 7, T29S, 
R39E, MDM, El Paso 
Mts. , ll*s miles 
northeast of 
Cantil , on east 
side of Mesquite 
Cyn. 


Mrs. Constance 
Norton and others, 
c/o Delia G. 
Gerbracht, P.O. Box 
346, Randsburg 
(1958) 


Northwest trending copper-stained 
quartz stringers in Paleozoic meta- 
sedimentary rocks. 


Five lode claims. Developed by shallow 
excavations and adits. An idle 
prospect. (Dibblee, Gay 52:57t). 




Gold Standard 
prospect 


Piute Mts. 






A few hundred pounds of copper was 
recovered from gold ore in the 1930 's. 
See under gold. 


89 


Grandad group 


ADprox. center sec 
31 T28S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. , 
13% miles north- 
east of Cantil, 2 
miles southeast of 
Black Mt. 


Katharine Gerbracht 
and others, c/o 
Delia G. Gerbracht, 
P.O. Box 346, 
Randsburg (1958) 


Nortn-trending shear in black 
cherty rocks contains 6-inch-wide, 
faintly copper-stained quartz 


Four lode claims and 2 placer claims. 
Developed by vertical shaft 60 to 75 
feet deep on N. -trending shear and 
150 feet to east is S. 35° W. -trending 
crosscut 75 to 100 feet long. An idle 
prospect. (Dibblee, Gay 52:57t). 


90 


Greenback 
(Weringer) mine 


NE% sec. 3, NW% 
sec. 2, T26S, 
R29E, MDM, h mile 
south of Woody 
near top of east- 
trending spur 


F. J. Weringer 
Woody (1956) 


Six NE. -trending veins in grano- 
diorite. 


See text. (Aubury 05:238; 08:294-296; 
Brown 16:479; Eric 48:255t; Storms 13: 
635; Tucker 21:307; 29:22, 23; Turner 
02:547, 548). 


91 


Green Dragon 
claims 

Holland mine 
Iron Hat group 

Iron Mt. 
prospect 


NE^NW^j sec. 26, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
8 miles northeast 
of Cantil, near 
mouth of small 
canyon on south- 
east flank of El 
Paso Mts. 


George B. Frasier, 
Roy E. Cline, 
7740 Rindge Ave. , 
Playa Del Rey 
(1958) 


Well-defined quartz vein which oc- 
cupies a shear zone in quartz 
diorite. Shear zone strikes N.15" 
W. and dips 65° SW. Ranges in 
width from 4 inches to one foot, 
and can be traced 100 feet along 
west bank of stream channel. Vein 
locally contains pods of chalco- 
pyrite and green copper oxides. 
Largest pod of chalcopyrite is 12 
inches in length and depth and 1 
inch wide. 


Eight lode claims. Vein exposed in 
several open cuts and trenches. Deep- 
est cut is 10 feet. No production. 

See Apache mine. 

See B. Copper and Smith mine. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:57t). 

See under iron. (Brown 16:480; 
Eric 48:255t; Tucker 29:56; Tucker, 
Sampson Oakeshott 49:270t). 


92 


Jenette-Grant 

Kelso mine 
Layman group 


SW. cor. sec. 36, 
T27S, R33E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. 






Production of some copper ore from a 
prospect 2^5 miles northwest of Jenette- 
Grant campsite in 1943. See under gold 

See text under zinc. 

See Colorado Camp group. (Eric 48:255t 
Tucker 21:308; 29:23). 


93 


Lee's copper 
claims (Copper 
Basin) 


NW*sSW% sec. 14, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. 9 
miles nor the as t 
of Cantil 


Mike E. Lee, 
P.O. Box 105, 
Randsburg (1958) 


Quartz veins in quartz diorite 
strike NW. and dip 45° - 70° NE. 
Veins range in thickness from 4 to 
6 feet. Crop out in several places 
on top of hill and are exposed in 
tunnel . 


Four lode claims. Developed by a 
tunnel 1,872 feet long that extends 
through the hill. No production. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:56t; Tucker., Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:208, 253t) . 


94 


Loophole claims 


Sec. 32, T28S, 
R39E, MDM, El Paso 
Mts. , 13 3/4 miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 


Delia G. Gerbracht, 
P.O. Box 346, 
Randsburg (1958) 


Copper-bearing quartz stringers 
which trend northwest in meta- 
sedimentary rocks. 


Four lode claims. Developed by short 
adit, shallow shafts, and numerous 
shallow excavations. A prospect; long 
idle. (Dibblee, Gay 52:57t). 


95 


Mai toy mine 


SEh sec. 4 , NW% 
sec. 10, T26S, 
R29E, MDM, 1 mile 
southwest of Woody 
on Iron Mt. 


J. Maltby, 
Woody (1956) 


Copper -bear ing vein in schist. 


Developed by 35-foot and 16-foot shaft. 
Several small shipments. (Aubury 
05:240; 08:296; Eric 48:255). 


96 


Manning group 


Sees. 7, 18, 19, 
30, T28S, R40E, 
and sees. 12, 13, 
14, T28S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso dist. 


Undetermined, 1957 : 
J. R. Manning, et 
al . , Randsburg 
(1905) 


Copper sulfides and oxidized 
copper -bearing minerals occur in 
seams, veins, and lenses in grano- 
dioritic intrusive rocks near a 
northwest-trending contact with 
metamorphosed sedimentary lime- 
stone of the Garlock series 
(Paleozoic) . 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different names. 
Developed by numerous prospect trenches 
and short shafts (Aubury 05:241; 08:297; 
Eric 48:255t) . 


97 


Michigan group 

Mojave Copper 

Co. 


sec. 18, T28S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 9 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


L. G. Switzer, 
A. E. Droubie, et 
al., Los Angeles 
(1957) 


Copper- and iron-stained fracture 
zones in granodiorite. 


Exploration by bulldozer cuts, shallow 
open cuts, and several old shallow 
shafts. A prospect. 

See under gold. (Aubury 04:19t). 



88 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



COPPER, com- 



Map 


Name of cloim 


Location 


Owner 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


No. 


mine, or group 


(Name, address/ 






Monda 
on ay 


Reported in sec 4 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 


Vein in granitic rock strikes N. 5° 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 




T 28S, R32E, MDM, 


Thede & Sweet, 


W. , dips 78" NE. (?) . Vein contains 


abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:13t). 






(1904) ; not con- 


Havilah (1904) 


quartz, marcasite, and native 








firmed 1958 




copper . 






Bl so 
range os in 


Sec. 6 T30S 


Formerly Mrs. J. S. 


Bornite, malachite, and azurite in 


Formerly 8 claims- abandoned by Bishop 




9 U P 


R38E , MDM, 2 miles 


Bishop (deceased) 


shear zones which strike N. 25° W. , 


family. Probably listed herein under 




northwest of 




dip 70° S. in me tamorphic and 


different name. Developed by 75— foot 






Gypsite siding of 




granitic rocks . Copper mineral s 


drift and 85-foot vertical shaft. 






Southern Pacific 




mostly in 5 lenticular bodies of 


(Dibblee, Gay 52:58t; Eric 48:256t; 






R.R., southeast 




iron gossan which crop out along 


Tucker 29:23; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshot 






flank of El Paso 




shear zone . Gossan outcrops are 


49:208-209, 253t) . 










from 20 to 50 feet long and 6 to 












20 feet wide . Placer gold has been 












found in gr avel s in gul ches bel ow 












gossan . 




99 


Orphan Anne 


Approx center N^ 


William C. Miles 


A quartz vein, 6 to 18 inches wide 


Probably same as Mountain gold prospect. 




prospect 
P P 


sec. 15 T29S 


resses^ndetermined 










R38E, MDM, El Paso 




in d f ol ia ted U quar tz f dior i te 5 ' Vein* 5 


of 150— foot offset and numerous cross- 






Mts . 9 miles 


(on claim notice 


strikes N. 50° W. and dips 40°-60° 


cut trenches and shallow prospect pits. 






northeast of 


dated Feb. 1956) 


E . The pr incipal copper sul f i de 


An old east-driven crosscut adit was 






Can til 




is chalcopyrite which occurs in 


driven from the bottom of a small 










irregularly-spaced lenses and 


canyon h mile east of main vein to 






















maximum dimension. Fractures in 


No production. Some exploration work 










quartz and walls of vein are 


about 1956. Idle. (Dibblee, Gay 










moderately-^to deeply-stained with 


52 . 59t) . 










copper an ir ° n ox * es - e _ in ■ LS 
























feet^from north^nd of vein^south 












part of vein offset 150 feet east. 












Both faults strike E. Southern 












part of vein is 2-foot-wide shear 












zone containing a few stringers of 












quartz. Average grade of vein is 












ess an percen o copper . 






Rinaldi and 








Se de 1 d 
e un er ea . 




Clark mine 










100 


Run Around claims 


Approx. sec. 13, 


Richard D. Weiss 


See Copperola group. 


Sixteen lode claims and 1 placer claim 






T29S, R38E, El 


and others, 




ad j a cent to Copperola group . (Dibblee , 






Paso Mts . , 10 


addr e sse s unde ter — 




Gay 52 : 58t) 






miles northeast 


termined (1958 




















Schmidt mine 








See Smith mine. 




Shamrock 


Repor ted in sees . 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 


Copper sulfides in quartz vein 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 






2, 10, T28S, R32E, 


Shamrock Mining Co. 


which strikes NE . , dips 85° SE. ; 








MDM, Clear Cr . 


Los Angeles (1904) 


in granitic rock. 


duction 6 ^ ^Aubury 1 "^ ^° t ^ ecorc ^ e ^ ^ ro 






dist. , near 












Havilah (1904) ; 
























1958 l ~° n ^ irmeC * ' 








101 


d 


C t f th 


E tt H 




D 1 d b 40 f t h f t ' th 20 f 




prospec 


edge^ec lO*" 


dd Ce °d^t r ' 


ear zo "5 in ^ ani 1C Jl oc s . 


t 20 f ~t°d ft 3 d 1 1° 






T27S R33E MDM 


mine I } 


S T \. d^b ' " 0n d 

mar e y green copper on es in 


trenches ' and~pits Probably no^pro 






Cook Pk^ 6 4^miles 






duction Idle { Aubury 04:15t* 05:241* 










rac u *" es - on ^ *"epor e o con- 


08 : 29 7 ■ Br own 16:480- Er ic 48:256t: 






east of Bod f i sh 




a yg" a g S g l^percen^copper S 'o2 to 












.03 oz gold, and 1 oz silver by 


Sampson, Oakeshott 49:209 253t) . 






















shot t 1949, p 209) Crops out 
















102 


Smith (Iron Hat, 


N^SE^ sec. 1, 


Walter Bickel , 


Quartz veins in schist contain 


Par t of Iron Hat group of 3 claims . 




Schmidt) mine 


T29S R38E MDM 


P Box 142 


chalcopyrite, pyrite, free gol , 








El Paso Mts 11% 


Inyokern (1958) 




inclined 70° N for 200 feet below 






of^Ca t^l^on^a 




p"i l" 1 1 ie s t ikes^est 3 S <3 












d ' t 1 th S hi 
ips s eep y nor . ome c a co- 


for lower 300 feet. At 50 feet^below 






f* ma , j 1 f ew . , 




pyrite an PY 171 e occur a ^ ine y- 


collar a 90-foot drift adit from eas t 






hundred i3et nor tr 




disseminated grains in siliciried 


intersects shaft. At an undetermined 






Chance^C^n LaSt 






* feet^to N^f rom^shaf t^an^smal l^oom 






ance yn. 




Lead mineralization"* appear s^tc^be*"' 












in northwest-trending veins approx- 


excavated. Several short inclined 










imately parallel to bedding plane 


shafts and adits developed in area 100 






















r ocks^ cropping^ ou^lOO^ 


(Dibbl ee , Gay 52:57t, 58t; Tucker , 










east of main shaft. 


Sampson, Oakeshott 49:225, 261t). 




spa and Bonanza 


Reported in cor- 


Undetermined, 1957 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 






ner area sees. 3, 






doned. Prospected by four shafts of 






4, 9, 10, T26S, 






undetermined depths. (see Maltby) 






R29E, MDM, on 






(Aubury 05:241; 08:296; Eric 48:256). 






Iron Mt. 1 mile 










southwest of 












Woody, (1908) ; 












not confirmed, 












1957 










Teagi < 


Undetermined, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 




(Eric 48:256t) . 








C. J. Teagle 












Johannesburg (1912) 







1962] 



Kern— Copper 



89 



COPPER, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


103 


Texas Ranger 
group 


S*s sec. 18, sec. 
19, T28S, R40E, 
MDM , Rademacher 
dist. , 9 miles 
south of Ridge- 
crest 


A. E. Droubie, B. 
Rose, et al. , 


Poorly-exposed copper-and iron- 
stained fractures in granodiorite . 


Ten unpatented claims. Two drift adits 
driven S. 65° E. and S. 50° E. on 

southwest part of sec. 19. Numerous 
cuts by bulldozer and shallow open cuts 




Voss properties 










See Austin group. (Dibblee, Gay 52: 
58t) . 




Wall Street 










See under gold. (Aubury 04:19t). 




Walsh group 










See Colorado Camp group. (Eric 48:256t; 
Tucker 21:308-309; 29:24). 




McClaude group 










Tucker 21:308; 29:23-24)! 


104 


Windy Whiskers 
claims 


Sees. 12, 13 (?) , 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso dist. , 10 
miles northeast of 
Cantil, on south- 
west side of a 
peak in El Paso 
Mts. ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


George A. Barring- 
ton, 1846 E. 70th 
St. , Los Angeles 
(1958) 


Owner reports copper sul fides and 
copper oxides in veins in granitic 
rocks. Extent and grade of occur- 
rences not determined. 


Three unpatented claims. Development 
undetermined. No production. Idle. 




Yellow Aster 
mine 










See text under gold (Eric 48:257t). 




Yellow Treasure 










See under gold. (Eric 48:257t). 


105 


Zuna (Copperola, 


NW% sec. 12, T29S, 
R38E, MDM, El Paso 
Mts. , 10% miles 
northeast of 
Cantil, 1 mile 
southwest of 
Gerbracht Camp 


Rolf L. Meuer and 
assocs. , c/o Delia 
G. Gerbracht, P.O. 
Box 346, Randsburg 
(1958) 


Quartz vein in shear zone as much 

granite. Vein strikes N. 80° E. 
and dips 40° NW. sub-parallel to 
northwest slope of hill. Quartz 

copper oxides , iron oxides , and 
manganese oxides. Vein poorly 
exposed at surface. Copper stain- 
ing common in wall rock . 


Six lode claims. Principal shaft is 

of Last Chance Cyn. Shaft inclined 40° 
NW. to depth of 165 feet. Thirty tons 
of copper-bearing quartz shipped to 

duction. Idle. Formerly described 
under Copperola group. (Dibblee, Gay 
52:58t; Eric 48:257t; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:208) . 




Zundra claims 










Sampson, Oakeshott 49:209). 




Undetermined 


Undetermined 


Undetermined, 1958 
B. A. Gordon, 
Isabella (1943) 




Lead mine. Uncorrelated property. 
(Eric 48:254t) . 




Undetermined 


Undetermined ' 


G. B. McElhinnie, 
Bakersfield (1942) 




Lead-silver-gold mine. Uncorrelated 
name (Eric 48:254t) . 



which averaged 19.4 percent copper and 5.7 ounces of 
silver per ton (Turner, 1902, p. 547). Little mining was 
done from 1900 to 1913, but the mine was rehabilitated 
in 1913 and a 100-ton mill was erected in 1916. Through 
1918, production was estimated at 600,000 pounds of 
copper. Mill ore ranged from 2 to 8 percent copper and 
contained about 2 ounces of silver per ton, although 
mill heads average 5 percent copper. No mining has been 
done since 1918. 

The area is underlain by. biotite-hornblende granodi- 
orite which contains inconspicuous quartz veins and nar- 
row aplite dikes. Both aplite dikes and veins are cut and 
displaced along mineralized shears, (fig. 35). The prin- 
cipal copper vein is 5 feet wide, strikes N. 5° E., and 
dips vertically. From near-surface evidence it appears 
that an ore shoot was formed at the intersection of the 
5-foot vein and a sheeted zone 6 feet wide that strikes 
N. 70° E. Near the collar of a 200-foot inclined shaft 
this sheeted zone dips 42° NW. but gradually increases 
to 60° at a depth of 100 feet. Altered granodiorite at 
the intersection of these two planes is heavily stained 



with hydrous iron oxides, and a mixture of azurite and 
malachite occurs to a depth of 60 feet, the lower limit 
of oxidation. A limonite gossan 16 inches thick occurs 
along the hanging wall of the sheeted zone. The sheeted 
zone is parallel to joint systems in the granodiorite. Both 
walls of the 5-foot vein are marked by slickensided sur- 
faces with sparse mineralization extending into the wall 
rock. No primary ore was seen in place in 1956 but 
material in mine dumps contained massive sulfide ore 
composed of chalcopyrite with minor pyrite cut by 
veinlets of sooty chalcocite. 

The deposit is developed by a 200-foot single-compar-- 
ment inclined shaft with levels driven northward at 95-, 
13 5-, and 185-foot depths. A lenticular ore body 20 feet 
wide and 100 feet in vertical extent was removed from 
these workings during the earliest period of mining. 
About 250 feet north of the inclined shaft, two vertical 
shafts were sunk on a continuation of the same (?) vein. 
A depth of 240 feet was reached in one shaft, and levels 
were driven at 100-, 140-, and 200-foot depths with an 
aggregate of a few thousand feet of drifts. A 200-foot 



90 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



winze was sunk in the main ore shoot at an inclination 
of 45° from the 200 level (Tucker, 1921, p. 307). In 
1956, timbers in the inclined shaft were in good shape 
except near the collar; the vertical shaft and appended 
workings may be open, but are not easily accessible. 
Other workings include five small prospect pits and a 
caved adit. 

Diatomaceous Earth 

By George B. Cleveland 

Diatomaceous earth occurs in the excreme western part 
of Kern County. The principal deposits consist of diato- 
maceous layers in the early Tertiary marine formations 
which lie along the western and southwestern margins 
of the San Joaquin Valley. These formations crop out 
discontinuously for at least 75 miles in Kern County. 
In this area the Kreyenhagen shale, Temblor, Monterey 
(Maricopa shale), Santa Margarita, San Joaquin, and 
Tulare formations are all diatomaceous in part. The 
Kreyenhagen shale of Eocene age and the Monterey for- 
mation of Miocene age appear to contain the thickest 
and purest deposits of diatomaceous earth, but none of 
the deposits has been mined on a commercial basis. These 
formations trend northwest, are moderately to tightly 
folded, and locally faulted. Most of the diatomaceous 
layers are thin, but some are as much as several hundred 
feet thick. Although the deposits are smaller and appear 
to be less pure than those mined near Lompoc in Santa 
Barbara County, they contain large reserves of material 
which may be of commercial value. 

Near McKittrick, Page and others (1945) described 
scattered and relatively small deposits of asphalt-impreg- 
nated sedimentary rocks, some of which are diatomaceous 
siltstone. Bituminous rocks are distributed widely in this 
region, but those mapped by Page and others occur in a 
structural belt that extends for at least 2 miles and is sev- 
eral hundred yards wide. The bituminous diatomaceous 
siltstone is in the Monterey formation. It is a soft, punky, 
and weathers white. Fresh surfaces are dark brown. It 
probably averages less than 10 percent bitumen. The de- 
posits are irregularly shaped and the largest deposit crops 
out over an area of less than 25 acres. The deposits con- 
tain an estimated maximum total of 15,700,000 tons of 
bituminous material. The thickness of these deposits has 



not been determined, but estimated reserves of all of the 
bituminous rocks in the area is based on a thickness of 
100 feet and an average bitumen content of about 10 
percent. The distribution and size of the bituminous de- 
posits has been controlled largely by shears and solid 
flow of the sandstones and to a lesser degree by folding. 

Bituminous diatomaceous earth deposits similar to those 
in Kern County are being mined near Casmalia in Santa 
Barbara County. The bitumen in the rocks is utilized for 
fuel to calcine the earth which is sold as light-weight 
aggregate. 

Dolomite (See Limestone, Dolomite, and Cement) 
Feldspar (See Quartz and Feldspar) 
Fluorspar 

Veinlets of fluorite occur in an 8-inch-wide shear zone 
in metarhyolite at a locality in El Paso Mountains. An 
unconfirmed occurrence in the west end of the Rand 
Mountains is reported by Murdoch and Webb (1956, 
p. 157). 

Gem and Mineral Localities 

Murdoch and Webb (1956) list 119 mineral species in 
Kern County. In addition, many varieties of quartz- 
family minerals and other minerals have been gathered in 
the county and used for cutting and polishing by lapi- 
daries. The localities listed in table 9 are principally 
sources of material in Kern County for lapidaries. Min- 
eral species listed by Murdoch and Webb (1956) in 
Bulletin 173, Minerals of California, as being found in 
Kern County are shown in table 10 together with the 
page number in the bulletin. These were taken from an 
index prepared by Miss Elizabeth Collins in 1957. No 
localities containing rare or precious gems are known in 
the county. 

Most of the well-known collecting localities in Kern 
County contain little easily obtained material, but material 
suitable for cutting and polishing can be obtained by the 
diligent worker at most of the localities listed below. 

Descriptions and locations of collecting localities in 
Kern County are available from magazines and books 
published for the hobbyists. Treasure map of the great 
Mojave Desert, published by Gems and Minerals Maga- 
zine, Mentone, California (1958), shows the locations of 
collecting areas. A large part of the information in table 



fi .nnusPAn • FLUoniTF 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


L ocor/on 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


106 


Fluorite claims 
(Last Chance 
Canyon deposit) 

Last Chance 
Canyon deposit 


Appr ox . center of 
sec. 12, T29S, 
R38E, MDM, El Paso 
Mts. , 10^ miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 


Fred Gerbracht and 
others, c/o Delia 
G. Gerbracht, P.O. 
Box 346, Randsburg 
(1958) 


Several veinlets of red, green, and 
white fluorite in altered metarhyo- 
lite. Veinlets occur in 8-inch 
wide vertical shear zone which 
strikes K. 55° W. 


Five lode claims. Shear zone prospected 
by several open cuts spaced a few tens 
of feet apart along the shear zone. No 

production (Crosby, Hoffman 51:632, 
634t) . 

See Fluorite claims. (Crosby, Hoffman 
51 :632, 634t) . 



1962] Kern— Gem and Mineral Localities 91 



Table 9. Selected gem and mineral localities in Kern County. 



No. 


Name 


Location 


Material 


Remarks* 


A. 


Bena Siding 


Probably in sees. 1, 12, T. 30 S., R. 
30 E., M.D.M., 2 miles east of 
Bcnn S i ii i n ■ ' 


Petrified wood (oak, sycamore). 


Silicified wood in upper Walker forma- 
tion, above a tuff bed. 




B. 


Black Mountain 


SK sec. 22, T. 25 S., R. 32 E., 
M.D.M., on Black Mtn. V/i miles 
east of Greenhorn Summit. 


Smoky quartz crystals. 


Large quartz crystals occur in a pegmatite 
dike intrusive into quartz diorite. 


C. 


Boron Dry Lakes 


Sees. 3, 4, 14, T. 11 N., R. 9 W., 
M.D.M., 21 miles north of High- 
way 466, in hills flanking playas. 


Petrified wood, "chaffonite" chal- 
cedony. 


Silicified woody material in Quaternary 
lake beds and chalcedony in amygda- 
loidal basalt. 


u. 


Cache Creek (Horse 
Canyon) 


^prs ?fi K IS T 11 S T! 34 F 
M.D.M., in the upper reaches of 
Cache Creek, about 10 miles north- 
east of Tehachapi. 


Agate (sagenite, banded, clouded, 
plume, moss, lace), chalcedony, 
chrysoprase, jasper, mammalian 
fossils, opal, quartz clusters. 


Miocene continental sedimentary rocks 
flanked on the north by Tertiary 
andesite. 


E. 


Cameron Siding 


Annrov <sec 1( T 12 S R 34 F 

M.D.M., 8 miles east-southeast of 
Tehachapi, north of Cameron 
Siding. 


Aragonite. 


Secondary deposits in Paleozoic lime- 
stone. 


F. 


Castle Butte 


Sees. 23, 35, 36, T. 32 S., R. 38 E., 
M.D.M., 18 miles east-northeast 
of Mojave, mostly on the southeast 
slopes of Castle Butte. 




Quaternary accumulations of silicified 
tropical plants mantling Mio-Pliocene 
continental beds, and amygdaloidal 
basalt. 




Bloodstone, agate, palm root. 


G. 


Cinco 


Sec. 31, T. 30 S., R. 37 E., M.D.M., 4 
miles by road north of Cinco, above 
^^ater Canyon. 


Dipyramidal quartz crystals and 
twinned orthoclase crystals. 


Large, partly kaolinized orthoclase crys- 
tals and quartz in a northeast-trending 
pegmatite dike. 




H. 


Gem Hill 


SEJ< sec. 26, T. 10 N., R. 13 W., 
S.B.M., Syi miles northwest of 
Rosamond, in the Rosamond Hills. 


Agate, jasper, nodules, opal, petrified 
wood. 


Secondary deposition of silica, and silici- 
fied wood in Mio-Pliocene continental 
beds. 




I. 


Greenhorn Summit. . 


Various mines of Greenhorn Summit 
tungsten district. 


Quartz, garnet, epidote, and scheelite 
crystals. 


See Black Mountain King, Little Acorn, 
and Big Sugar mines in text under 


J- 


Last Chance Canyon. 


NWX T. 29 5., R. 38 E., M.D.M., 
El Paso Mts., 9 miles northeast of 
Cantil. 


Agate, apatite, calcite geodes, cas- 
siterite, chalcedony, chloropal, 
copper minerals, coprolites, den- 
drites, epidote, jasper, opal (fire, 
moss, resin, milky), petrified wood 
(palm root, osage orange, black 
fig, white fig, conifers), zeolites. 


Vesicle fillings, veins, etc., in volcanic 
flows; silicified plant material in Plio- 
cene Ricardo formation! copper min- 
eralization in igneous and metasedi- 
mentary rocks. 


K. 


Pescado Creek 


Approx. sec. 12, T. 9 N., R. 17 W., 

C R \A ( f-i rr\ ipr-tpn I R m 1 1 po nnrtn- 
O.O.lVl. V_prUJcCtCU }, O Hlllca lHJl LU - 

westof Antelope aqueduct station. 


Varicolored marble. 


See Antelope Valley deposit in tabulated 
list under Lmwstoii?, 




L. 


Rainbow Ridge 


SWX sec. 22 (?), T. 28 S., R. 39 E., 
M.D.M., 12 miles southeast of 
Inyokern in El Paso N4ts. 


Jasp-agate. 


Black Mountain vesicular basalt (?). 


M. 


Rand Mountains 


NEX, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M.D.M., 
about 2 miles south of Randsburg. 


Rhodonite, tourmaline. 


Black tourmaline and sparse rhodonite in 
Rand schist. 


N. 


Red Rock Canyon. .. 


Mostly in T. 29 S., R. 37 E., M.D.M., 
along U.S. Highway 6 near Ric- 
ardo, along the western boundary 
of El Paso Mts. 


Agate, jasper, natrolite, petrified 
wood. 


Veinlets and vug fillings in volcanic rock 
of Pliocene Ricardo formation. 


O. 


Roaring Ridge (Opal 
mines group) 


EJ3 sec. 13, 1. ly i>., K. 51 and 
NVVX sec. 18, T. 29 S., R. 38 E., 
M.D.M., northwest flank of El 
Paso Mts., lyi miles north-north- 
west of Cantil. 


Brown, gray, and pale white opaline 
chert, common and fire opal. 


Thin layers of chert in tuffaceous silt of 
member 5 (Dibblee, 1952) of the 
Ricardo formation. Amygdules of 
chalcedony and opal as much as half an 
inch in diameter are in upper basalt 
flow of the Ricardo formation. Property 
is developed by 125-ft. shaft inclined 
10° to 15° NW. and shallow excava- 
tions in the basalt. 



92 



California Division of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 

Table 9. Selected ge?n and mineral localities in Kern County.— Continued 



Location 



Material 



Remarks* 



Rosamond Rhodonite 

Saltdale 

Sharktooth Hill... 



Soledad Mountain. 



T. 10 N., R. 15 W., S.B.M., about 10 
miles south of Tehachapi along 
Cottonwood Creek. 

T. 30 S., R. 38 E., M.D.M., Koehn 
Dry Lake, 1 mile south of Saltdale. 

Sees. 14, IS, T. 28 S., R. 29 E., 
M.D.M., 8 miles northeast of Oil- 
dale on Pyramid Hill. 

Sec.8(?),T. 10N.,R. 12W.,S.B.M., 
6 miles south of Mojave. 



Rhodonite. 
Halite crystals. 

Fossil shark teeth and petrified wood. 
Agate, "myrickite," obsidian. 



See text under Salt. 



Silicified wood from Oligocene Walker 
formation and shark teeth from middle 
Miocene marine sedimentary rocks. 

Veinlets in pyroclastic and volcanic rocks 
of the Tropico group. 



* Compiled largely from information In several gem and mineral publications, especially "Treasure map of the great Mojave Desert," by Mary Frances Berkholz (published in 1958 
by Gem and Minerals Magazine). Many of these localities were not confirmed by Division of Mines personnel. 



9 was kindly provided by Mary Francis Berkholz, field 
trip editor, Gems and Minerals Magazine. 

As most of the localities are on private land or land 
held by mineral location, the collector must obtain per- 
mission from the owner to enter the area and remove 
material. 

Gold 

In terms of total dollar value and number of deposits, 
gold is the most important metallic mineral commodity 
that has been produced in Kern County. From 1851, 
when it was discovered in Greenhorn Gulch near the 
Kern River, through 1957, the value of gold mined in 
Kern County exceeded $46,000,000. 

The first lode mining was in 1852 at the Keyes and 
Mammoth mines at Keysville, and by 1865 gold was 
being produced from at least four districts in the Kern 
River country: the Keysville, Clear Creek (Havilah), 
Greenhorn Mountain, and Cove districts. Gold was so 
important to the economy of Kern County during this 
period that Havilah, a remote settlement 7 miles south 
of Lake Isabella, was the county seat from 1867 to 1874. 
The gold and silver produced from these districts has 
been estimated, at several million dollars, although no pro- 
duction records are available for the period before 1880. 
In 1894, gold was discovered on Standard Hill in the 
iMojave district; through 1958, gold and silver valued at 
about 120,000,000 was produced from the four isolated 
buttes that comprise the district. Discovery of gold at the 
site of the Yellow Aster mine in 1895 led to development 
of the Rand district and an eventual total yield of at 
least 120,000,000 in gold and silver. 

Two mines, the Yellow Aster mine ($12,000,000 out- 
put) in the Rand district and the Golden Queen mine 
($9,00 i,000 output) in the Mojave district have yielded 
almost half of the total recorded gold output of the 
county. 

Most of the gold veins in the Rand district occupy 
shear zones and faults in Rand schist (Precambrian?) 
and Atolia quartz monzonite (Mesozoic). In the Yellow 
Aster mine, the gold also is in a network or stockwork 
of closely spaced veinlets, which were mined almost as 
if they formed a single large vein. 



In the Mojave district gold is in veins in Tertiary 
rhyolitic volcanic rocks, although in some deposits quartz 
monzonite is the host rock on one or both walls. Asso- 
ciated with gold in the veins ,are silver, copper, antimony, 
and lead minerals. 

Although most of the gold deposits in the county are 
in the Sierra Nevada (fig. 36), these deposits have a 
lower average yield than those in the Mojave Desert 
region and they are more widely spaced. The nine prin- 
cipal districts in the Sierra Nevada have a combined mini- 
mum output of about $7,000,000 in gold. These districts 
in the approximate order of decreasing productivity ac- 
cording to recorded production are: the Cove, Keysville, 
Clear Creek (Havilah), Loraine, Pioneer, Piute Moun- 
tains (Green Mountain), Poso Creek, Woody, and 
Greenhorn Mountain districts. Nearly all of the gold de- 
posits of the Sierran mines are in quartz veins in granitic 
rocks, related alaskite and aplite, and rhyolitic dikes. 
Other metallic minerals, with the exception of iron sul- 
fides and silver minerals, are generally absent. Scheelite 
is present in a few veins, and galena, sphalerite, chalco- 
pyrite are common in the Cove district. 

In 1958, the only continuous gold mining being done 
was by a group of lessees at the Yellow Aster mine and 
the only active custom gold mill (stamp and amalgama- 
tion) was the Butte Mill at Randsburg. 

Through 1957 the recorded production of placer gold 
in Kern County totaled about 32,000 fine ounces. The 
actual output of placer gold, however, is probably two 
or three times larger, partly because, during the early 
mining of most of the placer deposits, the miners spent 
the gold as they mined it. In addition, placer gold is not 
ordinarily sold to the U. S. Mint and its value is not 
reported. 

Most of the placer gold was mined before 1900 by 
many miners operating individually or in small mining 
groups. As soon as the easily recoverable gold was mined 
at one locality, a period ranging from a few months to 
about 3- years, most of the prospectors moved to other 
districts or sought lode deposits upstream or upslope 
from the placer deposits. Since 1900, the only period 



1962] 



Kern— Gem and Mineral Localities, Gold 



9? 



Table 10. Minerals in Kern County* 



actinolite (amphibole) , 41 


lazulite, 204 


alunite, 38 


lead, 205 


analcite 47 


lpninnmplanp 707 

1L LJ LJ 1 1 1 C Id.1 1 L7. _ U .' 


QDn^llKlff 1 40 


lirharcrp 700 


antimony, 53 


ludwigite, 210 


iiraoriTiirp 

Ql d^UlllLL, J U 


moirnpcif"p 717 

1 1 1 -i. £i 1 I L 31 I C , - I _ 


artrpniitp ^ft 

digClIULC^ JO 


m q cn rp 714 

IllJ.JillL.lllL, _ 1 "T 


Qrspnnnvntp ^1 


marr*ocirp 7 1 R 

1 1 1 ii 1 L <iM LC , — 1 O 


autunite 64 


mariposite, 219 


axinite 65 


massicot 22 1 


3711T1fP rt^i 
tlZ. UI ILL, uu 


mimetite 229 


1 barite, 69 


minium, 229 


r»pnif"nit"p 74 


mnlvhrlpnifp 731 

lllUl^ I ' LI L 1 1 i I L , t, J I 


bismuthinite 79 


montmonllonite 234 


i borax, 81, 22 


natrolite, 238 


bornitc 83 


niter, 241 


bournonitc 85 


opal, 244 


bromyrite, 87 


orpiment, 245 


broolcite 87 


orthoclase (feldspar), 155 


i fa lni tp on 


phillipsite, 249 


cassitente 92 


piedmontite, 250 


i ccladonite 94 


powellite, 257 


pptq rtrvri fp 0? 

Ltlalg* Hit. 7J 


probertite, 259 


cervantite 98 


proustite, 259 


L. 1 1 dlCC LIU 1 1 \ \ lJU.il IZ, / , -Ou 


psilomelane, 261 


chalcocite 100 


pyrargyrite, 264 


chalcopyrite, 103 


pyrrhotite, 274 


chloritoid 108 


quartz, 277 


f-> \-\ 1 nrnno I 1 HO 

UUUl UUdl, 1U7 


realgar, 281 


Pfirvcnpnllo 1 1 f\ 

L l 1 1 » JUL KJ lid., 1 1U 


rhodonite 284 


cinnabar 120 


scapolite, 291 


clinoptilolite, 122 


scheelite, 292 


coconite 123 


scorodite 294 


LU1L.11U111LC, i 


*;prnpnf"inp 70^ 

JL 1 j. 'L 1 ! 1 I J ! L. , _ 7U 


cuprite, 134 


sillimanite, 299 


' cuprotungstite, 135 


silver, 300 


Hftlnmifp 14? 

Li U 1 KJ 1 1 1 1 I L , 1 T _ 


smithsonite 302 


1 dumortierite 143 


sphalerite, 305 


enstatite (pyroxene), 271 


sphene, 306 


epidote, 146 


spodumene, 308 


fprrimAiunnitp 1 
I 1 CllllllUlV U Lil I L , 1 JU 


Qf ihirTtmt"P 310 


i fluorite 157 


stibnite, 311 


i ' (rex I pn 0k 1 ^0 

gtllLTlld, 1UU 


sulphur, 317 


I garnet, 164, 166 


tenorite 322 


1 gibbsite (bauxite), 168 


tetrahedrite, 324 


orinnirp 17? 


thenar dite 326 


cnimmifp 1 77 


thomsonite 326 


1 crvrt^iim 1 7fi 


tincalconite 3 28 


hpmatirp 1R3 


tnrnprn itp 3 30 


1 1C 1 1 JJ111LC, 10-7 


rrtftrmalinp 3 31 

L V > LI 1 1 ! 1 J 1 1 1 I L . 1 


1 npnl iinn ifp 1 

1. llCUldllUlLC, 1 ou 


tremohte (amphibole), 43 


1 howlite, 187 


turgite, 336 


1 iddingsite, 191 


ulexite, 337 


H idocrase (vesuvianite) , 341 


valentinite, 339 


ilmenite, 191 


vanadinite, 339 


|| inderite, 193 


vesuvianite, 341 


1 iron (meteorite) , 195 


wolframite, 346 


1 jamesonite, 196 


wollastonite, 347 


li kermesite, 199 


wulfenite, 349 


1 kernite, 200 


zoisite, 353 



•As listed in California Division of Mines Bulletin 173 by Murdoch and Webb (1956). 
Index compiled by Elizabeth Collins, 1957. 

during which a large number of placer deposits were 
being worked was during the late 1920s and 1930s. 

Although nearly all the gold districts in Kern County 
have yielded placer gold, the principal placer deposits 
are in the Rand district, El Paso Mountains, and along 
Kern River (fig. 37). In general, the placer deposits were 



discovered and mined before the discovery of nearby 
lode deposits, and most of the placer deposits have been 
traced to lode sources. In El Paso Mountains, however, 
the source of the placer gold has not been found. 

The placer gold deposits are most common in Quater- 
nary stream gravels. The gold is commonly most abun- 
dant at or near the base of the gravels. Many of the 
placer deposits were moderately rich in gold and were 
mined out within a few years after they were found. 
Some of the gold placer deposits in the Mojave Desert, 
however, probably could still be worked profitably if 
they were near an abundant water supply. The high cost 
of obtaining water to work the deposits, in the arid re- 
gion, by hydraulicking, sluicing, or dredging (in arti- 
ficial ponds) has hindered the mining of the placer 
material. 

Amalie (Amelia, A?nalia) Mine. Location: NW% 
sec. 22, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M., Loraine district, on 
a ridge a few hundred feet northwest of the junction of 
Sand Canyon and Caliente Canyon. 

The earliest published record of the Amalie mine was 
in 1894 when it was owned by C. Mohr of Caliente 
(Crawford 1894, p. 141). It was purchased soon after- 
wards and the Amalie A4ining Co. was formed. In 1896, 
a 16-ton Huntington mill was put into operation and 
development of the mine progressed rapidly until 1900. 
Mining has been intermittent since 1900, with produc- 
tion reported in 1905, 1908, 1912, 1927, 1928, 1935, and 
1936. The total value of ore from the mine was reported 
to have been about $600,000 by 1912 (Brown 1916, p. 
486). 

The mine area is underlain by pre-Cretaceous meta- 
sedimentary rocks which form a large roof pendant in 
Mesozoic quartz diorite. Tertiary rhyolite porphyry 
dikes were intruded into the metasedimentary rocks 
along a 300-foot-wide zone trending generally north- 
west. Silver mineralization apparently accompanied a 
late phase of this intrusion. Quartz diorite crops out 1,500 
feet northwest of the main workings and 500 feet to the 
southeast. 

Mineralization is in three subparallel veins 8 inches to 
4 feet wide which strike about N. 55° W. and dip 
85° NE. The Main vein crops out at the crest of a north- 
west-trending ridge between Sand Canyon to the east 
and Caliente Canyon to the south. The vein is mostly in 
rhyolite porphyry but locally schist forms one or both 
walls of the vein. It can be traced 600 to 800 feet laterally 
and has been explored 600 feet down the dip. The vein 
is composed mainly of fault gouge and quartz with pyrite 
and hydrous iron oxides. The most common ore minerals 
are cerargyrite, bromyrite, and free gold, but argentite, 
proustite, and tetrahedrite were reported by Crawford 
(1896, p. 605). 

The Occidental vein crops out 200 feet southwest of 
the mine shaft which is on the Main vein. It strikes 
N. 60° W. and dips 70°-80° NE. The southeastern part 
of this vein swings northward and appears to join the 
southeastern end of the Main vein at a point about 550 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



■j-COVE DISTRICT 




Figure 36. Distribution of lode gold deposits in Kern County. 



.O I sobollo 




Figure 37. Distribution of placer gold deposits in Kern County. 



1962] 

feet southeast of the shaft. An ore body 200 feet long 
was mined from the surface to below the 250 level near 
the intersection of the two veins. 

The Virginia vein is about 450 feet northeast of the 
Main vein. It strikes N. 30° W. and dips 80°-90° NE. 
It has not been extensively developed. 

The Amalia mine workings consist of a 560-foot, two- 
compartment inclined shaft with six levels at 100, 150, 
250, 300, 400, and 500 feet below the shaft collar (fig. 
38). Horizontal workings on these levels aggregate about 
5,000 feet. The 250 level, with 2,000 feet of workings on 
the Main and Occidental veins, is the most extensive, and 
is the only level on the Main vein accessible by an adit; 
its portal is 800 feet southeast of the shaft, at the south- 
eastern base of the ridge. The Virginia vein is developed 
by a 240-foot drift adit driven N. 30° W. from the south 
slope of a small draw northeast of the shaft on the Alain 
vein. 

Baltic Mine. Location: SE'X sec. 1, T. 30 S., R. 40 
E., M.D.M., Stringer district, 1 '/ 2 miles southeast of 
Randsburg. Ownership: E. D. and Vivian Horkheimer, 
address undetermined (1957). 

Gold was discovered at the Baltic mine site in January 
1896, by William and Wilson Logan. It was mined by 
lessees until 1901. The Baltic Co. operated the mine from 
1901 until 1920. The Rand Mining and Milling Co. ac- 
quired the mine in 1921 and operated it until 1923. The 
Monarch Rand Alining Co. owned the mine in 1924; 
Albert Ancker was the owner in 1933. The mine probably 
has yielded at least $50,000 in gold. A moderate amount 
of scheelite, which was discovered shortly before World 
War I, also has been produced. The most productive 
gold-mining period was from 1896 until 1912; minor pro- 
duction, was obtained during the years 1920-22, 1933, 
1935, 1938, and 1940. A 10-stamp mill was operated for 
many years on the Baltic property. A large part of the 
mill tailing has been re-milled. Part of the mill was set 
up at the Randsburg museum in 1958. 

The gold and scheelite are in two intersecting fault 
lode veins in Rand schist. One vein strikes N. 20° E. 
and is aligned with the G. B. vein, which was mined 
a few hundred feet to the north of the Baltic mine. The 
other vein strikes nearly due west and dips 35° N. Both 
veins are from 2 to 4 feet wide and each has been traced 
for about 500 feet on the surface. Several west-trending 
veinlets or stringers only about an inch wide also contain 
traces of gold and locally are rich in scheelite. The veins 
and stringers are composed of silicified, iron-stained, brec- 
ciated Rand schist and contain finely divided gold, lo- 
cally scheelite, and, in some places, minute crystals of 
pyrite. Nearly all of the alluvial material in the stream 
channel which drains eastward across the Baltic claim has 
been removed and treated for the recovery of scheelite 
and gold. Soon after the discovery of the scheelite in the 
alluvium, abundant pebbles and cobbles of scheelite were 
hand-sorted from it. 

The principal mine workings are joined to the Old 
Baltic shaft at the intersection of the two main veins and 



95 

to the New Baltic shaft about 600 feet to the north 
along an unproductive vein. The Old Baltic shaft is 
inclined 35° N. to a depth of 160 feet. From it several 
hundred feet of drifts have been driven on both veins on 
three levels down to 160 feet and numerous stopes, some 
now caved, have been the principal sources of ore. The 
New Baltic shaft is 610 feet deep on a 65° incline and 
has a total of 230 feet of drifts on the 300-foot and 580- 
foot levels. Several other shafts, some as deep as 75 feet, 
have been sunk on some of the stringers. 

Barbarossa Mine. Location: Mostly in the SW!4 
NE'/i sec. 16, T. 30 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M., Loraine dis- 
trict, one mile north of Loraine on a high ridge between 
Sand and Sycamore Canyons. Ownership: Christopher 
Rosenhoffer, 277 Douglas, Pasadena (1958). 

The Barbarossa mine was worked mostly during two 
periods in the early 1900s. In 1904 approximately 2,000 
tons of ore was mined, and an additional 900 tons was 
shipped between 1912 and 1914. The ore averaged one 
ounce of gold and one ounce of silver per ton. Ore was 
hauled by wagon to the Amalie mill one mile south of 
the Barbarossa mine. The mine has been idle, except for 
development work, since 1914. 

The ore was obtained from the Barbarossa vein which 
is contained in a porphyritic rhyolite dike a few tens of 
feet thick and trending N. 5° W. The dike has intruded 
Mesozoic quartz diorite. The vein is 2 to 6 feet wide, 
strikes N. 35° W., dips 50° to 70° NE., and can be traced 
about 400 feet on the surface (fig. 39). The south end 
of the vein is terminated by a fault which strikes N. 25° 
E. and dips 58° NW.; the north end apparently splits into 
several small fractures which can be traced only a few 
feet farther northwest. Porphyritic rhyolite forms both 
walls of the vein at the surface but at some points under- 
ground quartz diorite forms the footwall. The vein walls 
are well-defined faults which pinch and swell abruptly. 
The vein is composed principally of quartz with sparsely 
disseminated fine-grained pyrite; free gold and an unde- 
termined silver mineral are the only ore minerals. 

A single-compartment 137-foot inclined shaft extends 
from the surface to the upper or Finley level at 70 feet 
and the middle level at 137 feet. These two levels aggre- 
gate more than 700 feet of drifts and crosscuts. The 
upper level is also accessible by a 110-foot crosscut 
driven N. 70° W. from a point 130 feet east of the col- 
lar of the shaft. From the 137-foot level the vein on both 
sides of the shaft has been mined about equal distances 
to extract an ore body 160 feet long and 4 feet wide. 

A lower level was developed from a point 370 feet 
southeast of and 208 feet below the portal of the upper 
level. It consists of a 416-foot crosscut adit driven N. 
80° W. and about 1,000 feet of appended lateral work- 
ings driven in an attempt to find other ore bodies. Al- 
though additional veins were found in these lower work- 
ings none was of sufficient grade to mine at a profit. 
Another crosscut adit 330 feet northeast of the upper 
portal was driven 145 feet S. 45° W. toward the 137 
level, but lacks 145 feet of connecting with it. 



Kern— Gold 



96 California Division of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 




1962] 



Kern— Gold 



97 




North Adit 

Elev.; 141 feet abov 
Lower Adit 





Pa r I o w Adit 
(Lower Adit) 



Figure 39. Composite plan of the Barbarossa mine. 



Big Blue Group * ( Includes the Beauregard, Big Blue, 
Blue Gouge, Bull Run, Content, Frank, Jeff Davis, Lady 
Belle, Nellie Dent, North Extension Sumner, Red Hill, 
•Sumner, Urbana, and other mines and claims). Loca- 
tion: Most of sec. 28, NW'X sec. 33, and parts of EY 2 
sec. 21, T. 25 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M., Cove mining dis- 
trict, 1 Vi miles southwest of new Kernville, on the north- 
west shore of Lake Isabella. Ownership: Most of the 
claims are patented and owned by Kern Development 
Company, C. S. Long, president, Box 157, Hayward; 
leased to Kern Mines Company, Roland Tognazzini, 
president, 260 California St., San Francisco (1955). 

f By Thomas E. Gay, Jr. 



Lode gold was discovered in the Cove district by 
Lovely Rogers in 1860 in the area now occupied by the 
Jeff Davis, Lady Belle, Bull Run, Frank, Urbana, and 
Beauregard claims. Rogers, Thomas J. Oders, and Joseph 
Caldwell formed the Beauregard Mining Company, and 
erected an eight-stamp mill with wooden stamps. Other 
discoveries of gold were made in the surrounding area, 
and by 1870 several mines were in operation. Most of 
these mines were consolidated in 1875 by Senator J. P. 
Jones who established the Sumner Gold and Silver 
Mining Co. A 16-stamp mill was installed and later en- 
larged to 80 stamps as daily production from the mines 
was increased. The mine was shut down in 1883 follow- 



98 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




Ore bodies outlined on East, Footwall side. 

Ore bodies outlined Middle section. 

Ore bodies outlined West, or Hanging side. r 

100 20 (Prout.1940, P 399) 

FEET 

Figure 40. Longitudinal section along strike of the Big Blue— Sumner mineralized shear zone. 



ing destruction by fire of the surface buildings and near- 
surface timber in the upper workings of the mine (Prout, 
1940, p. 384). Attempts by lessees to restore the mine to 
productivity were unsuccessful. Kern Development Com- 
pany, the present owner, acquired the property in 1907. 
From 1935 to 1943, Kern Mines, Inc., carried on exten- 
sive development and mining activities which resulted 
in a production of several hundred thousand tons of 
ore yielding an average of 0.11 oz. of gold and 0..10 oz. 
of silver per ton plus 6,500 pounds of copper and 
69,000 pounds of lead. From 1934 through 1943 recov- 
ery of gold, silver, lead, and copper was valued at over 
$1,200,000. The mine has been idle since 1943. No re- 
liable production figures are known to the writer but 
the production has been estimated to be several million 
dollars (Prout, 1940, p. 384). 

The Big Blue mine area is underlain by pre-Cretaceous 
rocks of the Kernville series, Mesozoic granodiorite, and 
later Mesozoic alaskite and aplite dikes. The Kernville 
series includes metasedimentary rocks preserved as roof 
pendants in the granodiorite, and in the mine area, is 
xiposed of gray mica schist, dark gray to black slaty 
phy] light-yellowish thinly bedded quartzite, and 
white ^crystallized limestone. Medium-grained granodio- 
rite ci >ps out in most of the area to the west and to the 
east ol e mineralized zone in metasedimentary rocks. 
The te is a fine-grained foliated rock which crops 
out in . ike that trends generally northeast parallel to 
the main Big Blue-Sumner shear zone. It is about 1,500 
feet wide and is several thousand feet long, extending 
mostly along the east side of the shear zone. Aplite is 
intrusive into the alaskite in numerous 2- to 4-foot-wide 



branching interconnecting dikes. The aplite was followed 
by intrusion of silexite, a very fine-grained, bluish colored 
siliceous rock (Prout, 1940, p. 388). 

The principal vein system, the Big Blue-Sumner shear 
zone, is a sheared and faulted zone, as much as 125 feet 
wide, that strikes N. 30° E., and dips 70° NW. This 
zone, also known as the Big Blue or Sumner lode, is 
traceable on the surface for more than 8,000 feet; its 
southern half is along a contact between granodiorite 
and alaskite, and the northern half coincides with contacts 
between alaskite, granodiorite, and metamorphic rocks 
(fig. 7). Innumerable subordinate faults, splits, and 
sheared zones comprise the main shear zone. Post-ore 
faulting is evident in brecciated and displaced segments 
of the mineralized "blue" vein quartz. Ore bodies gener- 
ally coincide with quartz veins in the footwall, hanging 
wall, and central portions of the shear zone. One of the 
largest ore bodies was elliptical in horizontal section, 500 
feet long, with a maximum width of 60 feet near the 
center. Ore shoots also are in opened joints in both the 
footwall and hanging wall country rocks adjacent to the 
main shear zone. 

A second vein system lies west of the Big Blue-Sumner 
shear zone. It strikes N. 60° E., dips 60°-80° SE. and 
terminates against the northern portion of the Big Blue- 
Sumner shear zone. This system of veins, which is desig- 
nated the Lady Belle system, traverses alaskite and grano- 
diorite. The belt containing these veins is about 700 feet 
wide perpendicular to the veins and 1,200 to 1,400 feet 
long. In general, ore bodies in this system are shallower, 
shorter, and richer than those of the Big Blue-Sumner 
shear zone. The average width of ore bodies in the Lady 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



9V 



Belle vein system is 2 to 4 feet, and the average grade for 
much of the ore was from $12 to $20 per ton. 

Ore bodies of both systems are composed principally 
of "blue" vein quartz containing very fine to coarse free 
gold ranging from 650 to 700 fine. At least 50 percent 
of the gold particles are associated with sulfides, espe- 
cially arsenopyrite, pyrite, galena, and sphalerite; less 
commonly gold is enclosed in these sulfides. Other me- 
tallic minerals present in the ore are marcasite, pyrrhotite, 
scheelite, molybdenite, stibnite, bismuthinite, chalcopy- 
rite, and silver chlorides. The nonmetallic gangue miner- 
als are calcite, sericite, chlorite, barite, and albite. Wall 
rocks have been altered by sericitization, chloritization, 
and albitization. 

More than a dozen shafts have been sunk during dif- 
ferent periods of development of the Big Blue group. 
The most important of these are the Sumner or Engine 
shaft (fig. 40), the Cove, Pearson, Big Blue, and Lady 
Belle shafts. The Sumner shaft, the first shaft sunk, is 
near the south end-line of the Lady Belle and Big Blue- 
Sumner vein systems. This shaft was sunk to a depth of 
400 feet with levels at depths of 80, 160, 260, and 300 
feet. This is the shaft that was destroyed by fire in 1883. 
The Cove shaft, 350 feet northeast of the Sumner shaft, 
was sunk to 240 feet and contained three levels. The 
Pearson shaft, in Big Blue Gulch 500 feet south of the 
Sumner shaft, was 80 feet deep and connected with the 
original Sumner shaft workings. The Big Blue shaft, the 
principal shaft, is 510 feet deep and was sunk 650 feet 
south of the Sumner shaft. Drifts were extended to the 
oldest workings of the Sumner shaft on the 80, 160, and 
260 levels and also on the 360 and 460 levels. The 360 
level extends more than 1,000 feet north of the shaft 
and intersects four ore shoots which range in width from 
4 to 60 feet, and are 200 to 540 feet long. The 460 level 
contains over 1,000 of drifts and crosscuts, mostly north 
of the shaft. The Lady Belle shaft, the principal shaft 
of the Lady Belle system of veins, is 438 feet deep and 
provided access to about 2,500 feet of drifts (Aubury, 
1904, p. 12). 

Four crosscut adits connect with the Big Blue-Sumner 
vein from the east. The North "tunnel", 500 feet north- 
east of the Cove shaft, was driven a few hundred feet 
west from Sumner Gulch to the 160 level workings. The 
Pioneer "tunnel", driven west to the vein near the Sum- 
ner shaft, served as a haulage level. The Big Blue "tunnel" 
was driven 2,000 feet west from a point near Kern River 
to the Sumner shaft. This adit was originally driven to 
drain the 260 level. It is now part of the property ac- 
quired by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers for the 
Lake Isabella flood control project, as is the mill site, and 
both are beneath the spillway level of the lake. The 
fourth adit, knowtuas the Graveyard or South "tunnel", 
is about 1,100 feet southeast of the Big Blue shaft. It was 
driven 500 feet west to the Big Blue-Sumner vein. 

The total number of feet of horizontal workings in 
the Big Blue mine has not been determined, but earlier 
reports (Prout, 1940, p. 417, 419) suggest that at least 



30,000 feet of horizontal workings have been driven on 
the Big Blue-Sumner vein. The extent of the workings 
in the Lady Belle system are even less well known. They 
probably aggregate a minimum of 10,000 feet (see also 
the Cove mining district). 

Big Dike (Big Dyke) Mine. Location: NW'/NW'/i 
sec. 1, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M.D.M., Rand district, half a 
mile south of the east end of Randsburg, about 100 yards 
west of the paved road in Fiddlers Gulch. Ownership: 
Five unpatented lode claims are owned by the J. D. 
O'Shea estate, Benko brothers, Portage, Pennsylvania, and 
Mrs. M. O. Miller, Los Angeles (1958). 

The total output of gold from the Big Dike mine is 
probably several thousand ounces, valued at about $200,- 
000. Most of the gold was produced between 1929 and 
1950. The average gold content of about 10,000 tons of 
ore was slightly less than half an ounce per ton. The gold 
averages about 930 fine. Some production of ore from the 
Big Dike mine may have been credited to the Yellow 
Aster Mining Company's production record during its 
operation of the mine sometime before the mid- 1930s. 
Practically all of the gold from the Big Dike mine was 
produced by lessees of the mine. Only assessment work 
has been performed on the mine property since 1950. 

The veins at the Big Dike mine are in Mesozoic quartz 
monzonite and in an east-trending rhyolite dike of Ter- 
tiary age which is several hundred feet long. Schist forms 



o 




Figure 41. Composite plan of the Big Dike mine. 



100 California Division of 

the wall rock along parts of the veins but is not exposed 
at the surface. The principal vein occupies a fault zone 
which strikes approximately north and dips an average of 
40° E. It has been traced for a distance of a few hundred 
feet along the surface but is poorly exposed. The vein 
ranges in thickness from a few inches to several feet. 
The southern part of the vein crosses the east-trending 
rhyolite dike with no apparent displacement of the dike. 
The vein is composed of brecciated and silicified wall 
rock and lies between a well-defined hanging wall shear 
and a moderately to poorly defined footwall shear. Gold 
is in very small, free particles, most commonly near the 
hanging-wall shear, and in ore shoots at the intersection 
of footwall fractures and the main vein. Some of the 
numerous minor shears between the two walls contain 
streaks rich in gold. Most of the mined ore shoots are 
several tens of feet long both laterally and down dip, and 
probably average about 2 feet in thickness. 

Most of the workings of the Big Dike mine are drifts 
on three levels which extend north and south from a 
300-foot shaft inclined 45° east (fig. 41). The three levels 
are at inclined distances of 90, 200, and 300 feet from the 
collar of the shaft. A sub-level extends north and south 
from the shaft between the 90 and 200 levels. A crosscut 
extends west into the footwall from the south end of 
the 90 level to workings of an old inclined shaft about 
150 feet southwest of the collar of the main shaft. Other 
crosscuts were extended both east and west from all 
three levels. From the shaft, the 90 level extends 200 
feet south; the 200 level extends 200 feet north and 200 
feet south; and the 300 level extends 100 feet north and 
200 feet south. The vein was stoped from the 300 level 
to the 90 level for 200 feet south of the shaft. North of 
the shaft the vein was stoped from the 200 level to ap- 
proximately the 100 level for 100 feet. 

Several other short shafts have been sunk on the main 
vein and a drift adit was driven northward several tens 
of feet on a weakly mineralized shear zone several hun- 
dred feet southwest of the main workings. 

Big Gold (Big Tungsten, Bi-Metallic, West End) 
Mine. Location: sees. 3 and 4, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M.D.M., 
1 Vi miles southwest of Randsburg, on the northwest 
flank of Government Peak, Rand Mountains. Ownership: 
John Kreta and Helen V. Kreta, P.O. Box 251, Rands- 
burg, own five unpatented claims (1958). 

The Big Gold deposit was discovered in 1898 and was 
worked intermittently until 1923 by which time a 384- 
foot vertical two-compartment shaft had been sunk and 
more than 500 feet of horizontal workings had been 
driven, mostly at the 155-foot level. Since 1923 the prin- 
cipal periods of activity have been 1927-28 and 1940-42. 
The total value of the output of gold and silver is esti- 
mated by John Kreta (personal communication) to be 
nearly $500,000. The ore is valued mostly for its gold 
content. An undisclosed amount of tungsten was yielded 
from the mine. 

Gold occurs in fault zones and shear zones that cut 
Rand schist and quartz monzonite. The principal fault 



Mines and Geology [County Report 1 




Figure 42. View to northeast of the Big Gold mine. Vein dips away 

from observer from point where photo was taken. Vertical shaft extends 

downward through hanging-wall block to vein. Minnehaha mine is in 
background. 



zone, the Big Gold fault, strikes N. 20° W., dips 40° 
NE., and separates quartz monzonite on the east from 
schist on the west. The fault can be traced on the sur- 
face half a mile south from the mine workings. A parallel 
gold-bearing shear zone is in quartz monzonite about 20 
feet east of the Big Gold fault on the 155-foot level of 
the mine. Two east-trending shear zones are exposed a 
few hundred feet south of the main workings. 

The Big Gold fault zone is about 4 feet in average 
width and consists of crushed and brecciated schist, 
quartz, and rhyolitic dike material between well-defined 
walls. Locariy the fault zone is as much as 30 feet wide 
(Helen Kreta, personal communication, 1959). Gold is 
most commonly in free, very small grains along the foot- 
wall. Gangue minerals are iron pyrites, oxidized in the 
upper part of the veins, and quartz, which occurs most 
commonly as a siliceous matrix in brecciated schist. 
Scheelite is present along parts of the fault zone, most 
commonly near the hanging wall. Copper sulfides have 
been found, and tellurium is also reported (Hulin, 1925, 
p. 130), but both are extremely rare. The gold content 
of most of the ore mined ranged from 0.25 ounce to 
more than an ounce per ton, but locally, extremely high- 
grade, small ore shoots have been found (John Kreta, 
personal communication, 1957). 

The Big Gold mine is developed by a two-compart- 
ment vertical shaft, now 384 feet deep, with levels at 90, 
120, 155, 170 and 250 feet (figs. 42, 43). Most of the 
level workings extend south of the shaft. The shaft has 
been back-filled from a depth of 650 feet (Helen Kreta, 
personal communication, 1959) to the 384-foot level. 
Most of the mining has been done from the 155-foot 
level where the Big Gold fault was intersected by the 
shaft. The 155-foot level extends 200 feet south and 30 
feet north from the shaft; the vein was stoped for 40 
feet along strike across a 12-foot width southward above 
the drift. Near the shaft a winze was sunk 105 feet on 
the vein at an incline of 40°. Eighty feet south of the 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



101 



shaft, a 25-foot crosscut was driven east from which a 
drift was driven 47 feet south on a vein east of the Big 
Gold vein. From the 25-foot crosscut a 30-foot winze 
was sunk on a 45° incline from which a sublevel was 
driven 105 feet southward along the vein east of the Big 
Gold vein. Along the most southerly 85 feet of this drift 
an underhand stope has been driven 35 feet down dip. 
At the north end of the drift a 42-foot winze was sunk 
down-dip, and a drift was driven northward from the 
winze. The 250-foot level consists of an 85-foot crosscut 
east from the shaft then a 90-foot drift south on the Big 
Gold vein. 

Two adits have been driven along the footwall of the 
Big Gold fault about 400 feet west of the shaft. One adit 
extends 175 feet S. 10° E. on the vein; the other is a west- 
trending crosscut which intersects the vein at 40 feet 
from the portal. From this point a 60-foot drift was ex- 
tended south and a 55-foot winze was sunk down-dip. 
Several other short adits and shallow shafts have been 




FEET 

Figure 43. Composite plan of the Big Gold mine. 



made on iron-stained shear zones in an area a few hun- 
dred feet south of the mine area. 

Bobtail Mine. Location: SW!4 sec. 6, T. 10 N., R. 
12 W., S.B.A4., A4ojave district, 5 miles southwest of 
Mojave, on the lower southwestern flank of a N. 45° W.- 
trending ridge in the northwest part of Soledad Moun- 
tain. Owner: Mrs. D. McAllister, Mojave (1958). 

The Bobtail vein was discovered about 1900 and has 
been mined intermittently since 1902. Total production 
exceeds $50,000 and has been estimated to be as much as 
$100,000 (Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 24). More than 
80 percent of the total production was mined between 
the years 1923 and 1942. During this period the ore 
mined averaged 0.52 ounces of gold and 0.33 ounces of 
silver per ton. The earliest recorded shipment, in 1902, 
consisted of 250 tons of ore which contained an average 
of 1.3 ounces of gold per ton. Between 50 and 60 tons 
of ore were mined during 1949-51, but the mine was idle 
in 1958. 

The ore was mined from a quartz vein designated the 
"Bobtail" vein, which strikes N. 40° W. and dips 80° 
NE. in flow-banded fine-grained rhyolite; on the 150 
level of the mine the dip of the vein flattens to 50°. The 
vein can be traced for more than 1,000 feet laterally and 
has been worked to a depth of 200 feet. It consists prin- 
cipally of brecciated and recemented limonite-stained 
quartz containing fine free gold, cerargyrite, and argen- 
tite. On the Excelsior claim of the Elephant group to the 
southeast, this vein is known as the "Excelsior" vein. 

The vein has been developed by a 150-foot inclined 
shaft with levels at 60, 100, and 150 feet. A stope 150 feet 
long has been driven to the surface from the 150-foot 
south drift on the 100 level, and another stope on the 
60 level has been mined to the surface along a length of 
60 feet. The 150 level consists of a 50-foot drift both 
north and south of the shaft. A few hundred feet north 
of the shaft, a crosscut adit was driven eastward that 
intersected the Bobtail vein at 15 feet and the Elephant 
vein of the Elephant group at several hundred feet. A 
drift was driven 200 feet to the southeast on the Bobtail 
vein, along 175 feet of which the vein has been stoped 
to the surface. 

Burton-Brite-Blank (Brife-Burton) Mine (now part of 
Middle Butte Mine). Location: NW'X sec. 16, T. 10 
N., R. 13 W., S.B.M., Mojave district, 9 miles northwest 
of Rosamond on a northeast-facing slope of the south- 
eastern part of Middle Butte. Ownership: The west half 
of the section is owned by Middle Butte Mining Co., Inc., 
c/o Emory L. Morris and Mary Johnson, San Francisco. 
Martin Beck of Rosamond has a lease on the property. 
In 1958 a sublease was issued by him to James and Victor 
Wright of Rosamond. 

The Burton-Brite-Blank deposit was discovered on 
privately owned land in January 1934 by Clyde West- 
fall. A few months later, the northwest quarter section 
was acquired by C. Burton, E. Brite, and T. H. Blank 
who, within a few days gathered high-grade float mate- 
rial which yielded $20,000 in gold. Although subsequent 



102 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



exploration led to the discovery of a 5-foot-wide vein, 
no comparable ore was found in place. The mine was 
idle from 1942 to 1958, but early in 1958 two sub-lessees 
were investigating the possibility of jigging the minus 
%-inch fraction of the surface material. 

Most of the ore mined to date has been obtained from 
open cuts in landslide debris which covers an area about 
500 feet in diameter. Presumably, this material slid north- 
ward down the slope from outcrops of the main vein of 
the Middle Butte mine. An extension of this vein was 
found, outside the slide area, in a crosscut adit 500 feet 
north of the vertical shaft which is on top of the ridge 
at the south end of the old lease. However, only small 
irregular and discontinuous ore shoots of low grade were 
encountered underground. The vein is 4 to 6 feet wide, 
strikes N. 25° W. and dips 40° northeastward. It consists 
of a mixture of kaolinite, alunite, and quartz with hy- 
drous iron oxide staining. Ore minerals consist princi- 
pally of free gold and minor amounts of unidentified 
silver minerals. 

Underground workings consist of two adits and a 65- 
foot vertical shaft with a level at the bottom driven 
southeastward. The length of the level was not deter- 
mined, but it is reported to have connected with Middle 
Butte mine workings (Tucker and Sampson, 1935, p. 
471). One adit, about 500 feet north of the shaft and 
130 feet below the collar, was driven 165 feet southwest; 
the second adit was driven 400 feet southwest from a 
point 160 feet below the first adit. 



Butte (Big Butte, Butte Lode, Butte Wedge) Mine. 
Location: SW'/ 4 sec. 36, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., M.D.M., at; 
east end of town of Randsburg. Ownership: Butte Lode 
Mining Co., P.O. Box 195, Randsburg, Bert Wegman, 
pres., Louis Meehl, sec, owns five claims (1958). 

The Butte gold deposit was discovered in 1896 by 
three brothers— H. C, Sommers, and Tate Ramie. By 
1899, when the Butte Lode Mining Co. was formed, ore 
valued at approximately $140,000 had been produced. 
The most productive mining periods were 1896-1912, 
1916-21, and 1925-42. Most of the mining was done by 
lessees; the ore being milled by the owners. During the 
depression years of the 1930s, when several groups of 
lessees covered nearly all of the mine, one group swept 
fines from the floors of stopes and milled them. The mine 
has been idle since 1942 except for a few short periods 
when the prospecting of old workings has yielded small 
lots of ore. 

Total production from the mine is nearly two million 
dollars in gold and silver, and a few units of tungsten 
concentrates (Bert Wegman, personal communication, 
1957). Wegman estimates that the average grade of the 
ore has been 0.75 ounce of gold per ton; the highest 
grade block of ore mined was 75 tons that yielded 7 
ounces of gold per ton. Vein material that contained less 
than 0.25 ounces of gold per ton was put in the mine 
dumps and part of this has since been screened and the 
fines have been milled. Wegman (1957) estimates that 
the fines in the unscreened portions of the dumps con- 




Figure 44. View to northeast of the Butte mine. Surface trace of Butte mine lies at heads of all the 
dumps, extends to viewer's left into the Little Butte mine and to right into the King Solomon mine. 
Butte mill is at upper end of the pale-colored tailings. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



103 



tain about $6 per ton in gold. Each year he usually mills 
a maximum of a few tens of tons of the screened material. 
The dumps in 1957 contained several thousand tons of 
unscreened rock. 

Mesozoic quartz monzonite underlies a small part of 
the southeast portion of the mine area. Precambrian? 
Rand schist underlies most of the rest of the area. Ter- 
tiary? diorite, which is in a continuous dike several 
feet wide and extends three-quarters of a mile southeast 
and a mile northwest of the Butte mine, forms the hang- 
ing wall of most parts of the principal or Butte vein. The 
general strike of the diorite dike and the Butte vein is 
N. 50° W. ; they dip about 45° NE. The Butte vein is 
about 1,800 feet long on Butte Lode Mining Co. prop- 
erty and extends several hundred feet farther northwest 
into the Kenyon (Consolidated) and Little Butte mines 
(fig. 44). It also extends southeastward into the King 
Solomon mine. In the Butte mine, the Butte vein ranges 
in thickness from a few inches to several feet and extends 
to an inclined depth of 500 feet. Another vein in the 
hanging wall block of the Butte vein extends from a 
junction with the Butte vein S. 70° E. into the King 
Solomon mine (pi. 4). It resembles the Butte vein in 
thickness and composition and crosses the diorite dike 
southeast of the junction with the Butte vein. It has been 
mined in both the Butte and King Solomon mines. 

Most of the vein material in the Butte mine is silicified, 
iron-stained, and brecciated rocks of the footwall block- 
Rand schist, diorite, or quartz monzonite. In some parts 
of the mine the wall rock is so altered and bleached that 
it cannot be readily identified. The material in both veins 
lies between a well-defined hanging wall shear and a 
poorly defined footwall shear. Gold, mostly in the form 
of fine, free particles, is most common in the footwall 
of the vein adjacent to the hanging wall shear and is 
progressively less abundant toward the footwall. Sulfides, 
principally fine-grained pyrite, have been found in the 
relatively uncommon unoxidized parts of the veins. 
Scheelite has been found in the footwall of the Butte 
vein at one point on the 2 50- foot level west of the Rand 
shaft (pi. 4). 

The three principal ore bodies are in the Butte vein. 
The largest is in the southeast part of the mine and lies 
adjacent to a change in strike of the Butte vein north- 
west of the intersections of well-defined footwall shears 
or faults. This ore shoot has been mined from above the 
65-foot level to the 500-foot level below which the gold 
content decreases. The strike length of the ore shoot, 
which rakes southeast, is about 100 feet on most levels 
and the shoot ranges in thickness from 2 feet to about 
8 feet. 

A second ore body, which lies about 80 feet northwest 
of the upper part of the southeast ore body, is at the 
junction of the Butte vein and the vein that extends 
farther southeast into the King Solomon mine. This ore 
body has a strike length of about 150 feet and extends 
from a point above the 65-foot level to the 165-foot level 
and also appears to pinch out downward. 



The third ore body is a few tens of feet northwest of 
the middle ore body on the opposite side of a cross fault 
which has displaced the northwest segment of the Butte 
vein northward. This body is about 250 feet in strike 
length and extends from above the 165-foot level to be- 
low the 300-foot level. 

The Butte mine comprises more than 12,000 feet of 
horizontal workings on nine levels, three large stopes^ 
and seven shafts (pi. 4). The workings are in two groups 
separated by an unexplored segment of the Butte vein. 
This segment is 100 to 150 feet long at the surface. One 
group is in the southeastern part of the Butte claim and 
is interconnected with workings of the King Solomon 
mine. The other group is in the northwestern part of the 
Butte claim and in the Butte Wedge claim. 

The southeastern group consists of about 10,400 feet 
of drifts and crosscuts and four shafts. The shafts are, 
from southeast to northwest, the Ferris, No. 6, Road, and 
Midway, are inclined approximately 45° NE., and are 
from 200 to 400 feet apart. The No. 6 shaft is the deepest, 
is the only one that connects with all nine levels, and was 
the only one in operating condition in 1958. The nine 
levels are at inclined depths of 65, 100, 165, 200, 250, 300, 
350, 400, 500 feet as measured down the No. 6 shaft. The 
Ferris shaft extends to the 250-foot level, and the Mid- 
way shaft to about the 200-foot level. 

The northwest group of workings consists of 1,600 
feet of level workings and three shafts. The workings 
connect with about 800 feet of drifts and crosscuts on 
the Butte Wedge claim. The Perpendicular and an un- 
named shaft, 240 feet apart, connect to drifts on three 
levels (121, 140, and 222 feet) and are connected by two 
drift levels. The No. 7 shaft is 100 feet deep and con- 
nects with two levels which aggregate 100 feet of drifts. 

A mill, between the No. 6 and Road shafts, is equipped 
with two five-stamp batteries, each with an amalgamation 
plate. One battery is modified to treat ores on a gravity 
table. At least one of the batteries has been operated 
nearly continuously in recent years as a custom mill for 
gold and tungsten ores. Since 1956, the Butte mill has 
been the only stamp mill in southern California in which 
custom gold ores have been accepted. Ores that can be 
suitably milled by gravity separation also are accepted at 
the mill. Water for the mill is supplied from a source 
below the 500-foot level of the mine. 

Cactus Queen (Blue Eagle, Cactus) Mine (includes 
Silver Prince property in the northeast part of the de- 
posit). Location: SW/4NW/4 sec. 17, T. 10 N., R. 13 
W., S.B.M., Mojave district, 10 miles northwest of Rosa- 
mond, at the southwest base of Middle Butte. Owner- 
ship: Mr. Clifford G. Burton, Rosamond, owns 340 acres 
of patented property. The Silver Prince property, 120 
acres, is owned by Mrs. George B. Kimball, 1701 ',4 
Glencoe Way, Glendale 8 (1958). 

Gold was discovered at the site of the Cactus Queen 
mine in the fall of 1934, and soon afterward the property 
was purchased by Clifford Burton, who in turn leased, 
and later sold, the mine to Cactus Mines Co. From 1935 



104 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



through 1943 this company vigorously developed the 
mine and when it was shut down in 1942 by order of 
the War Production Board more than 230,000 tons of 
ore had been produced. This output yielded an average 
of 0.35 ounces of gold and 10 ounces of silver per ton. 
In addition, 7,500 pounds of copper and 2,500 pounds of 
lead were recovered during 1941-43. The mine was idle 
from 1943 to 1947, but from 1948 to 1952 three indi- 
vidual lessees mined 23,000 tons of ore which yielded an 
average of 0.5 ounces of gold and 0.9 ounces of silver 
per ton. The mill and shops, which were erected in the 
late 1930s, were dismantled and sold by auction in 1957 
and 1958. The value of the total production from the 
mine exceeds $5,000,000. 

Gold, silver, copper, and lead minerals are in a fissure 
vein which strikes N. 45° E. and dips 35° SE. The vein 
is 3 to 20 feet wide and extends 4,000 feet along the west- 
ern margin of Middle Butte. The vein lies along a major 
fault which, at the surface, separates Mesozoic quartz 
monzonite on the northwest from Tertiary quartz latite 
porphyry on the southeast. Quartz monzonite underlies 
quartz latite on the southeast or hanging wall side be- 
tween the 500 and 600 levels of the northeastern part of 
the vein, and between the 700 and 800 levels in the south- 
western parts of the mine (Schmitt, 1940). The principal 
ore minerals in the vein are proustite, argentite, electrum, 
and finely divided free gold in a gangue of alunite, ka- 
olinite, quartz, marcasite, pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Lo- 
cally present are chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, tetra- 
hedrite, stromeyerite, pyrargyrite, and covellite. Jarosite, 
plumbojarosite, and argentojarosite are abundant in parts 
of the oxidized zone of the vein near the surface (J. 
Fraser, 1939, unpublished). The presence of alunite as- 
sociated with quartz in the upper levels of the mine com- 
monly is indicative of the presence of gold. 

Mine workings total 12,000 feet of drifts and crosscuts 
on ten levels at 100-foot vertical intervals; all levels are 
appended to a 1,000-foot inclined shaft (pi. 5). Three 
hundred fifty feet south of this shaft, a winze was sunk 
from the 300 level to the 1000 level. A second shaft sev- 
eral hundred feet northeast of the main shaft, and on the 
Silver Prince property, was sunk to the 600 level on the 
vein with six levels at approximately 100-foot intervals. 
Another inclined shaft northeast of the Silver Prince also 
extends to the 600 level. 

Consolidated Mine (includes Good Hope and Kenyan 
Mines). Location: SE!4 sec. 35, T. 29 S, R. 40 E., 
M.D.M., east end of town of Randsburg, on south side of 
the main street through Randsburg. Ownership: Consoli- 
dated Mines Co., address undetermined in 1958. Office 
was at 1402 S. Wilton Place, Los Angeles, in 1949. The 
company owned the Good Hope, Standard, Four Hun- 
dred, Amended Galveston, and Twin Brother patented 
lode claims in 1949. 

The total output of gold from the mine was not deter- 
mined, but is estimated by the writers to be valued at 
more than $50,000. Most of the ore was mined during 



the intervals 1897-1901, 1913-17, and 1934-40. It averaged 
about 0.25 ounces of gold per ton. An undetermined, but 
probably small, quantity of scheelite ore was also mined. 
About 1955, a five-stamp gold mill on the property was 
modified to handle scheelite ore from the Billie Burke 
mine a few tens of feet south of the mill. The Consoli- 
dated mine has been idle since about 1940. 

The two principal veins at the Consolidated mine, the 
Butte and Good Hope, occupy faults about 1,000 feet 
apart in Rand schist. Both veins are composed of brecci- 
ated, iron-stained, and silicified schist which contains fine, 
free gold and, locally, scheelite. The Butte vein is on the 
north side of Fiddlers Gulch at the north end of the prop- 
erty and extends several hundred feet southeast and 
northwest into the Little Butte and Butte mines, where it 
has been mined also. The vein strikes N. 70° W. and dips 
45° NE. It is along the footwall of a diorite dike which 
extends about a mile to the southeast and a mile to the 
northwest of the Consolidated mine property. 

The Good Hope vein is south of the Butte vein and 
200 or 300 feet south of the main street through Rands- 
burg (fig. 45). The northwestern part of the Good Hope 
vein strikes N. 40° W. and dips 50° NE, but the south- 
easternmost part of the vein, about 300 feet farther 
southeast, strikes north and dips 40° E. The trace of the 
vein is arcuate and open to the southwest. A shorter vein 
which strikes N. 40° W. joins the southeastern part of the 
Good Hope vein from the northwest. 

The extent and location of the lower ore shoots on the 
veins were not determined by the writers, but most of 
the veins have been stoped to the surface from at least the 
upper levels along most parts of the veins. One of the ore 
shoots was reported to be about 300 feet long and an 
average of 20 inches wide (Brown, 1916, p. 496). The 
ore shoots on the Butte vein are probably similar to those 
in the Butte mine, which is described above. Gold-bearing 
diorite and rhyolite dikes which formed parts of the walls 
at the junction of the N. 40° W.-trending vein and the 
Good Hope vein were mined also. 

The workings of the Consolidated mine consist of a 
500-foot main inclined shaft on each of the two principal 
veins. Drift levels extend at approximately 50-foot inter- 
vals from both shafts and aggregate several thousand feet 
in length. The upper levels connect with several shorter 
shafts to the surface. Most of the stopes were developed 
in the upper levels and averaged from 2 to 4 feet in 
width. 

Elephant (Elephant-Eagle, Lodestar) Group (includes 
Excelsior Mine). Location: mostly in the NW14 sec. 6, 
T. 10 N., R. 12 W., S.B.M., Mojave district, 5 miles 
southwest of Mojave on a northwest-trending ridge at 
the northwestern tip of Soledad Mountain. Ownership: 
Goodwin J. Knight, 344 S. Las Palmas, Los Angeles 
(1958). The Elephant group comprises twelve unpatented 
claims originally known as the Elephant group and later 
as the Elephant-Eagle mine (1934), the Lodestar mine 
(1935-41), and since 1941 again as the Elephant group. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



105 




The deposit at the Elephant mine was discovered in 
1896 by E. T. Baker, who developed the mine on a small 
but profitable basis, and by 1916 had sunk a 100-foot shaft 
and driven a few hundred feet of horizontal workings, 
and mined a stope 120 feet long on the 100-foot level. 
Ore mined during this period averaged 0.75 to 3.5 ounces 
of gold per ton; an exceptionally rich part of the vein, 
known as the "hot spot," yielded a 3'/2-ton lot of ore 
which contained gold valued at $7,000, and an additional 
70 tons that averaged $1,000 per ton in gold (Julihn and 
Horton, 1937, p. 21). After 1918 the ownership of the 
mine changed several times, and mining was done mostly 
by lessees. Ore mined from 1896 through 1920 was 
shipped to American Smelting and Refining Co., Selby, 
California. About 1920, a 25-ton ball mill and amalgama- 
tion plates were installed. Conversion of the mill to in- 



clude cyanidation was completed about 1930. From 1931 
through 1942 mining was continuous, but less than 3,000 
tons of ore was mined. The ore averaged 0.5 to 0.75 
ounces of gold per ton with a gold to silver ratio of 3:4. 
During the period 1948-50 lessees shipped a few hundred 
tons containing 0.7 ounces of gold per ton. No under- 
ground mining has been done since 1950, although in 
1958 two lessees attempted to rework one of the mine 
dumps without success. Total production is reported to 
be about $250,000 (Nelson, 1940). 

The deposit consists of three sub-parallel quartz veins 
from 200 to 400 feet apart in rhyolitic volcanic rocks. 
The veins strike N. 10° to 25° W. and dip from 80° NE 
to 70° SW. They are composed of brecciated quartz 
recemented with quartz and contain oxidized pyrite, fine 
free gold, and cerargyrite. Argentite was noted in the 



106 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




1 1962] 



Kern— Gold 



107 



[i lower parts of the vein (Tucker and Sampson, 1935, p. 
|]i 473) and proustite, though rare, has also been reported 
I (Nelson, 1940). From northeast to southwest the veins 
|! are designated as the Hope, Elephant, and Excelsior. 

The Hope vein crops out on the southwest side of a 
|i: northwest-trending ridge, and crosses the ridge just south 
I of a small knob. The vein strikes N. 15° W. dips steeply 
I southwest and is from 1 to 3 feet wide. It is traceable 
along strike for about 1,500 feet. The vein is developed by 
1 a 400-foot drift adit driven northwestward from the 
I southwestern base of the ridge. A stope 3 feet wide was 
I excavated starting from a point 160 feet from the portal, 
\ extending 100 feet along the strike, and mined 50 to 100 
I feet to the surface. The vein was stoped underhand 
1 below the level to an estimated 50-foot depth. A shorter 
[ drift adit was driven northwest from a point above and 
a few tens of feet northwest of the stope. 

The Elephant vein crops out 400 feet southwest of 
the Hope vein on the southwest side of the ridge; it 
i strikes N. 22° W. and dips 70° SW. The hanging wall 
is silicified flow-banded rhyolite and the footwall is quartz 
latite porphyry. The vein ranges in width from 7 feet 
near the surface to 2 feet in some of the lower workings, 
and extends a strike distance of 600 feet (fig. 46). Work- 
ings consist of a 500-foot inclined shaft with one level 
at 50 feet and a few levels at 100-foot vertical intervals 
below that point. The levels aggregate at least 2,300 feet 
! of horizontal development. Two 50-foot shafts were sunk 
a few hundred feet southeast of the inclined shaft. The 
principal ore body was 150 feet southeast of the main 
shaft and has been stoped to a depth of 50 feet below 
the 150 level along a strike distance of 120 feet. It aver- 
aged 3 feet wide and raked about 70° NW. Smaller 
stopes, including the "hot spot", are appended to the two 
shallower shafts. 

The Excelsior vein, which is 200 feet southwest of the 
Elephant vein, strikes N. 10°-15° W. and dips 80° NE. 
It is in fine-grained flow-banded rhyolite. It is 2 feet 
in average width and can be traced about 1,000 feet on 
the surface. The southeast half of this vein crops put 
mostly on the west side of Soledad Mountain southeast 
of the main part of the Elephant group workings. The 
northwest half, known as the Bobtail vein (see Bobtail 
mine in text), crops out low on the southwest flank of 
the main ridge. The southeast half is developed by a 
400-foot drift adit (Excelsior mine) which intersects a 
150-foot shaft, 100 feet from the portal. Ore was stoped 
to the surface from the bottom of the shaft along a strike 
distance of 100 feet. 

Gold Bug Mine. Location: NE'XNW'X sec. 34, T. 
27 S., R. 40 E, M.D.M., Rademacher district, 5 miles 
south of Ridegcrest. Ownership: Anthony De Mayo, P.O. 
Box 14, Ridgecrest, owns three claims; lives on property 
(1957). 

The Gold Bug mine, one of the oldest mines in the 
Rademacher district, was active between the 1890s and 
1901, and intermittently during the intervals 1908-12, 
1927-31, 1934-42, and 1949. It has been owned by De 



Mayo since 1928. According to production records, the 
average grade of ore mined since 1901 has been less than 
half an ounce of gold per ton. The total value of gold 
produced from the mine is undetermined. The mine also 
has yielded silver, and a small amount of copper. 

Free gold is associated with iron-stained quartz veins 
occupying three faults. These are approximately 75 feet 
and 100 feet apart in A4esozoic granitic rocks. The veins 
are named, from northeast to southwest, the Gold Bug, 
Mountain Lion, and One Aian. The most productive vein 
has been the Gold Bug which strikes N. 30° W. and dips 
70° NE. It is from 18 inches to 8 feet wide, and averages 
about 2 Y 2 feet in width. The principal ore shoots, a maxi- 
mum of 60 feet long, about 50 feet in depth, and 8 feet 
thick, are at an intersection of the vein with a diorite dike 
(Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 303). A few tens of feet 
south of the shaft on the Gold Bug vein, the vein is cut 
by a north-trending, vertical fault. North of the shaft 
the vein is cut by a vertical fault which strikes N. 65° W. 
The Gold Bug vein has been explored to a depth of 300 
feet and barely more than 200 feet laterally underground. 
It crops out for about 500 feet. 

The Mountain Lion vein, which strikes N. 40° W. and 
dips 45° NE., is in a fault zone along the footwall «jf a 
diorite dike. It may be a faulted segment of the Gold 
Bug vein (Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 304). The vein 
contained ore 2 1 / 2 feet wide at a depth of 60 feet (Tucker 
and Sampson, 1933, p. 304). 

The One Man vein which strikes N. 20° W. and dips 
70° NE., has been explored less than the other veins. 

The Gold Bug mine workings consist of a 300-foot 
shaft inclined 70° NE. on the Gold Bug vein, a 60-foot 
shaft inclined 45° NE. on the Mountain Lion vein, and 
a 105-foot shaft inclined 70° NE. on the One Man vein. 
The Mountain Lion shaft is 150 feet west of the Gold 
Bug shaft; the One Man shaft is 275 feet southwest of 
the Gold Bug shaft. Apparently only the Gold Bug shaft 
contains lateral workings. These are levels at 20, 40, 
100, 150, 200, and 300 feet, which total about 750 feet 
in length. The longest drifts northwest are the 100 level 
of 150 feet and the 200 level of 100 feet. The drifts 
southeast of the shaft are from 20 to 80 feet long. All 
but the 300 level are connected by stopes and raises. 
Stopes were driven southeast of the shaft between the 
200 and 150 levels and on the 40 level. A small stope lies 
northwest of the shaft on the 100 level. 

Golden Queen Mine * (includes Silver Queen, Queen 
Esther, Echo, Gray Eagle, Soledad Extension Properties) . 
Location: Most of the north- and south-central parts of 
sec. 6, T. 10 N, R. 12 W., S.B.M., Mojave district, 5 
miles southwest of Mojave on the north slope of Soledad 
Mountain. Ownership: the largest assemblage of claims, 
known as the Golden Queen and Echo groups, is owned 
by Le Roy O. Schultz, M.D., 527 Kenneth Rd., Glendale, 
and comprises approximately 200 acres in contiguous 

* Compiled in large part from descriptions by Julihn and Horton (1937) 
and from unpublished maps by J. B. Stone (1937). 



108 

claims, five of which are patented. A third group, known 
as the Queen Esther group, comprises six patented and 
two unpatented claims adjoining the eastern edge of the 
Golden Queen group. The Queen Esther group is owned 
jointly by the Harvey Mudd estate, Pacific Mutual Bldg., 
Los Angeles; the Mary T. Boyle estate, 458 S. Spring St., 
Los Angeles; the H. D. Thomson estate; and the George 
H. Lateau estate, addresses undetermined. The Silver 
Queen property, a fourth group, borders the Queen 
Esther group on the west. It comprises three claims 
owned jointly by George Holmes, Yuma, Arizona, and 
Cy Townsend, address not determined. A fifth group, 
held by Messrs. Moon and Campbell (addresses not de- 
termined), has no formal name but consists of four pat- 
ented claims adjacent to the Golden Queen group on the 
north. An additional small patented claim, the Golden 
Queen claim near the boundary between the Golden 
Queen and Queen Esther groups, is owned by Gordon 
Grey, San Diego (1958). 

Only two of the groups which comprise the Golden 
Queen mine were mined before 1935. They are the Queen 
Esther and the Echo groups which were operated inde- 
pently in the 1890s and the early 1900s. The Queen Esther 
vein was discovered in 1894 and yielded small tonnages of 
higri-grade shipping ore before a 75-ton cyanide plant 
was installed in 1903. Mill capacity was increased to 150 
tons per day in 1904. By 1910, when the mine was shut 
down, approximately 286,000 tons of mined ore had 
yielded gold and silver valued at a million dollars. Mill 
heads averaged $6 per ton, but some ore that was mined 



[County Report 1 

near the surface contained 30 to 40 ounces of silver per 
ton. 

The Echo mine was operated from the 1890s until 1905 
by the Echo Mining Co. which produced about 20,000 
tons of ore with a reported gold and silver content valued 
at 1200,000. The ore was processed on the property in a 
10-stamp mill which was dismantled in 1906 (Julihn and 
Horton, 1937, p. 20). 

Except for minor activity, both the Echo and Queen 
Esther groups were then idle until 1933 when George 
Holmes discovered the Silver Queen vein. This discovery 
led to a revival of mining activity throughout the Mojave 
district, and to the formation of the Golden Queen Min- 
ing Company in 1935. This company, under the manage- 
ment of Mr. W. C. Browning, acquired claims totaling 
about 300 acres embracing most of the northwest face of 
Soledad Mountain. Included were the properties here 
described as the Queen Esther, Silver Queen,, and Golden 
Queen groups. By mid-1937, three hundred tons of ore 
per day was being produced. Extensive development and 
exploration work, including'several thousands of feet of 
diamond drilling, was done. From 1936 until 1942, when 
the mine was shut down by order of the War Production 
Board, more than 500,000 tons of ore which yielded more 
than $6,000,000 in gold and silver, was mined. Increased 
mining costs after World War II prevented renewal of 
operations, and the mill was dismantled about 1950 (W. 
C. Browning, 1958, personal communication). During 
1951-52 a lessee, Nelson Sweetzer, mined 7,000 tons of 
previously blocked-out ore that yielded about $210,000 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Figure 47. Generalized transverse section (viewed northeast) of the Golden Queen mine, showing relationships of the veins. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



109 



(Nelson Sweetzer, 1958, personal communications). An- 
other lessee, J. Stoel, mined about 1,000 tons of ore in 
1953 and 1954 which yielded from $20 to $25 per ton 
in gold and silver. He shipped the ore to the American 
Smelting and Refining Co. smelter, Hayden, Arizona. 
The Golden Queen A4ining Company liquidated its as- 
sets in 1954 and most of their mining property was sold 
to Dr. Schultz, the present owner. In 1958 the mine was 
idle. 

The total output of all the properties that comprise 
the Golden Queen mine since the discovery of the Queen 
Esther vein in 1894 is more than $10,000,000. In output 
it ranks second to the Yellow Aster among the gold 
mines in Kern County. The gold-to-silver ratio in the 
ore was approximately 1:5. 

The main mass of Soledad Mountain consists mostly 
of Tertiary volcanic rocks, which are intrusive into 
Mesozoic quartz monzonite. The intrusive relationships 
and the sequence of intrusion of the volcanic rocks is 
partly obscured by numerous faults. The principal rocks 
in the mine area are quartz latite porphyry, fine-grained 
flow banded rhyolite, and rhyolite breccia. Most of these 
rocks are clearly intrusive, but the rhyolite breccia may 
be extrusive in part (Noble, 1954, map sheet 14). In 
general these rocks strike northwest and dip moderately 
southwest. Most of the ore bodies are in flow-banded 
rhyolite. 

Gold and silver mineralization is along a series of sub- 
parallel, northwest-trending normal faults which strike 
N. 40° W. to N. 10° W. and dip 60° NE. to 60° SW. 
at the surface and flatten at depth (fig. 47). Post-ore 
faults parallel in strike to the veins have displaced them 
from a few feet to as much as 200 feet along the dip of 
the faults. Cross faults are uncommon and rarely show 
more than 10 feet of apparent displacement. 

From east to west the principal veins are the Queen 
Esther, Silver Queen, Golden Queen, Starlight, Gray 
Eagle, Echo, and Soledad Extension. These veins crop 
out within a northwest-trending belt about 2,000 feet 
wide and about 5,000 feet long. The veins are irregularly 
disposed from 200 to 900 feet apart. 

Queen Esther Vein. The Queen Esther vein is ex- 
posed on the east flank of a sharp ridge trending N. 15° 
W. on the northwest flank of Soledad Mountain. The 
vein strikes N. 30° W. and dips from 60° NE. near the 
surface to 40° NE. in the lowest workings. It has been 
traced along strike for 1,600 feet and ranges in width 
from 30 feet near the surface to 3 feet in parts of the 
lowest level. The vein has been followed for a vertical 
distance of 900 feet and has been explored on eleven 
levels. The ore minerals in the vein are principally 
cerargyrite, argentite, and fine free gold in a gangue of 
quartz and subordinate pyrite. At the surface both walls 
consist of rhyolite, but beyond a point just south of a 
large caved area on the surface at an elevation of 3,700 
feet, the footwall is rhyolite breccia. Breccia on the hang- 
ing wall is 40 feet lower in elevation and 125 feet farther 
northwest than the corresponding point on the footwall. 



Quartz latite porphyry is the predominant wall rock on 
the lower levels. 

Six principal adits at the Queen Esther mine provide 
access to about 8,000 feet of drifts and crosscuts on the 
six upper levels, designated 1 through 6, and spaced at 
100-foot intervals (pi. 6). No. 1 level, the lowest adit 
level, serves as access to five additional lower levels, des- 
ignated A through E, by a 290-foot winze 500 feet south 
of the portal. Levels are spaced at approximately 100- 
foot vertical intervals. The largest ore body was mimed 
along a strike distance of 500 feet southward from points 
near the portals of Nos. 6, 5, and 4 levels (descending 
order) to the surface. Smaller ore shoots were mined 
farther south in Nos. 3, 2, and 1 levels. The extent of 
stoping on the A, B, C, D, and E levels was not deter- 
mined but is probably not as prevalent. 

Silver Queen Vein. The Silver Queen vein crops out 
900 feet southwest of the Queen Esther vein near the 
bottom of a northwest-draining canyon. It strikes N. 40° 
W. and dips 60° NE near the surface; between the 400 
and 800 levels the dip of the vein decreases gradually 
to 30°. The vein ranges in width from 10 to 50 feet; the 
widest sections are between the 200-foot level and the 
surface, where fine-grained rhyolite forms both walls. 
The vein is exposed in drifts for more than 2,000 feet and 
is, therefore, one of the most persistent veins on Soledad 
Mountain. A vertical separation of 150 feet along the 
vein-fault has been estimated by Julihn and Horton 
(1937, p. 14) and apparent horizontal separation is of 
about the same magnitude. The veins consist of brec- 
ciated, recemented quartz, sparsely disseminated pyrite, 
cerargyrite, argentite, and fine free gold; locally present 
are chalcopyrite and galena. 

The three intrusive rocks found along the Queen 
Esther vein form the wall rock along the Silver Queen 
vein. Fine-grained rhyolite forms boths walls of the 
upper levels and on the 200 level the hanging wall is 
quartz latite porphyry which persists to the 600 level. 
On the 300 level rhyolite breccia forms the wall rock at 
some points along the south end of the vein. Below the 
500 level quartz latite porphyry is the principal wall 
rock. 

The largest ore body on the Silver Queen vein was 
mined laterally for 600 feet between the 100 and 400 
levels. Below the 400 level the ore body was found to 
diminish in strike length and thickness to the 600 level 
where it was not profitable to mine. It raked gently 
northwest approximately parallel to the surface of the 
mountain so that the depth of the ore shoot was nearly 
constant along the strike of the vein. 

The vein is developed by more than 18,000 feet of 
horizontal workings on nine levels spaced at 100-foot 
vertical intervals (pi. 6). The most extensive vein work- 
ings are the 100-, 200-, 300-, and 400-foot levels which 
aggregate 5,250, 3,600, 2,700, and 2,100 feet of drifts and 
crosscuts respectively. The most extensive overall de- 
velopment is on the 600 level, which was developed prin- 
cipally as a haulage level. This level was driven 500 feet 



110 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



south from the portal at the mill site then 1,500 feet S. 
30° E., parallel to, but in the footwall of, the Silver 
Queen vein. It was driven 1,450 feet farther S. 25° W. 
crosscutting the workings on the Golden Queen, Star- 
light, and Soledad Extension veins. At a point 950 feet 
southeast from the portal a crosscut was driven 80 feet 
northeastward to the Silver Queen vein where a 600-foot 
drift was extended southeastward to an 800-foot inclined 
supply shaft. A second major shaft, known as No. 2 ore 
pass, is 600 feet southeast of the supply shaft and extends 
to the 600 level. 

Starlight and Golden Queen Veins. The Starlight vein, 
which crops out about 400 feet southwest of the Silver 
Queen vein, strikes N. 30° W. and dips 70° SW. It is 
from 3 to 30 feet wide and is exposed 3,000 feet along 
strike and 800 feet down dip. The vein is similar in com- 
position to the Silver Queen vein. Country rock is pre- 
dominantly fine-grained rhyolite and rhyolite breccia, 
although quartz latite porphyry forms the footwall in a 
large part of the northwestern sections of the vein. A 
post-ore fault (Main fault), that strikes nearly parallel 
to the vein and dips 50° NE, intersects the vein about 25 
feet above the No. 1 or 100 level, and displaces the upper 
part of the vein 100 feet down the dip of the fault (fig. 
47). This offset has repeated the vein 200 feet to the 
northeast at points above the 200 level. This repeated or 
displaced segment, known as the Golden Queen vein, 
strikes N. 35° W. and dips 70° SE. Fine-grained rhyolite 
forms both walls in most areas, although rhyolite breccia 
is found locally. The width of the vein ranges from 10 to 
50 feet, but mined portions averaged 30 feet; the vein has 
been explored for 2,000 feet along the strike. The lower 
limit of the vein is between the 200 and 300 levels at an 
elevation of 3,500 feet. 

A nearly continuous ore body on the Starlight vein 
was mined from the 300 level to the 100 level along an 
850-foot length southeastward from a point 75 feet south 
of the portal of No.- 1 level. A similar ore body, which is 
probably the offset portion of the main Starlight ore 
body, was mined on the Golden Queen vein from the 
200 level to the O level along a strike length of 850 feet 
southeastward from a point 230 feet southwest of the 
corresponding position on the Starlight vein ore body. 
If the two ore bodies were a continuous ore shoot before 
faulting, an oblique right-lateral normal movement is in- 
ig the Main fault. 

light and Golden Queen veins were developed 
by 27,50 t of horizontal workings on nine mine levels 
access?' >ugh five drift adits on the 0, 100 (No. 1), 

200, 400, d coo levels (pi. 6). The four lower levels, 
designated , 800, 900, and 1,000 levels, were serviced 
by No. 3 which was collared on the 300 level 

and is 500 I i irthwest of the main crosscut haulage 
way on the 600 vel, No. 314 winze was sunk to explore 
the lower sections r the vein, and it extends 450 feet on 
the incline below the 600 level to an elevation of 2,770 
feet. Levels on the 8' , 900, and 1,000 levels were only 
slightly developed. 



Gray Eagle and Gypsy Veins. The Gray Eagle and 
Gypsy veins, two nearly parallel veins less than 40 feet 
apart, crop out northeast of the Echo vein, strike N. 20° 
W., dip steeply northeast, and are from 1 to 6 feet wide. 
They can be traced from their most northerly outcrops 
near the portal of the 400 level on the Starlight vein, also 
known as Gray Eagle adit, southeastward to their 
junctions with the Starlight vein about 400 feet south- 
east from the portal. These junctions are at the north 
end of the ore shoot on the Starlight vein, and may have 
been a contributing factor to the locus of mineraliza- 
tion there. The intersection of the three pre-ore faults 
probably resulted in more severe fracturing of the rock 
than in other parts of the vein and thereby offered a 
better channelway for mineralizing solutions. 

The principal ore shoot on the Gray Eagle vein was 
mined from a 2,300-foot adit driven a few hundred feet 
eastward to crosscut the Gypsy and Gray Eagle veins 
and then southeastward along the Gray Eagle vein to its 
junction with the Starlight vein (pi. 6). The ore shoot 
was 4 to 6 feet wide, extended 250 feet along the strike, 
and was mined 150 feet upwards to the surface (Julihn 
and Horton, 1937, p. 21). 

Soledad Extension Vein. The discovery site of the 
Soledad Extension vein is near the center of the southern 
boundary of section 6 (fig. 17) at the head of a broad 
alluviated canyon just south of a pronounced ridge that 
trends N. 45° W. There, the vein strikes N. 45° W. and 
dips 70° SW. Flow-banded rhyolite forms the footwall 
and rhyolite breccia the hanging wall. The vein is from 
5 to 30 feet wide and extends 1,200 to 1,400 feet south- 
east to a junction with the Starlight vein. The vein ma- 
terial is typical of that of the whole group as described 
for the Silver Queen vein above. 

Development on the Soledad Extension vein consists, 
essentially, of 10,000 feet of horizontal workings on eight 
mine levels which are spaced at about 100-foot vertical 
intervals, a 600-foot winze under the upper ore shoot, and 
a 450-foot winze near the face of the 3,000-foot drift 
adit driven on the Starlight vein on the 400-foot level 
(pi. 6). This 450-foot winze approximately coincides 
with the intersection of the Starlight and Soledad Exten- 
sion veins. 

Two distinct ore shoots have been mined. One was 
mined from the 400 level adit. It extended 350 feet along 
strike from a point 400 feet from the portal. The ore 
body, which was mined to a maximum height of 150 
feet above the drift and only 25 feet below, averaged 0.4 
ounces of gold and 2 to 3 ounces of silver per ton (Julihn 
and Horton, 1937, p. 23). A second ore body on the 600 
level was mined 500 feet along strike from a point 
600 feet southeast of the 600-foot winze from the 400 
level. This ore shoot was mined to within 50 feet of an 
intersection of the vein with the Starlight vein. Ore was 
mined up to a sub-level 100 feet above the drift, but no 
mining was done below the thrift. The intersection also 
has been prospected on the 400, 700, and 800 levels but 
no ore was developed. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



lil 



Echo Vein. The Echo vein lies between the Soledad 
Extension and Starlight veins, but is farther northwest and 
may be an extension of the Starlight vein. It strikes N. 
40° W., dips 70°-80° SW. In the main workings it has a 
fine-grained rhyolite hanging wall, and a quartz latite 
porphyry footwall. Although the vein is only 1 to 6 feet 
wide it has been exposed for more than 1,100 feet along 
the strike. 

Development consists principally of a 230-foot crosscut 
adit driven S. 27° W. to the vein and a 1,100-foot drift 
southeastward. Ore has been stoped a few tens of feet 
above the initial 600 feet of drift and a 100-foot winze 
was sunk at a point 560 feet from the portal. Two hun- 
dred sixty feet beyond the winze, a 500-foot crosscut 
was driven northeastward toward the Gray Eagle vein, 
but did not intersect it. 

Givymie (Gwynne-Jennette, Jeamiette, Jennette) 
Mine* Location: E.V2 sec. 21 and W.'/ 2 sec. 22, T. 29 
S., R. 34 E., M.D.M., in the Piute Mountains area, 3 miles 
south of Claraville. Ownership: J. C. Geringer estate 
(Bank of America, Bakersfield, trustee), owns six claims 
in the Gwynne group, including the Chief, Dead Tree 
(pat.), Hard Luck, Jennette, Jennette Annex, and Shasta 
claims (1958). 

The Gwynne deposit is a series of gold-and tungsten- 
bearing quartz veins in granitic country rock. It has been 
explored and mined by means of nearly 2 miles of under- 
ground workings. The mine has a recorded output of 
$770,000 in gold (Tucker 1949, p. 224). The property 
was known for much of its life as two separate mines, the 
Jennette and the Gwynne. In 1916 the Jennette was re- 
ported to be the principal source of gold in the Green 
Mountain district (Brown 1916, p. 498); at this time the 
less significant Gwynne workings were known as the 
Kern County Consolidated Mines. By 1933 the properties 
had been consolidated, and mining was confined to the 
Gwynne workings. The total yield to that date was 
reported to be $500,000 (Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 
309). After the mining of gold ceased in 1942, an unde- 
termined but small tonnage of scheelite was mined from 
the Gwynne vein, where the mineral was found in irregu- 
lar masses, and from the Kersey vein, where it was in a 
thin discontinuous seam along the hanging wall. In 1942 
the mine was shut down and it has been inactive since. 
Caving near the portals made the mine inaccessible when 
visited in 1955. 

The three principal quartz veins, the Gwynne, Jen- 
nette, and Kersey veins (fig. 48), cut Mesozoic granitic 
rock. The most productive vein has been the Gwynne 
vein, which ranges from 6 inches to 5 feet in width, 
and has an average width of about 1 foot. The Gwynne 
vein strikes E. to N. 70° E. and dips 40° S. South of the 
Gwynne vein and converging with it to the northeast 
is the Kersey vein, which is as much as 9 feet wide, with 
an average width of about 3'/ 2 feet. The Kersey vein 
strikes northeast and dips about 50° southeast. The Jen- 
nette vein is exposed about half a mile to the northeast 

* By Thomas E. Gay, Jr. 



of the main exposures of the other two veins which it 
intersects at the northeast end of the property. The 
Jennette vein is as much as 2 feet wide, but averages 6 
inches in width. It strikes N. 80° E. and dips 40° S. 
Several smaller veins in the rnine area strike northeast 
and dip southeast, but their surface exposures are obscure 
in the weathered country rock, and they have been but 
little explored. Many quartz veins and stringers are in 
the fractured zones near the vein intersections. 

Free gold, with pyrite, marcasite, arsenopyrite, and 
some scheelite, is in the vein quartz. The gold is mostly 
free milling. Milled ore from the Gwynne and Jennette 
veins is reported to have had an average value of $40 to 
$50 per ton; ore from the Kersey vein was reported to 
average $20 per ton. 

Most of the mine workings are on the southwest part 
of the property and lie on the Gwynne and Kersey veins 
(fig. 48). The Gwynne vein was followed by a lower 
adit driven 2,600 feet northeast. At 1,600 feet from its 
portal is a raise to the surface, and 400 feet farther is a 
300-foot raise. This adit also gave access to several hun- 
dred feet of drifts, winzes, and stopes on the Kersey vein. 
About 900 feet east and 100 feet higher than the portal of 
the main adit is the portal of the upper Gwynne adit, 
which extends about 900 feet to the east. Near its under- 
ground extremity this adit also connects with workings 
on the Kersey vein. The Gwynne vein was also explored 
by means of a 300-foot inclined shaft 270 feet northeast of 
the portal of the lower adit, from which two levels of 
unreported depth and extent were driven on the vein. 
The Kersey vein was developed by means of a drift adit 
driven about 600 feet northeast, with an 85-foot winze 
sunk about 300 feet from the portal, and several hundred 
feet of drifts and stopes on the vein from the winze. An 
ore shoot in the Kersey vein was reported to be 300 feet 
long, and 4 feet in average width. 

The Jennette vein was intersected by a crosscut adit 
driven 150 feet southward to the vein, from which place 
a 700-foot drift was driven west along the vein. Two ore 
shoots, each 300 feet long and averaging 6 inches in width, 
were stoped above this drift. The crosscut adit was con- 
tinued for about 450 feet past the vein in an effort to 
intersect the Gwynne and Kersey veins, but was aban- 
doned about 200 feet short of this goal. An upper drift 
adit, with the portal about 200 feet west of the lower adit 
portal and about 100 feet vertically above it, is driven 
west about 400 feet and stoped for most of this distance 
to the surface. 

High Grade (includes Pennsylvania, Early Sunrise or 
Sunrise, Ana Isabell) Mine. Location: SW!4 sec. 35, 
T. 26 S., R. 32 E., M.D.M., Keysville district, a quarter 
of a mile south of old Keysville townsite and a quarter of 
a mile northeast of the Mammoth mill. Ownership: W. H. 
Whitnall, 6315A Benson St., Huntington Park, and Mr. 
Schoneman, address not determined (1957). 

The High Grade mine comprises four claims which, 
prior to 1900, were worked as three mines— the Pennsyl- 
vania, (Early) Sunrise, and Ana Isabell. These mines were 



112 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




consolidated under the name of the Pennsylvania mine 
in the early 1900s. Most of the ore was probably mined 
prior to 1890 before production figures were officially 
recorded. The principal periods of activity were 1853-60 
(?), 1900-04, 1921-23 and 1940-42. More than 500 tons 
of ore have been mined since 1900, the average grade of 
which was 1 Vi ounces of gold per ton. The mine was 
idle early in 1959. 

The deposit consists of two poorly exposed gold- 
bearing quartz veins, about 300 feet apart in biotite quartz 
diorite. The veins strike about N. 40° E. and dip 70° 
SE.; they range in width from 2 to 6 feet and are exposed 
laterally at least 800 feet. They are composed largely of 
quartz and fault gouge which contain very sparsely scat- 
tered small grains of arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite. 

The Pennsylvania vein, the most northwesterly of the 
two, is developed by a 210-foot inclined shaft to which 
50-, 100-, and 200-foot levels are appended. The maxi- 
mum lateral extent of these workings is about 400 feet. 
Most of the stoping was done above the 100 level, but the 
total extent was not determined because the workings 
are badly caved. Access to part of the workings can be 
gained through a 900-foot crosscut adit driven northwest 
and intersecting a drift of the 200 level at a point 300 
feet northeast of the shaft. In 1958, water for use on a 
nearby ranch was being obtained from a winze in the 
crosscut adit. 

Southwest of the portal of the crosscut adit and 80 feet 
above in elevation is an 800-foot drift adit driven S. 40° 
W. on the Sunrise vein. Total extent of these workings 
was also not determined because the adit is caved. 



Joe Walker Mine. Location: EV2 sec. 12, T. 29 S., 
R. 32 E., M.D.M., on the northeast edge of Walker 
Basin, 7 miles southeast of Havilah. Ownership: Vern 
Shell, address undetermined, owns two patented claims 
(1958). 

The deposit on this property was discovered in 1865 
by Joe Walker and was operated continuously from 
1865 until 1874. The ore was milled on the property in a 
20-stamp mill. The mine was shut down in 1874 because 
it was too costly to keep the lower workings free of 
water. The mine has been idle since then except for a few 
intermittent and short periods, the most productive and 
recent of which was in 1951. At that time the Basin 
Mining Co., Dan Cronin, P.O. Box 726, Bakersfield, presi- 
dent, recovered more than 900 ounces of gold from an 
undisclosed tonnage of ore. 

Mesozoic quartz diorite underlies the entire mine area. 
The gold is in a quartz vein 4 to 20 feet wide, which 
strikes N. 45° E. and dips 60° SE. The ore consisted 
mostly of quartz containing auriferous pyrite and arseno- 
pyrite and traces of chalcopyrite. According to Good- 
year (1888, pp. 317-318) the mill heads contained an 
average of 1.2 ounces of gold per ton and the gold-silver 
recovered was valued at $500,000 to $600,000. 

The mine was developed by a 250-foot inclined shaft 
(No. 1) and a 350-foot inclined shaft (No. 2) 260 feet to 
the southwest. On the 250-foot level, drifts were driven 
30 feet southwest of No. 2 shaft, 260 feet northeast to 
No. 1 shaft and 320 feet beyond the shaft. Goodyear 
(1888, p. 317) reported that ore was stoped to the sur- 
face from all of the 630 feet of drifts on the 250 level, 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



113 



but an unpublished report by R. J. Sampson (1949) indi- 
cated that ore was stoped for a distance of 210 feet south- 
west of No. 1 shaft and an undetermined distance to the 
northeast. The 350 level was originally driven about 100 
feet southwest from No. 2 shaft and about 320 feet to the 
northeast. During 1958, water from the mine was being 
used to irrigate nearby land in part of Walker Basin. 

King Solomon (Ashford) Mine. Location: NE'/ 2 - 
SW!4 sec. 36, T. 29 S., R. 40 E., M.D.M., Rand district, 
half a mile east of Randsburg, half a mile southwest of 
Johannesburg, on north slope of east end of Rand Moun- 
tains. Ownership: Shipsey Mining Co., Alban Walton, 
president, 600 Mound Avenue, South Pasadena, owns 
five claims; mine and mill are leased to Glenn Trammill 
and others, Johannesburg (1958). 

The veins at the King Solomon mine were discovered 
in 1895 or early in 1896 by the Ashford brothers of 
Randsburg. They organized the Ashford Mining Co. 
and operated the mine until about 1914 when the mine 
was sold to the Shipsey Mining Co. Between 1914 and 
the late 1940s the mine was operated nearly continuously 
by the owners and under lease to mining companies and 
individual lessees. Some of the companies that operated 
the mine during this time interval were the King Solo- 
mon Consolidated Mines Co. (1920s and 1930s), San 
Francisco Mining Co. (1925-26), Mount Gaines Mining 
Co., Inc. (a subsidiary of International Mining and Mill- 
ing Co.) (1937-?), and King Solomon Mines lease (early 
in 1940s). Individuals and groups of lessees have mined 
the property at intermittent intervals since about 1940. 

More than $500,000 in gold, with an average fineness 
of about 780, has been recovered. Nearly 75 percent of 
the gold was obtained between 1919 and 1942. The ore 
mined was valued at about $25 (Hulin, 1925, p. 136) 
per ton. 

Rand schist is the most common wall rock in the King 
Solomon mine, although quartz monzonite joins one or 
both walls of veins in the southern part of the mine. 
The veins are composed of brecciated, iron-stained, and 
silicified host rock with occasional stringers of quartz. 
Silification and iron-staining of the wall rocks is com- 
mon. In general, the richest parts of each vein are im- 
mediately below a shear at the hanging wall. Gold is pres- 
ent as tiny grains and flakes; more rarely as very thin 
seams. Throughout the mine, the mined portion of the 
veins probably averaged $20 or less in gold and was 
about a foot in average width. Iron stains in and adjacent 
to the veins are probably derived from oxidized iron 
sulfides. 

About twelve veins are known on the surface or in 
the workings of the King Solomon mine (pi. 7) but four 
of them— from south to north, the Magpie, Back, Nosser, 
and King Solomon— have been the source of most of the 
i gold ore. Veins of lesser production or none at all include 
Ithe Checoses, Parker, and Shipsey; others have not been 
Inamed. The veins are in two systems which merge or 
intersect in the western part of the mine property and 
lextend northwest into the adjoining Butte mine. The 



most productive system strikes from N. 80° to N. 60° 
W. and dips 40°-50° SW to NE. It contains most of 
the veins listed above. The other system strikes about 
N. 35° W., and dips 40°-50° NE. It has yielded little ore 
except at junctions with veins of the other system. In 
general, the veins of both systems are several tens of 
feet apart and are characterized by a strongly slicken- 
sided hanging wall and a poorly- to well-defined foot- 
wall. 

As determined from the distribution of stopes shown 
on the map of the underground workings of the King 
Solomon mine (pi. 7), the principal ore shoots were on 
the Back, Magpie, and Nosser veins. Stopes were de- 
veloped near the junction of the Back and Magpie veins 
above the 300 level in the southwestern part of the mine. 
Ore shoots in the Nosser vein were mined between the 
300 and 550 levels in the eastern part of the mine and 
between the surface and the 300 level in the western part 
of the mine. The Nosser vein was also mined near the 
surface farther west on Butte mine property where it is 
known as the "Miller" vein. 

The workings of the King Solomon mine consist of 
about 11,000 feet of horizontal levels at 200, 300, 350, 
450, and 550 feet extending from a 580-foot shaft inclined 
45° N. 40° E. Three other shafts that connect with the 
mine workings are inclined northwest to northeast at 
the west end of the mine property about 700 feet west 
of the collar of the main shaft. They are, from west to 
east, the Shipsey, Old Miller, and New Miller shafts, all 
on the Miller vein. The Shipsey and Old Miller shafts 
connect with the 300 level of the main shaft and the New 
Miller shaft connects with the 150 level which contains 
about 500 feet of crosscuts and drifts. About half of the 
mine workings are on the 300 level. This level connects 
with the Butte mine in the southwest part of the mine 
and at the Shipsey shaft. The 550 level contains the long- 
est crosscut— more than 600 feet in length, extended S. 
50° W. 

King Solomon (Pleasant View) Mine. Location: 
NW'/ 4 sec. 18, T. 28 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M., Clear Creek 
district, 3 miles east of Havilah on the south flank of 
King Solomon Ridge above Height Canyon. Ownership: 
G. L. Stubblefield and E. A. Rosa, Havilah (1958). 

The King Solomon mine was one of the major mines 
in the Clear Creek district in the early 1900s. During the 
period 1912-16 a total of $40,000 in gold was recovered, 
but the mine has been worked only intermittently since 
then and has been idle since 1934. A particularly produc- 
tive year was 1933, when $10,000 worth of gold was ex- 
tracted from ore that averaged $100 per ton (Tucker 
and Sampson, 1933, p. 313). The property is easily 
reached by a dirt road which joins the Bodfish-Caliente 
Road at Havilah. 

The mine area is underlain entirely by Mesozoic bio- 
tite quartz diorite. Free gold is in a quartz vein that 
strikes N. 70° E. and dips 65° southeastward. The vein 
is 3 feet in average width and can be traced for a dis- 
tance of 2,000 feet along strike. As in most gold-bearing 



114 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



EXPLANATION 
T 27 S..R29 E. * 




300 600 J.Gront Goodwin, 1957 



1 

FEET 

Figure 49. Geologic sketch of the Long Tom mine. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



115 



quartz veins in the district, the most common gangue 
minerals are arsenopyrite and pyrite. Most of the ore 
mined was from an ore shoot extending 300 feet along 
strike, and from the 300 level to the surface. 

The mine workings, which are now largely caved, 
consist of a 2,800-foot drift adit connected to a 300-foot 
vertical shaft. Two other levels append the shaft but their 
extent or position were not determined. Presumably they 
were driven from the 100- and 200-foot levels of the 
shaft. A 50-foot and a 70-foot shaft were sunk on the 
vein a short distance northeast of where the stope broke 
the surface, and minor stoping was done (Tucker and 
Sampson, 1933, p. 313). 

Long Tom Mine* Location: ~W l / 2 sec. 26 and EVz 
sec. 27, T. 27 S., R. 29 E., M.D.M., 10 '/ 2 miles south 
of Woody, 3% miles west-southwest of Pine Mountain. 
Ownership: F. C. Record, Granite Station, has the surface 
rights; claims are owned by Elise Elledge, 407 2nd Ave- 
nue, Louiston, Idaho (one claim), Stella Y. Webb and 
Illma E. Hawark, 210 Oakview Avenue, Oakview (one 
claim), and Hattie Yokum, Granite Station (one patented 
claim), in 1957. 

The Long Tom veins were discovered prior to 1860 
by prospectors who traced the source of placer gold in 
Pine Mountain Creek. Ore was originally milled in an 
arrastre and later in a 10-stamp mill which was enlarged 
to 20 stamps prior to 1888. The value of ore produced 
prior to 1889 was not recorded, but it has been estimated 
to be $600,000 to $800,000 (Goodyear, 1888, p. 319). 
United States Bureau of Mines statistics show that since 
1889 the mine has yielded 6,000 tons of ore containing 
1,300 ounces of gold. Production has been recorded in 
1889, 1896, 1926-35, and 1939. Frank B. Webb, Bakers- 
field, was the last operator. 

The only rock exposed in the area is medium-grained 
Mesozoic hornblende quartz diorite with local concen- 
trations of gabbroic inclusions. The quartz diorite is 
highly fractured and deeply weathered. Small auriferous 
quartz stringers are present along fracture zones (fig. 49), 
some of which are parallel to prominent jointing in the 
quartz diorite. One prominent fracture zone on the west 
side of Pine Mountain Creek strikes north and dips 52° 
W. West of this zone a second fracture strikes N. 20° E. 
and dips 60° NW. and converges with the first fracture. 
The intersection of these fractures plunges about 45° 
SW.; it has been mined extensively underground. The 
fracture zones are composed of ramifying veinlets of 
milky quartz with no conspicuous sulfides. 

A second productive area is at the intersection of two 
prominent fracture zones on the topographic nose north 
of Long Tom Gulch. One zone strikes N. 40° E. and 
the other N. 25° W.; both appear to be vertical. Appar- 
ently Long Tom Gulch occupies the trace of a fault 
striking N. 85° E. Several shafts were sunk along the 
gulch for a distance of 900 feet. 

Another mineralized fault, striking N. 30° W. and 
dipping 45° SW. can be traced more than 300 feet along 

* By J. Grant Goodwin. 



the west bank of a ravine between Pine Mountain Creek 
and Long Tom Gulch. A body of clay gouge 16 inches 
wide, containing quartz veinlets and visible gold, lies 
along the fault plane. 

The mine workings are scattered over an area about 
2,000 feet square along both sides of Pine Mountain 
Creek, and consist of at least 18 shafts and inclined shafts, 
9 adits, 17 open cuts and 80 prospect pits (fig. 49). Most 
of the workings are caved and inaccessible. 

Mammoth Mine.. Location: SEV4 sec. 35, T. 26 S., R. 
32 E., M.D.M., Keysville district, 2 l A miles northwest of 
Bodfish, half a mile southeast of old Keysville. Owner- 
ship: Rudnick Estate Trust, Bakersfield, 12 unpatented 
claims, three millsites (1958). 

The Mammoth mine, the site of one of the earliest gold 
discoveries in Kern County, was located in 1855 soon 
after placer gold was found in Greenhorn Gulch a few 
miles to the southwest. Gold and silver valued at about 
$500,000 is reported to have been produced from ore 
containing an average of less than half an ounce of gold 
per ton (Tucker, Sampson, 1933, p. 280). The mine has 
been one of the most consistently productive mines in 
the southern Sierra Nevada. After its earliest period of 
activity, in the late 1850s, the Mammoth mine was most 
productive during the years 1909 through 1915 and again 
from 1938 through 1941. No later production is known 
to the writers; a diamond drilling program was completed 
in recent years, but the results were not disclosed. Late 
in 1957 one man was engaged part-time in repair and 
maintenance work. 

The deposit consists of two parallel gold-bearing quartz 
veins which strike about N. 40° E.. and dip 70° SE. The 
widths of the veins average 3 feet, but range from 2 to 
15 feet; the gangue consists simply of quartz, fault gouge, 
and minor proportions of arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite. 
The gold to silver ratio in the ore has averaged approxi- 
mately 1:1, but the silver mineral, if present, has not been 
identified. The silver probably is present in solid solution 
with the gold. Mesozoic granodiorite constitutes both the 
hanging wall and footwall of the veins where observed. 
Although the footwall is described as being slate in early 
reports (Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 318), no meta- 
morphic rocks were observed in 1958 on the main level 
or at the surface. 

Three distinct ore shoots occur laterally along the vein 
within a distance of 1,000 feet. These rake to the north- 
east at angles of about 45° (pi. 8). The most easterly 
and apparently the largest of the three is the Higgins 
ore shoot, which has been stoped for a strike distance 
of 500 feet and vertically 150 feet to the surface. This 
ore shoot was mined mainly from the 300 level. What 
is known as the central ore shoot is actually two parallel 
bodies which rake 45° NE. and are separated by 200 feet 
of waste. The upper of these, centered on the 150 level, 
was stoped discontinuously along strike for about 500 
feet and vertically some 140 feet. The lower body, which 
is transected by the main level (400 level), was mined 
120 feet along strike and 280 feet vertically. The western- 



116 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




COMPOSITE PLAN 




SECTION A-B 



■ (Charles M. Heron, 1948) 

FEET 



Figure 50. Composite plan and vertical longitudinal projection of the Middle Butte mine. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



117 



most, or McGill, ore shoot is less well defined than the 
other two. It also consists essentially of two parallel ore 
bodies, each measuring about 140 feet long by 80 feet 
high, raking 45° NE., and separated by 50 to 75 feet 
of waste. 

All ore shoots are in the footwall vein, even though the 
hanging wall vein appears to be equally persistent. More 
extensive exploration may well prove the hanging wall 
vein to be mineralized. 

Underground workings aggregate more than one mile 
of drifts, crosscuts, raises, and winzes on seven levels (pi. 
8). The vein has been explored laterally more than 2,000 
feet and to an overall depth of 600 feet. Main level work- 
ings are still accessible along most of its 1,700 foot length, 
but lower levels are flooded; the upper levels are largely 
caved. The deepest continuous vertical development is 
No. 1 winze which was sunk 200 feet from the 400 level 
at a point 760 feet southwest of the portal. 

Middle Butte (Trent, Rosamond Kaolin) Mine. Loca- 
tion: SW!4 sec. 16, T. 10 N., R. 13 W., S.B.M., Mojave 
district, 9 miles northwest of Rosamond, on the southeast 
part of Middle Butte. Ownership: Middle Butte Mine 
Co., Inc., c/o Emory L. Morris, and Mary Johnson, San 
Francisco. Leased to Martin Beck of Rosamond (1958). 

Walter Trent of Tonopah, Nevada, leased the Middle 
Butte property in March 1934 in speculation resulting 
from discoveries of rich surface gold ore on the adjoining 
Burton-Brite-BIank mine to the north. In March 1935 
Trent found an outcrop of a vein near the north bound- 
ary of the property and the results of subsequent sam- 
pling indicated a tenor of 3 ounces of gold per ton. 
Fifteen hundred tons of ore, which yielded an average 
of $100 per ton, was quickly mined from surface cuts 
(Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 7). Shipments from these 
cuts were made directly to the smelter at Selby, Cali- 
fornia. Mining and development continued until 1942 
when the mine was shut down by order of the War Pro- 
duction Board. The mine remained idle through 1958. 
In 1949, however, 500 to 600 tons of dump material was 
milled and cyanided on the dump site, yielding 0.1 to 0.2 
ounces of gold per ton. 

The mine area is underlain by intermixed rhyolitic 
breccia and porphyritic rocks of undetermined distribu- 
tion. Free gold is in two parallel veins 800 feet apart 
which strike N. 30° W., and dip 50° NE. The main vein 
is the more northeasterly; its width ranges from 6 to 25 
feet, and it has been traced laterally more than 1,500 feet 
and explored to an inclined depth of 300 feet. The vein 
has poorly defined walls and little or no surface expres- 
sion. It has been brecciated and recemented with later 
quartz which is heavily impregnated with limonitic ma- 
terial. The free gold is associated with small proportions 
of unidentified silver minerals. The only ore shoot, as de- 
veloped, was 200 feet long and 10 to 15 feet wide, and 
extended 100 feet down the dip. 

Severe wall-rock alteration has produced irregular 
zones of impure clay consisting of kaolinite, alunite, 
quartz, and hydrous iron oxide staining. Selected samples 



of the clay have been reported by the owners to be 
refractory (cone 31 (?) ). Sparse coatings of autunite are 
along fractures in the kaolinized porphyritic rocks. 
Radiation intensity as high as 1.5 MR/hr. was noted by 
the Atomic Energy Commission in the workings, and five 
samples taken by them averaged 0.04 percent uranium 
(Walker, Lovering, and Stephens, 1956, p. 17). 

The main vein has been explored, by more than 2,500 
feet of horizontal workings on three levels designated the 
51, 125, and 201 levels (fig. 50). Initial development was 
an open cut excavated in the zone of highgrade ore dis- 
covered by Trent. When mining from the open cut be- 
came impractical "51 tunnel" was driven 400 feet north- 
ward on the vein and served as a haulage level. The 125 
level consists only of a few hundred feet of drift driven 
to aid in the extraction of the lower parts of the ore 
shoot. Little ore was removed from the 201 level, but this 
level was the most extensively explored. A crosscut adit 
was driven 1,100 feet westward, and at 500 feet from the 
portal drifts were extended 210 feet northeast and 500 
feet southwest. 

The Ella vein, 500 feet southwest of the main vein, 
strikes N. 50° W. and dips 60° NE. The vein averages 
5 feet in width and is similar in character to the main 
vein, but no mineable ore bodies of significance were 
found. 

Development of the Ella vein centered around a 145- 
foot vertical shaft with an adit level, 50, 100, and 145-foot 
levels comprising more than 500 feet of workings. 

No attempt has been made to mine either clay or 
uranium at this property. 

Minnehaha Mine. Location: Sec. 3, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., 
M.D.M., Rand district, 1 l A miles southwest of Randsburg 
on the north flank of Government Peak, Rand Moun- 
tains. Ownership: Miss Rose Maginnis, Randsburg, and 

estates of Hansen and J. T. O'Leary own six 

patented claims (Minnehaha, Sunshine, Rustler, San 
Diego, Augnes, and Skyscraper) and two unpatented 
claims (Esparanza and Best Bet); under lease in 1957. 

The Minnehaha mine has been worked entirely by 
lessees, and had been intermittently active since its dis- 
covery in July 1895. Its principal periods of activity are 
1895-1923, and 1931-41. Hulin (1925, p. 138) estimates 
that gold valued at $100,000 had been recovered by 1925. 
Some of the ore contained as much as $120 in gold per 
ton. Most of the ore was milled in the Red Dog and 
Windy mills near Johannesburg. 

The gold ore is mostly in narrow, highgrade streaks 
and lenses in veins occupying shear zones and faults in 
schist. The veins contain local concentrations of schee- 
lite. Most of the gold mineralization is confined to three 
areas on the Minnehaha claim. The westernmost area is in 
a small shallow stream channel near the west end of the 
Minnehaha claim. There, a vein consisting of silicified, 
brecciated, and iron-stained schist is present in a fault 
that strikes N. 30° W. and dips 45° NE along the west 
side of the mine access road. It is truncated to the south 
by a fault that strikes N. 75° W. and dips 75° NE. Ore 



118 California Division of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 

northeast of the drift-adit portal to intersect the vein in 
the vicinity of the mine access road. 



2 




Figure 51. View to east of the central area of the Minnehaha mine. 
Several veins extend across face of hill. 

shoots apparently a few feet in maximum dimension have 
been mined along the vein to a depth of probably less 
than 50 feet. 

A central area (fig. 51) of mineralization about 150 
feet square and at the crest of a small hill, lies about 
400 feet east of the west vein. Three veins, 75 to 150 
feet long, strike N. 5°-10° W. and dip 65°-80° E. They 
occupy faults each a few tens of feet apart and are 
cut off by and interconnected by diagonally trending 
cross fractures, which also are mineralized. Ore shoots 
are as much as several tens of feet long and deep and 
from 1 to 4 feet wide. They are moderately closely 
spaced, mostly near the surface, and seemingly localized 
near intersections of faults and fractures. These veins 
consist of quartz stringers in brecciated, silicified, and 
iron-stained schists. This area was probably the source 
of most of the mined ore. 

About 400 feet farther northeast is the third zone of 
mineralization. It is on the northeast edge of the small 
hill, also near the mine access road. The principal vein 
in this area strikes N. 25° E. and dips 20°-45° SE. It is 
probably 300 feet or more in length. Most of the several 
shoots in this vein are about 4 feet thick, and 20 or more 
feet in other dimensions. The vein is similar in composi- 
tion to those in the central area. 

The west workings consist of two short west-driven 
ut adits, a few tens of feet of drifts, and short 
underhand stopes. 

The central workings consist of two principal shafts 
on the westernmost vein in this area, and four or five 
other shafts. The deepest shaft extends to 300 feet. The 
others are from 50 to about 150 feet deep. Short cross- 
cut and drift adits were also driven in the central area. 
The under b d workings in this area probably aggre- 
gate several hi i feet of workings. 

The northeast consist mostly of a southwest- 

driven drift adit above and below which several stopes 
extend. A vertical shaft of undetermined depth was sunk 



Porter Group (Ederl, McKeadney, McKidney, Old 
Bod fish, Ophir, Venus). Location: NE'4 sec. 9, T. 28 
S„ R. 32 E., M.D.M., Clear Creek district, VA miles 
west-southwest of Havilah and 1 mile south-southwest 
of O'Brien Hill. Owner: H. V. Porter, Havilah (1957). 

The workings now known as the Porter group ori- 
ginally consisted of three mines, the Venus, Ophir, and 
McKeadney. All of these were opened and most actively 
mined during the early 1870s. They were relatively in- 
active from then until 1929 when the three properties 
were consolidated by Ederl Mines Ltd., and became 
known as the Ederl group. During the next 3 years from 
50 to 100 tons of ore which averaged '/ 3 of an ounce of 
gold per ton was produced. Individual mine production 
figures are not available, but ore from the Venus is said 
to have averaged from $20 to $100 per ton (Tucker and 
Sampson, 1933, p. 299). 

The deposit consists mainly of three veins that strike 
about N. 40° E. and dip steeply southeast in quartz dio- 
rite. They are several hundred feet apart and range in 
width from several inches to 4 feet and persist several 
hundred feet along the strike. Gangue minerals include 
very finely disseminated pyrite, arsenopyrite, and 
pyrrhotite which impart a gray color to the vein quartz. 
Localization" of ore shoots is controlled partly by the 
intersection of the main vein with vertical cross frac- 
tures that trend about N. 50° W. 

The main ore shoot in the McKeadney vein, which is 
the most northwesterly, is 130 feet long on the main 
level (fig. 52) and extends upward about 200 feet to the 
surface; it was mined to a depth of 40 feet below the 
main level from a 200-foot drift driven southwest from 
the bottom of a 40-foot winze. The downward extension 
of this ore shoot beneath the 200-foot drift is unex- 
plored, but a 900-foot crosscut adit was driven N. 55° 
W. from the Ophir claim to intersect the McKeadney 
vein about 200 feet below this area. The work was dis- 



Figure 52. Plan of the main level of the McKeadney vein, Porter group. 




1962] 



Kern— Gold 



119 




I continued, however, some 1,700 feet short of this goal 
I (Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 299). Other develop- 
I ment on the Ophir claim includes several crosscut adits 
I driven from 100 to 150 feet northwest to the vein and 
I over 1,000 feet of drifts. All of this development is 
; largely caved. 

Three adits, 700, 150, and 150 feet long and a 100-foot 
shaft comprise the Venus workings which lie southeast 
of the Ophir mine. They also are largely caved. During 



1957 a 40-foot winze from the main level of the Mc- 
Keadney mine was being dewatered. 

Poso Mine* Location: SWi4 sec. 30, T. 27 S., R. 30 
E., M.D.M. about 6 miles southeast of Granite Station, 
1 Vi miles southwest of Pine Mountain. Ownership: Bill 
Fritz, Mission Hotel, Bakersfield (9 lode claims); Mr. 
Longway, 616 E. 18th St., Bakersfield (2 lode claims, 1 

* By J. Grant Goodwin. 



120 



California Division of Mines and Geology. 



[County Report 1 



placer claim); and Mr. H. H. Stepp, Granite Station (1 
lode claim, 4 placer claims) (1957). 

The Poso mine was first worked in 1923 by the Poso 
Mining and Milling Co., E. W. McCutchin, president, 
Bakersfield. It was last worked during 1938 by Frank 
Leckliter, Bakersfield. Total recorded output is about 350 
tons of ore that yielded an average of 0.36 ounce of gold 
and 0.2 ounce of silver per ton. In 1957 the mine and a 
mill on the property remained fully equipped and in fair 
condition. 

Medium- to fine-grained foliated hornblende granodio- 
rite underlies the mine area. Deep northwest-trending 
gulches bound the mine area on both sides and probably 
mark the trace of steeply dipping faults (fig. 53). To 
the southeast, counterparts of these gulches appear to be 
offset to the southwest by a fault trending N. 45° E. 
along Poso Creek. Apparent horizontal offset is 200 feet. 
The main vein is offset a like distance. 

The main ore bodies are in a quartz vein about 2Y 2 
feet wide which strikes N. 50° W. and dips 60°-70° 
SW. It is exposed in test pits over a distance of 800 
feet. Sheared Mesozoic granodiorite occurs on the foot- 
and hanging walls and the quartz vein-filling is fractured 
and broken into sheets from half an inch to 2 inches 
wide parallel to the walls of the vein. Ore shoots contain 
free-milling gold associated with sparse pyrite. The 
width of the vein is uniform over a distance of 700 
feet northwest of Poso Creek but narrows beyond that 
point. Although the faulted segment southeast of the 
fault along Poso Creek is persistent and 10 to 14 inches 
wide, the quartz in the zone diminishes to the southeast. 

A parallel vein about 200 feet northeast of the main 
vein crops out on the south bank at Poso Creek. This 
vein is a complex of narrow quartz stringers about 2 
inches in maximum width in a gouge zone 25 feet wide. 
The gouge zone appears to be nearly vertical but the 
veinlets within it dip 45° SW. A poorly exposed third 
vein that strikes N. 50° E. and dips 30° NW. intersects 
the main vein near its northwestern extremity. 

The main vein was developed by a 73° inclined two- 
compartment shaft sunk to a reported depth of 370 feet. 
An adit on the 120-foot level was driven 865 feet north- 
west along the vein from Poso Creek, intersecting the 
shaft at a point 365 feet from the portal. At 210 feet from 
the portal, an ore shoot was encountered and an undeter- 
mined amount of stoping was done along the 150-foot 
length of the ore body. 

On the south offset extension of the main vein an adit 
was driven S. 50° E. a distance of 130 feet. Other work- 
ings consist of short adits and numerous test pits. 

Rand Group (Clay bank, Confidence, Oro Fino, Relief, 
St. Charles Mines). Location: SW!4 sec. 3 T. 28 S., R. 32 
E., M.D.M., Clear Creek district, three-quarters of a mile 
northwest of Havilah on the southeast flank of O'Brien 
Hill. Owner: Loring F. Bennett and Alice C. Rynn, Los 
Angeles. Leased to Jess L. Bennett and L. F. Bennett, 
Box 67, Bodfish (1957). The Rand group comprises an 



undetermined number of patented and unpatented claims 
which were among the first to be mined in the district. 

The principal period of activity at the Rand group was 
from 1860 to 1880, during which time the whole district 
flourished. Since 1880, the mines of this group have been 
worked intermittently, and with little new development. 
Late in 1957 one man was engaged in exploration and was 
constructing a gasoline-powered arrastre. 

Accurate total production figures are not available, but 
the group has yielded a minimum of $125,000 worth of 
gold from ore that averaged more than half an ounce of 
gold per ton. 

The deposit consists of six principal sub-parallel quartz 
veins in Mesozoic biotite quartz diorite. The veins, which 
strike about N. 45° E., and dip steeply southeastward, are 
composed principally of qiyrtz and fault gouge in which 
are pyrite, arsenopyrite, free gold, and traces of silver in 
a gold-silver ratio of 5 to 1. They range in width from a 
few inches to 6 feet, and can be traced at least 300 feet 
laterally. They are normally from 20 to 40 feet apart, 
although at some points two adjacent veins converge and 
connect. Ore shoots are at the junction of cross fractures 
at some points, but in other ore streaks no structural con- 
trols are apparent. The tenor of the vein is not reflected 
by the proportion of sulfides present. 

Workings consist of several thousand feet of drifts and 
crosscuts and several shafts and raises (fig. 54). The most 
extensive workings are appended to an adit called the 
Rand Tunnel. This adit consists of a crosscut which ex- 
tends about 500 feet west, and presumably crosses four 
of the principal veins— the Howe, Oro Fino, Rand, and 
Confidence. A 75-foot drift was driven southwest from a 
point about 120 feet west of the portal; another was 
driven about 240 feet southwest from a point 280 feet 
west; and a third was driven about 200 feet northeast 
from a point about 350 feet west. A second crosscut 250 
feet northwest and 50 to 75 feet above was driven 100 
feet west to the Confidence vein, then 100 feet in both 
directions on the vein. Late in 1957 the northwest head- 
ing was being advanced. Several other shorter adits 
honeycomb the area. 

Standard Group (includes Exposed Treasure, Yellow 
Rover, and Desert Queen Mines). Location: NE!4 sec. 
32, T. 11 N., R. 12 W., S.B.M., Mojave district, 3 miles 
south of Mojave on the southwestern face of Standard 
Hill (Elephant Butte). Ownership: Standard Hill Mines 
Co., Earl Blickenstaff, pres., P.O. Box 392, Mojave; 
twelve unpatented and five patented claims (1959). 

The first discovery of gold in the Mojave district was 
that by George Bowers of the Yellow Rover vein in 1894. 
Bowers gathered and shipped two rail carloads of ore 
from the surface which was valued at f 1,600 in gold and 
silver. Soon after this discovery the Exposed Treasure, 
Desert Queen, and other veins on Standard Hill were 
discovered and developed. About 1900, the Exposed 
Treasure and Yellow Rover mines were consolidated un- 
der the Exposed Treasure Gold Mining Co., and in 1901 
a 20-stamp mill and 60-ton cyanide plant were erected. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



121 




EXPLANATION 
^ Fool ol rom 
f\) H«od ol winn 

Ttiichld 
— Covtd 



N 





Figure 54. Plan of the Rand group workings, Clear Creek district. 



In 1912 iMojave Consolidated Gold Mines purchased all 
mines on the hill and operated them until 1915. Mining 
was resumed in 1921 by the newly formed Standard Min- 
ing and Milling Co. w ho operated the mines until 1928. 
During the period 1928-40 mining was done mostly by 
lessees who probably shipped the ore to the Tropico mill, 
10 miles to the southwest. In 1940, the present owners, 
Standard Hill Mines Co., purchased the property and 
mined it until 1942, and intermittently between 1945 and 
1956. The mine was idle in 1958. Total value of gold and 
silver recovered from the group since 1894 is estimated 
to be $3,500,000 (Earl Blickenstaff, 1958, personal com- 
munication). The Exposed Treasure vein is credited with 
70 to 85 percent of this amount. 



Standard Hill is underlain by Mesozoic quartz morr- 
zonite which was intruded by Tertiary dikes of quartz 
latite porphyry. The most prominent parts of the hill are 
underlain by the quartz latite porphyry, and intervening 
areas of subdued relief are underlain by quartz monzo- 
nite. In general, the dikes appear to strike north. Gold 
and silver mineralization has taken place in a series of 
sub-parallel epithermal fissure veins which strike from N. 
15° E. to N. 45° W. and dip from 25° to 70° SE. to NE. 
These veins are most commonly along the borders of the 
dikes. The principal veins, from east to west, are the 
Exposed Treasure, Yellow Rover, and Desert Queen; the 
veins are several hundred feet apart. 



122 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




Figure 55. View south of the Exposed Treasure vein, Standard group. 
Mine shaft in background and stope in foreground lie above the most 
productive portion of the vein. 



The Exposed Treasure vein crops out on the east flank 
of a small ridge on the southwest part of Standard Hill 
(fig. 55) and along the west side of the main body of the 
hill. The southeastern part of the vein strikes N. 15° W. 
and dips 40° NE. at the surface. Farther northwest the 
vein swings sharply west over the ridge then strikes N. 
45° W. along the northwest flank of the hill. The vein 
swings almost due north at its northernmost exposures. 
The dip of the vein ranges from a maximum of 60° NE. 
at the surface, near the main shaft in the southern part of 
the vein, to a minimum of 28° NE. on the 900 level of 
the shaft (Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 26); the average 
dip along the surface is about 40°. Exposures of the vein 
have been traced 3,000 feet on the surface and explored 
more than 900 feet down dip. The vein ranges in width 
from 2 to 20 feet and averages 6 feet (Julihn and Horton, 
1937, p. 26). 

As determined from stopes, the largest ore shoot ex- 
tended from a point about 50 feet northwest of the main 
shaft 150 feet northwest to the sharp bend in strike. The 
lower limit of this ore body apparently was at the 500 
level of the mine. Two other smaller ore shoots were 
found near the surface on the northern part of the vein, 
te southern part of the vein quartz latite porphyry 
lie hanging wall at the surface and the footwall 
is quartz monzonite; however, quartz latite porphyry is 
encountered about 10 feet into the footwall. Below the 
100 level the hanging wall is quartz monzonite; porphyry 
forms the footwall between the 100 and 400 levels, and 
quartz monzonite forms both walls below the 400 level 
(Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 26). The principal ore 
minerals in osed Treasure vein are cerargyrite 

and finely dissem lated free gold. They are in a gangue 
of much-alter k and quartz with smaller pro- 

portions of p) lopyrite, calcite, galena, cerus- 

site, chalcopyrite, v. azurite, and malachite (Julihn 

and Horton, 1937, p. 26). 



The Exposed Treasure vein is developed by an in- 
clined shaft sunk to a depth of 900 feet on the vein with 
levels at 100-foot intervals. The most extensive workings 
are on the 300 level where a drift extends 550 feet south- 
eastward and over 700 feet northeastward from the shaft. 
Total horizontal workings exceed 10,000 feet (fig. 56). 

The Yellow Rover vein crops out 930 feet northeast 
of the Exposed Treasure vein along the western side of 
a north-trending ridge. It strikes N. 5° W., and dips 60° 
NE. Quartz latite porphyry forms the hanging wall and 
quartz monzonite the footwall. The vein ranges in width 
from 1 to 3 feet, has been mined to a depth of 300 feet 
on the incline, and can be traced for more than 1,000 
feet on the surface. Although the vein is similar in com- 
position to the Exposed Treasure vein, the vein fault can 
be divided into four distinct parts: a hanging wall shear 
zone, 1 to 2 feet wide, of the very fine gouge; an inter- 
mediate zone, 3 to 5 feet wide, of decomposed but rela- 
tively unsheared footwall rock; a mineralized zone, 1 to 3 
feet wide, and a brecciated footwall zone, 5 to 10 feet 
wide, containing clay-sized particles to boulder-size frag- 
ments. Fragments of terminated quartz crystals in the 
footwall zone suggest at least one period of post-mineral 
movement. 

The Yellow Rover vein was developed by a single- 
compartment inclined shaft in a small divide northeast of 
the main shaft on the Exposed Treasure vein. The shaft 
is 290 feet deep with four levels. Horizontal workings 
total more than 2,000 feet on the second level (Julihn 
and Horton, 1937, p. 26). 

The Desert Queen vein crops out about 550 feet east 
of the Yellow Rover shaft along the northeast flank of 
Standard Hill. It strikes N. 15° E. and dips about 70° 
SE. From the surface to the 300 level quartz latite por- 
phyry forms the hanging wall and quartz monzonite the 
footwall. Below the 300 level both walls are quartz mon- 
zonite (Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 26). The vein ranges 
in thickness from 2 to 6 feet and can be traced on the 
surface for more than 800 feet. It is composed of coarsely 
crystalline calcite heavily stained with manganese oxides 
and hydrous iron oxides. The gold is free and finely dis- 
seminated in lenticular quartz stringers in the calcite. Py- 
rite, arsenopyrite, and other sulfides are also in the 
stringers. 

Development on the Yellow Rover vein consists of a 
400-foot inclined shaft with four levels at about 100-foot 
intervals. The horizontal workings total more than 3,000 
feet and include an 1,100-foot crosscut driven west- 
southwest on the 380 level from a point near the shaft. 
The Yellow Rover vein was intersected at 510 feet, the 
Exposed Treasure at 1,100 feet, four smaller intervening 
veins were crossed at 100, 590, 630, and 800 feet (Tucker, 
1923, p. 161). The crosscut was flooded in 1928 by water 
issuing from the Exposed Treasure vein. Below the 400 
level is a 200-foot drift which was driven south from the 
west end of a 365-foot crosscut driven west from the 300 
level of the Four Star mine to the east. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



123 




(After Julihn ond Horton, 1937, fig.9) 



Figure 56. Composite plan of the Standard group (Desert Queen, Exposed Treasure, and Yellow Rover mines). 



124 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



I? 



St. John Mine. Location: Sec. 33, T. 28 S., R. 35 E., 
and NE'/ 4 sec. 4, T. 29 S., R. 35 E., M.D.M., 16 miles 
southeast of Weldon, on the south side of the road that 
crosses the divide at the north end of Kelso Valley. 
Ownership: Karl Struss and Ethel Struss, 1343 N. Orange 
Grove Ave., Los Angeles 46 (1956). 

The St. John mine was operated by Senators Jones 
and Stewart of Nevada from 1860, the year of its dis- 
covery, until 1875. They recovered $700,000 in gold and 
silver during the 15-year period (Tucker and Sampson, 
1933, p. 279) then suspended operations. Since 1875, in- 
termittent mining activities by several operators have re- 
sulted in the recovery of only a few hundred ounces of 
gold, mostly during 1891-1900, 1935-38, 1946, and 1950. 
Some of the gold recovered since 1875 has been obtained 
from dumps and mill tailings which were reported to 
contain from $5 to $15 per ton in gold (Tucker, 1929, 
p. 48). 

The principal rock in the vicinity of the St. John mine 
is Mesozoic granodiorite. Several aplite dikes from 2 to 
3 feet wide intrude the granodiorite. A quartz monzonite 
dike from 3 to 20 feet wide, which also intrudes the 
granodiorite, appears to be the principal structural con- 
trol for ore localization. The main vein strikes N. 50° 
W., and dips 35°-45° SVV in a fault zone along one side 
of the quartz monzonite dike (Tucker, Sampson, and 
Oakeshott, 1949, p. 233). The vein ranges in width from 
a few inches to more than 4 feet and is several hundred 
feet long. It is a quartz-filled gouge zone which contains 
free gold, auriferous pyrite, stibnite, arsenopyrite, and 
galena. Fractures within the fault zone are irregular, in 
places quite numerous and closely spaced, and many of 
them extend away from the vein into either the hanging 
wall or footwall. The vein is offset in many places by 
faults of varying displacement and strike. Two sets of 
transverse faults offset the vein horizontally from 3 to 
150 feet. One set is vertical and strikes east; the other set 
strikes N. 75° E. and dips 50°-60° SW. In addition, 
longitudinal dip-slip faults strike parallel to the vein and 
dip 30°-60° SW. 

The St. John mine probably contains several hundred 
feet of workings, but most of those driven before 1875 
are inaccessible. The deepest shaft is inclined 600 feet 
near the northwest end of the main vein. It was the main 
shaft before 1875 but is now caved at the collar. A 350- 
foot inclined shaft is 175 feet southeast of the main shaft, 
and a 300-foot inclined shaft is 160 feet farther southeast. 
Still farther southeast are several shafts from 50 to 100 
feet deep. A 300-foot level connects the 300-foot and 
350-foot shafts and connects farther northwest with an old 
drift extended southeast from the main shaft. A faulted 
segment of the vein formerly worked from the main shaft 
was mined from this northwest drift during 1935-38. 

Sunshine Mine. Location: NE corner sec. 11, T. 30 
S., R. 40 E, M.D.M., Rand district, 1% miles south- 
southeast of Randbliuro, on the east side of a small hill on 
the southeast side of the Rand Mountains. Ownership: 



T. W. Atkinson estate, A. P. Barnhart, agent, Bakersfield, j 
owns one patented claim (1957). 

The Sunshine gold mine has been operated intermit- „ 
tently since 1896; the principal periods of mining were c 
1896-1915, 1931-37, 1938-48. Total production probably j, 
lies within the range of $400,000 (Partridge, 1941, p. j 
290) to $1,060,000 (Hulin, 1925, p. 144). About 90 per- j 
cent of the gold was produced during the period 1896- , 
1915. The average gold content of the ore ranged from c 
l]/ 2 ounces per ton in ore mined between 1899 and 1915 | 
to half an ounce per ton in ore mined between 1938 and [ 
1948 (Stryker and Harrell, personal communication, j 
1957). The most recent mining was in 1948 by W. A. ] 
Stryker and Louis Harrell, Johannesburg. 

The Sunshine vein is a gold-bearing quartz vein in | 
Rand schist. Unlike most of the gold veins in the Rand ^ 
district, it is composed of quartz rather than silicified | 
schist. According to several lessees of the mine it also has 
yielded the coarsest gold in the Randsburg area (Earl ! ; 
Blickenstaff, William Stryker, Bert Wegman, personal 
communications), the largest" grains of gold being about t 
the size of wheat grains or larger. The similar, parallel, i 
but less productive La Crosse vein crops out at La Crosse i 
mine immediately west of the Sunshine mine. 

The Sunshine vein is vertical and strikes N. 80° E. It i 
is from 6 to 12 inches wide, about 500 feet long, and i 
extends to a depth of 600 feet. Both walls of the vein are 
well defined. The gold is both free in quartz and asso- : f 
ciated with pyrite, arsenopyrite, and— less commonly— ■ 
with scheelite. The vein is offset a few feet by each of 
several faults and is terminated by major cross faults , 
approximately 500 feet apart. The west cross fault is 
described only from an underground position in the mine 
(Tucker 1929, p. 49). It dips 50° SE. and cuts the Sun- 
shine vein 57 feet west of the main shaft at the 400 level 
of the mine. The east cross fault is vertical and intersects 
the Sunshine vein 230 feet east of the main shaft. 

The Sunshine mine workings consist of a 600-foot ver- 
tical shaft and a total of about 3,000 feet of drifts on five 
levels spaced at 100-foot vertical intervals. Much of the 
mined material was presumably removed in open stopes. 
The shaft was sunk to a depth of 500 feet sometime 
between 1904 and 1914. 

A three-stamp mill and cyanide plant were used for 
many years prior to 1929, but they are no longer on the I 
property. 

Tropico (Big Three, Big Tree, Gold King, Hamilton) 
Mine (includes Home, Fairview, Kidd, Lida Mines). Lo- 
cation: Sees. 10, 11, 14, 15, T. 9 N., R. 12 W., S.B.M., 1 
in the Mojave district, 4 miles northwest of Rosamond on ' 
Tropico Hill. Ownership: Burton Bros. Inc., Clifford 
G. Burton, president, of Rosamond owns twelve patented 
and four unpatented mining claims (1958). 

Gold was discovered on Tropico Hill about 1900 and 
by 1904 at least four mines— the Fairview, Big Tree, Gold 
King, and Lida had been opened. The Lida was the most 
productive of these, and by 1907 had yielded more than 
8,000 tons of ore which averaged 1.2 ounces of gold and 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



125 



7.5 ounces of silver per ton. In 1910, the Tropico Mining 
and Milling Company was formed and it subsequently 
acquired most of Tropico Hill. The company gradually 
came under the control of H. Clifford Burton and his 
brother Cecil Burton, and by the mid-1930s they were 
the sole owners. The growth of mining in the Mojave 
district during the period 1933-42 was facilitated by the 
existence at Tropico Hill of the Burtons' mill at which 
custom milling was done. In 1935, this mill received ore 
from 160 shippers in four mining districts (Julihn and 
Horton, 1937, p. 39, 40). Mining and milling ceased dur- 
ing the war years 1942-45, but mining was resumed in 
1945. The mounting costs of mining finally caused the 
Tropico mine to be shut down in 1952. Custom milling, 
however, was done until 1956. Through 1952, mines on 
Tropico Hill yielded 300,000 tons of ore which averaged 
0.38 ounces of gold and 0.43 ounces of silver per ton. 

Tropico Hill is underlain by Mesozoic quartz mon- 
zonite which is overlain by volcanic agglomerate and 
Tropico group continental sediments; these rocks are in- 
truded by numerous bodies of later Tertiary rhyolite 
breccia, and rhyolitdc porphyry. Most of the gold has 
been obtained from four veins in rhyolitic breccia and 
rhyolite. The veins strike due east and dip 60° to 70° S. 
From south to north the veins are designated the Home, 
North No. 1, North No. 2, and the Lida; they are 125, 
200, and 300 feet apart. The Home vein, the most pro- 
ductive, crops out about 500 feet south of the crest of 
Tropico Hill. It ranges in width from 3 to 20 feet but 
averages 6 feet. The vein is exposed laterally for 4,000 
feet and has been mined to a depth of 900 feet measured 
in the plane of the vein. Most of the several ore shoots 
in the Home vein were 200 to 300 feet in strike-length 
and raked about 50° westward. Most of them extended 
100 to 400 feet parallel to the rake. 

The ore shoots are rather closely spaced into three 
groups. The largest group is clustered near the Home 
shaft, which is on the central part of the hill. It extends 
about 700 feet along strike and is mined to the 750 level. 
As a unit the group rakes 50° west as do most of the 
individual ore shoots. A second group of ore bodies is 
centered about the Fairview shaft which is 880 feet to 
the east of the Home shaft. This group has been mined 
along an average strike-length of about 500 feet and 
stoped to a depth of 750 feet. In general, the group rakes 
steeply to the west. A third group of ore shoots is cen- 
tered about the Kidd shaft about 960 feet west of the 
Tropico shaft. This group has been mined laterally an 
average of 400 feet and principally from the 300 level 
of the Tropico shaft to the 750 level of the Kidd shaft. 
As in the first group this group rakes about 50° W. 

The Home vein is composed principally of brecciated 
and recemented quartz with minor proportions of pyrite, 
which near the surface, is largely oxidized to hydrous 
iron oxides. The only ore mineral is fine free gold which 
averages about 800 fine in gold (Gardner, 1954, p. 56). 

The Home vein was mined initially from a glory hole 
in the central part of the hill and later through the Home, 
Kidd, and Fairview shafts (pi. 9). These shafts were 



each sunk to an inclined depth of about 900 feet with 
levels at approximately 100-foot vertical intervals, and 
provides access to over 18,000 feet of horizontal work- 
ings. The 100 level of the Home shaft is connected to 
a 125-foot crosscut adit at the shaft and serves as a haul- 
age level to the mill for both the Home and Fairview 
shafts. The Fairview shaft is collared at the same elevation 
as the 100 level of the Home shaft. 

The North No. 1 vein is very poorly exposed at the 
surface and it was explored mostly by crosscuts that 
extend north from the Home vein. The main ore body 
of this vein was between the 200 and 500 levels, and was 
mined a lateral distance of 125 feet. Crosscuts on the 200, 
300, 400, 500, and 600 levels connect the Home vein drifts 
with North No. 1 vein drifts; crosscuts on, the 300 level 
and 400 level also extend farther north to the North 
No. 2 and Lida veins. Drifts were extended for short 
distances on North No. 2 vein but apparently no ore 
was found. 

The Lida vein, most northerly of the four veins, crops 
out along the north flank of Tropico Hill about 300 feet 
north of the crest. It has been explored laterally for at 
least 2,070 feet and to a depth of 400 feet. The principal 
ore body was mined along a 120-foot length from the 
surface to the 300 level where it apparently bottomed. 

The Lida vein is developed by a 300-foot inclined shaft 
about 1,300 feet northwest of the Tropico shaft and has 
five levels aggregating about 1,500 feet of drifts. The 
Ella shaft, 1,100 feet east of the Lida shaft was sunk to 
a depth of 200 feet and has two levels. Little drifting 
was done from this shaft. A crosscut to the Lida vein 
from the Home vein on the 400 level of the Home vein 
intersected the Lida vein at a point about 300 feet west 
of the Ella shaft, and drifts were driven 100 feet east 
and 200 feet west from the crosscut. No ore was found 
on that level. 

Wegman (Eureka, Grace Group, Karma) Mine. Lo- 
cation: NW'X sec. 6, T. 10 N, R. 12 W., S.B.M., Mojave 
district, 4!/ 2 miles southwest of Mojave on the northeast 
slope of Soledad Mountain. Ownership: Bert Wegman, 
P.O. Box 195, Randsburg, owns 80 acres of patented 
ground and six unpatented claims adjoining on the south 
(1958). 

The Wegman mine, generally known as the Karma 
mine, was discovered in 1896 and was operated by the 
Karma Mining Company until 1918. Ore mined and 
shipped during the first 7 years of production contained 
an average of 50 ounces of silver per ton (Julihn and 
Horton, 1937, p. 22). A 20-stamp mill was constructed 
at the mine in 1904 for the treatment of lower grade 
ore; in 1909 the mine was shut down because of poor 
recovery. The mine was reactivated in 1917 when the 
United States Smelting and Refining Company at Kennett 
agreed to accept low-grade ore for the contained high 
percentage of silica. No smelting charge was made. E. L. 
Wegman purchased the property in 1918 and until 1926 
continued to mine for shipment to Kennett low-grade 
ore that contained from 5 to 9 ounces of silver per ton. 



126 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




During 1937-41, ore was shipped to the Golden Queen 
mill half a mile to the west. A very limited amount of 
mining was done in 1951 following a discovery of a 
narrow vein southeast of the Ajax vein above the old 
workings. Twenty-seven tons of ore from this vein con- 
tained over 7,000 ounces of silver, 10 ounces of gold, 251 
pounds of lead, and 40 pounds of copper. Subsequent 
work, however, revealed that the vein was narrow and 
difficult to mine. In 1958, two men were crosscutting 
from the main haulage way on the mill level. 
The Wegman mine area is underlain by quartz latite 
porphyry, 3 iite breccia, and fine-grained flow-banded 
rhyolite. Quartz latite porphyry is the most abundant 
wall rock i ;toped areas, although several sub-parallel 
fissure veins traverse all of the rock units. Most of the 
veins strike N. W. and dip 60° NE. to 60° SW. The 
principal veins rom west to east, the Karma, Ajax, 
and Reymert. 

The Karma vein stril 3 N. 25° W. and dips about 80° 
NE.; it ranges from 4 5 feet in width, and can be 
traced for several thousan >n the surface. It has been 



prospected to a depth of 640 feet below the main haulage 
level. Cerargyrite is the principal ore mineral and is ac- 
companied by gold, argentite, chalcopyrite, and locally, 
stibnite and galena. Gangue minerals include quartz, 
pyrite, and limonite. 

The main ore body was discovered on the surface 
between the portals of the Ajax and the Mill levels. It 
was tabular in shape and measured about 200 feet lat- 
erally, 250 feet vertically, and was an average of 12 feet 
in width (fig. 57). Initial development of the ore was by 
means of a glory hole and an open stope from the Mill 
level. On the Mill level the ore zone extends approxi- 
mately 140 feet southeast from a point 150 feet from 
the portal. A second ore body on the same level was 
mined to 50 feet above the drift for a distance of 200 
feet from a point 600 feet southeast of the portal. Sev- 
eral crosscuts were extended, mainly into the hanging 
wall, to explore the adjacent Ajax vein, but no ore was 
proved. 

A lower extension of the main or Karma ore body 
was mined from the 160 level, accessible through a 160- 



Kern— Gold 



127 



DESERT FLOOR 

'.Quaternary alluvium 

Thyolite dike-x^*^ 



* • -V • •\>t! , . , i v .' 1 , >/> -' A 'l > ^{U*.'v!. '.vein . . ♦ « 




Figure 58. Transverse section of the Whitmore mine, view to the northwest. 



foot shaft sunk about 100 feet northwest of the Mill 
level portal. The 160 level was driven southeastward 650 
feet on the Karma vein with several crosscuts extended 
into the foot and hanging walls. The longest of these 
are a 100-foot crosscut driven west adjacent to the shaft 
and a 50-foot crosscut extended east from a point 200 
feet southeast of the shaft. A low-grade vein, 10 feet 
wide, was exposed in the east-driven crosscut. A 480-foot 
winze was sunk along the Karma vein under the Karma 
ore body, but no mineable ore was found. 

The Ajax vein was explored from the Ajax drift adit 
which is 175 feet above and 450 southeast of the Mill 
level portal. This adit was driven 900 feet on the vein, 
and crosscuts were extended just over the smaller ore 
body to the Karma vein. The two levels are connected 
by an air raise at this point. 

Little exploration other than the development of 
trenches, shallow prospect shafts, and short adits has 
been done on the other smaller veins to the northeast. 

The most promising of these veins, perhaps, is the 
Reymert vein, which is 500 feet east of the Ajax vein, 
strikes N. 18° W., dips 60° SW., is 10 feet wide, and 
contains as much as $15 in silver (Julihn and Horton, 
1937, p. 22). It has been explored by 90-foot and 150- 
foot shafts and a 60-foot drift adit. 

Whitmore Mine. Location: SW!4 sec. 32, T. 11 N., 
R. 12 W., S.B.M., Mojave district, 3 miles south of 
Mojave, on the desert floor a few hundred feet southwest 
of Standard Hill. Ownership: Whitmore Mine Inc., Mr. 
Earl Oakley, president, 408 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 
13 (1958). 

The Whitmore mine was worked as early as 1912 by 
the St. Mary Mining Company. It was later acquired by 
W. K. and J. E. Whitmore who operated the mine inter- 
mittently until about 1936 when it became the property 
of Whitmore Mine Inc. of Los Angeles. The most pro- 



ductive mining periods were 1936-42, when 4,500 tons of 
ore was shipped, and 1948-52 when about 2,300 tons was 
shipped. Total recorded production for the mine ex- 
ceeds 7,500 tons of ore which contained an average of 
0.3 ounces of gold and 8 ounces of silver per ton. 

The ore is in two parallel veins of iron-stained quartz, 
about 300 feet apart, along contacts between Tertiary 
quartz-latite porphyry dikes and Mesozoic quartz mon- 
zonite (fig. 58). Several intervening weaker veins, be- 
tween the principal veins in both rock types, have not 
been developed. The veins and dikes strike about N. 
30° W. and dip from 60° to 80° NE. The veins are 
from 2 to 6 feet wide and the dikes are several tens of 
feet wide. The principal ore minerals are fine, free gold 
and cerargyrite. Pyrite, arsenopyrite, and other sulfides 
also are found in the quartz. Narrow barren stringers of 
calcite are common near the hanging wall of the most 
westerly vein (Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 27). 

Development consists of three shafts and several hun- 
dred feet of horizontal workings. The most westerly and 
principal shaft is the No. 1 shaft. It was sunk 225 feet 
on the inclined vein, thence vertically into the footwall 
to a total depth of 300 feet. Drifts were driven 165 feet 
north and 60 feet south on the 200 level. A crosscut was 
extended about 250 feet southwestward from the south 
drift of the 200 level to a footwall vein on which a drift 
was driven an undetermined distance southeast. A cross- 
cut on the 270 level was extended 70 feet east to the vein 
where a crosscut and drifts of undetermined length were 
extended (Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 28). This lower 
level was flooded in 1958. The Whitmore No. 3 shaft is 
400 feet southeast of No. 1 shaft. It is a 100-foot inclined 
shaft sunk on the same vein, but appended by only a few 
tens of feet of drifts. The third shaft is about 1,700 feet 
S. 30° E. of No. 1 shaft. It is 280 feet deep, but the 
extent of the horizonal workings at this shaft was not 
determined. 



128 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




Yellow Aster (Olympus) Mine* Location: sees. 2 
and 3, T. 30 S., R. 40 E., and sees. 34 and 35, T. 29 S., 
R. 40 E., M.D.M., on the northwest slope near the crest, 
of the Rand Mountains. The principal mine adits are half 
a mile southwest of Randsburg. Ownership: Yellow 
Aster Mining and Milling Co., 6331 Hollywood Blvd., 
Los Angeles 28, owns 49 patented claims and 6 unpat- 
ented claims; the principal workings are leased to Glenn 
J. E. Tramill, Clyde Hewitt, and others, Johannesburg 
(1958). 

The Yellow Aster mine (fig. 59), discovered in 1895, 
and the principal source of gold in Kern County, has 
an output valued at approximately $12,000,000, which is 
about one-fourth of the value of the entire gold output 
of Kem County through 1957. The mine was operated 
continuously by the Yellow Aster Mining and Milling 
Company from 1895 to 1918, closed until 1921, then re- 
opened and operated by that company until 1933. The 
Anglo American Mining Corp., Ltd., leased the mine in 
1933 and operated it until 1939. Since that time it has 
been mined intermittently by lessees who have worked 
at Various places underground and in the walls of a large 
open pit. 

* Compiled largely from descriptions by Hess (1910) and Hulin (1925). 



For a few months following its discovery on the Yel- 
low Aster property in 1895, rich gold-bearing placer 
material was processed in dry washers. Following the 
depletion of the richer placer material, mining was con- 
ducted underground and by 1905 about seven and a 
half miles of horizontal underground workings had been 
driven (Aubury, 1904, p. 16). Most of the ore mined 
from 1905 to 1933 was obtained from a large glory hole, 
but underground mining was continued and, by 1909, 
workings totaled between 12 and 15 miles in length 
(Hess, 1910, p. 39). Part of the old workings were en- 
gulfed in the glory hole. About 1938, open pit mining 
was begun on the walls of the glory hole and continued 
until the mine was closed in 1939. Since then parts of 
the mine have been mined at intermittent intervals by 
lessees. The lessees in 1957 and 1958 were mining on the 
First level at the east end of what they believed to be 
the Jake Price vein. 

The first ore mined in the Yellow Aster mine was 
hand sorted and hauled to Garlock, 8 miles to the north- 
west, and treated in small stamp mills. Later the ore was 
shipped to custom stamp mills at Barstow. In 1898, a 30- 
stamp mill with amalgamation plates was built at the 
mine, and in 1901, a 100-stamp mill was added. In 1916, 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



129 



the 30-stamp mill was abandoned, and in 1918 a new 
crushing and screening plant was constructed. Fines 
were treated in the 100-stamp mill; oversize went to the 
dumps. This operation continued for only 4 months, and 
the mine was closed in 1918. The crushing plant was 
destroyed by fire a few years later. 

From 1921, when the mine was reopened, to 1933, 
only 50 stamps were used. In 1933, Anglo American 
Mining Corp., Ltd., rebuilt the crushing and screening 
plant and repaired all the stamps. Because only about 
80 percent of the gold was recovered by amalgamation, 
flotation equipment was installed to treat amalgamation 
| tailings in addition to the ore from the open pit. After 
1 14 months operation the flotation plant was closed and 
the recovery of gold by amalgamation was resumed. In 
1934, a sand and slime cyanide plant was built. In it 1,100 
tons of old stamp-mill tailings and current stamp-mill 
tailings were treated daily. In 1936, the crushing and 
screening plant was rebuilt to provide a smaller under- 
size product to the stamp mill. 

Between 1895 and May 1939, more than 3,400,000 tons 
of ore was milled, and about 500,000 ounces of gold was 
recovered, nearly all by amalgamation. In addition, 1,- 
700,000 tons of mill tailings was treated and yielded 
41,000 ounces of gold (Frolli, 1940, p. 4). From 3,000,000 
tons of ore mined through the fall of 1933, about 0.167 
ounces of gold per ton remained in the tailings, a recov- 
ery of about 80 percent (Cooper, 1936, p. 2). The total 
value of the gold was more than $12,000,000. Most of the 
output was mined and sold at pre- 1934 prices. Fineness 
1 1 of the gold is about 750. 

The Yellow Aster mine is in a fault-bounded wedge 
containing Mesozoic quartz monzonite, Precambrian? 
Rand schist, and Tertiary rhyolite dikes. In plan the 
wedge forms a triangle with the widest angle pointed 

• northeast (fig. 60). The longest side trends N. 60° W. 
' and is about 1,600 feet long. It is formed by the Foot- 
f wall fault which dips 40° NE. The northwest side is 

• bounded by the Jupiter fault which strikes N. 75° E. 
2 and dips 40° NW, (fig. 61) and the northeast side is 
11 bounded by the Hanging Wall fault which strikes N. 
d i 30° W. and dips 45° NE. The Jupiter and Hanging Wall 
: > faults appear to be differently oriented segments of the 
>. same fault zone (Hess, 1910, p. 35; Hulin, 1925, p. 122). 
!> | The long axis of the wedge plunges about 40° NNE., and 

the apex of the Jupiter and Hanging Wall faults forms 
i an inverted trough. 

Mica-albite schist occupies the southeast one-third of 

the wedge and quartz monzonite the remaining two- 
y thirds. Both rock types contain the gold mineralization, 
ie which is largely confined to the rocks within the fault- 
e bounded wedge probably because the rocks within it are 

so highly fractured and shattered. At many places the 
35 rocks are so highly crushed and altered that they cannot 

be easily distinguished. Gold-bearing veins and zones 
15 composed of networks of veinlets trend northwest, term- 
"i inate at depth against the Footwall fault, and laterally 
ll£ against the other faults. Gold-bearing veins with differ- 




FEET 



Figure 60. Faults on the surface at the Yellow Aster mine. 

ent orientation are in the footwalls of the Jupiter and 
Hanging Wall faults and at the crest of the inverted 
trough formed by them. 

The netw.orks of gold-bearing veinlets are in quartz 
monzonite largely above the First level of the mine and 
in the western part of the wedge. These veinlets were 
abundant enough to form ore bodies, most of them in 
northwest-trending vertical zones. The two largest ore 
bodies were about 1 50 feet apart in a zone that cut across 
the wedge about 500 feet southwest of the apex of the 
Jupiter and Hanging Wall faults at the floor level of 
the open pit. The ore bodies in the zone ranged in width 
from 20 to 95 feet and the zone was about 800 feet long. 
It extended southeast from the Jupiter fault and pinched 



Figure 61. View to west of the western part of the glory hole and 
open pit at the Yellow Aster mine.. Footwall fault forms partly-shaded wall 
on observer's left; Jupiter fault cuts through right wall. Glory hole in 
foreground; part of open pit beyond and above. 




130 California Division of 

out at depth at the Footwall fault. The northwest ore 
body (West set) was 340 feet long, as much as 50 feet 
wide, and 105 feet in vertical dimension. The southeast 
ore body (East set) was 265 feet long, as much as 95 
feet wide, and was 50 or 60 feet in vertical dimension. 
The ore bodies consisted of gold-bearing, shattered and 
porous quartz monzonite. Most of the rock was oxidized 
and iron stained, but the lower parts of the ore bodies 
also contained arsenopyrite. The average value of the 
ore from the East and West sets was probably between 
$4 and $5 per ton in gold at pre-1934 prices (Hess, 
1910, p. 35). Most of the rock in this area of the mine 
was removed during mining in the open pit. 

Another system of veins is parallel to the above-noted 
zone and lies between it and the Jupiter fault. The veins 
uniformly cross quartz monzonite, schist, and rhyolite, 
but are narrower and contain less gold in the rhyolite. 
The veins range in thickness from a fraction of an inch 
to more than 30 feet, but the average thickness lies be- 
tween 15 and 20 feet. The principal veins are the Jake 
Price and the Rand Vertical. Both are along shear zones 
and both terminate against the Jupiter fault and bottom 
against the Footwall fault. At the level of the open pit 
floor the veins are only a few feet apart but 100 feet 
below they are from 65 to 110 feet apart. They were 
each about 500 feet long and about 400 feet in vertical 
extent. The Rand Vertical vein extended about 50 feet 
above the level of the floor of the open pit and the Jake 
Price was mostly below that level. Several other veins 
of this type were in other portions of the wedge, but 
none was as large. As in the networks of veinlets the 
larger veins contained free gold disseminated as minute 
grains in altered and oxidized quartz monzonite or 
schist. Most veins are considerably iron-stained and con- 
tain little or no quartz and relatively small amounts of 
pyrite or arsenopyrite. Locally sphalerite is associated 
with the gold. The wall rock of the veins is commonly 
bleached for several feet on each side of the veins and 
locally the rock is silicified. Ore containing between $25 
and $80 per ton in gold was not uncommon in the veins 
and locally the veins were much richer. 

A third system of veins (fault lode veins of Hess) 
occupy the footwall side of the Jupiter and Hanging 
Wall faults. Ore bodies were common from the surface 
to below the Third level (approximately 800 feet in max- 
imum vertical extent). The system probably extended 
laterally also for several hundred feet. They were espe- 
cially common in the inverted trough at the intersection 
of the Jupiter and Hanging Wall faults. The veins are 
similar to the other veins except that locally particles of 
gold as large as wheat grains were found and the vein 
material is composed of more finely ground rock. Ore 
bodies were measurable in tens of feet, one being 100 feet 
long, 50 feet wide, and probably 40 feet high. It is thought 
to have averaged $10 per ton in gold (Hess, 1910, p.~36). 
Others were from 20 to 500 feet long, 4 to 16 feet thick, 
and most of them tapered down dip. Hess (1910, p. 35) 
states that in this s> em "below the Third level the quan- 



Mines and Geology [County Report 1 

tity of crushed material along the fault decreases consid- 
erably, iron and arsenic pyrites appear, and gold values 
decrease." Some of the richest ore bodies were at inter- 
sections of this system with the other gold-bearing 
systems. 

Ore that was mined from the glory hole, and later 
from the open pit contained barren rock as well as the 
gold-bearing veins. After extensive testing by mill runs, 
certain sections of the mine above and below the floor of 
the glory hole were estimated (Frolli, 1940, p. 8) to con- 
tain several million tons of rock with an average of about 
0.020 of an ounce of gold per ton, but screened fines 
from this rock contained as much as 0.061 of an ounce 
of gold per ton. Part of this tonnage was subsequently 
mined. 

The mine contains four principal levels and at least 
ten less extensive levels (pi. 10). The Rand level, 3,980 
feet in elevation and about 500 feet below the crest of 
the mountain, is now the floor of the open pit. It was the 
principal haulage level. Beneath it are the First, Second, 
and Third levels at approximately 100-foot intervals. 
These four levels contain about three-fifths of the under- 
ground workings. Most of the other levels were above 
the Rand level, but intermediate levels were driven be- 
tween the Rand and First levels and an inextensive Fourth 
level was driven below the Third level. The workings 
beneath the Rand level join to the surface by means of 
three shafts with collars at the elevation of the floor of 
the open pit. The Main shaft, inclined 45° NE., extends 
250 feet to the Second level; the Hercules shaft, inclined 
40° NE., extends 450 feet to the Fourth level; and the 
Rand shaft extends vertically to a depth of 450 feet. The 
Main shaft collar is in the floor of the open pit approxi- 
mately midway between the East and West sets. The 
Rand shaft collar is 400 feet northeast of the Main shaft 
and the Hercules shaft collar is about 200 feet farther 
north-northeast. The maximum plan dimensions of the 
glory hole were about 150 by 300 feet at the bottom (105 
feet above the Rand level) and 700 by 900 feet at the rim. 
The floor and rim of the open pit are larger than the 
glory hole, and many of the older underground workings 
above the Rand level open into the walls of the open pit. 
Wall heights range from 100 to 400 feet; the rim of the 
open pit is 1,250 feet long and 800 feet wide. The foot- 
wall fault forms the southwest wall of the open pit and 
the Jupiter fault crops out high in the northwest wall. 

Yellow Dog Mine. Location: NW'/iNW'/J sec. 32, T. 
11 N., R. 12 W., S.B.M., Mojave district, 3 miles south- 
west of Mojave on the east side of a small hill a few 
hundred yards west of Standard Hill. Ownership: Yellow 
Dog Mining Co., Bert Wegman, president, P.O. Box 195, 
Randsburg, owns two patented and six unpatented claims 
(1958). 

Although the Yellow Dog vein was discovered about 
1902, initial development by surface cuts and shallow 
shafts failed to disclose mineable ore bodies. These early 
shafts were sunk on a calcite vein 4 to 6 feet wide, but 
the hanging-wall part of the vein was not explored be- 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



131 



cause it was not recognized as part of the vein. In 1922 
Percy Wegman discovered a quartz vein containing high- 
grade ore in this heretofore unrecognized part of the vein. 
After the mine was purchased in 1922 and the Yellow 
Dog Mining Co. was formed, the mine was operated until 
the early 1930s. During the last few of these years mining 
; was by lessees, and little mining has been done since. The 
jmost recent recorded shipments were made in 1950 and 
1951, when Louis Meehl of Mojave shipped 21 tons. Total 
recorded production from the mine exceeds 4,500 tons of 
ore which contained an average of 1.3 ounces of gold 
and 8 ounces of silver per ton. 

Mineralization is along a vein 4 to 10 feet wide which 
istrikes N. 20° W. and dips 60° NE. The vein crops out 
[about 1,000 feet along a contact between Tertiary quartz- 
latite porphyry on the footwall side and Mesozoic quartz 
monzonite on the hanging-wall side. The footwall part 
of the vein is composed mostly of manganese dioxide and 
iiron-stained coarsely crystalline calcite. Most of the foot- 
Wall part is barren of gold and silver except in minor 
veinlets and lenses of mineralized quartz in the calcite. 
This part of the vein averaged less than 0. 1 ounce of gold 
per ton (Newman, 1923, p. 307). The hanging-wall part 
is composed principally of quartz and it contains most 
of the ore minerals. The minerals include coarse to fine 
particles of free gold and cerargyrite with minor amounts 
of pyrite, arsenopyrite, and other metal sulfides. The 
ratio of gold to silver recovered was about 4:3. The 
largest ore shoot was 200 feet long and was mined to the 
surface from a point a few tens of feet northwest of the 
porthernmost shaft. An extension of this ore shoot raked 
steeply northwest and extended a few feet below the 
300 level. 

The Yellow Dog mine was developed by two princi- 
pal shafts 420 feet apart. The deepest shaft is at the base 
of the southeastern part of the hill and is 336 feet deep 
on a 60° incline to the northeast. Levels were driven at 
approximately 100-foot intervals. Horizontal workings 
from this shaft total over 2,000 feet in length and are 
mostly drifts extended northwest from the shaft. On the 
300 level a crosscut was driven 300 feet west into the 
footwall from a point 120 feet northwest of the shaft, 
but no veins were encountered. In the valley floor 420 
feet southeast of the deep shaft, the Cook shaft was sunk 
|at an angle of 55° to an inclined depth of 240 feet. It has 
levels at 50, 100, 150, 180, and 240 feet which aggregate 
about 500 feet in length of horizontal workings. A few 
other shafts have been sunk both north and south of the 
main shaft, the deepest of which is 60 feet. 

Zenda Mine. Location: SW>4 sec. 29, T. 31 S., R. 33 
E., M.D.M., Loraine district, 2 miles southwest of Loraine 
on a high ridge between Studhorse and Big Last Chance 
Canyons. Ownership: Zenda Gold Mining Company, 120 
Broadway, New York, N.Y. (1933). 

The oldest published records indicate that the Zenda 
: vein was known as early as 1904 (Aubury, 1904, p. 16). 
Available production records, however, suggest that the 



first ore was mined in 1909 when the Zenda Mining and 
Milling Company mined 200 tons of ore and milled it in 
a 10-stamp mill erected on the property. Relatively small 
amounts of ore were mined at intermittent intervals from 
1910 until 1922 when the mine was purchased by the 
Zenda Gold Mining Company. This company installed a 
150-ton ball mill and cyanide plant (Tucker, 1924, p. 41) 
and during the subsequent 4-year period mined over 90 
percent of the mine's totai recorded output. Little mining 
has been done at the Zenda mine since 1928. From 1909 
to 1958 a total of about 54,000 tons of ore was mined 
which contained an average of 0.6 ounces of gold and 2 
ounces of silver per ton. 

A Tertiary rhyolite porphyry dike intrusive into 
Mesozoic quartz diorite underlies most of the mine area. 
Silver and gold were found along a shear zone 30 to 50 
feet wide, which strikes about N. 30° E. and dips 40° 
NW. At the surface, quartz diorite forms the footwall 
and rhyolite porphyry forms the hanging wall. The vein 
consists mostly of quartz and silicified gouge which con- 
tain unidentified oxidized silver minerals and free gold. 
The principal ore body at the Zenda mine was 300 feet 
long and 30 to 50 feet wide. 

Most of the ore was mined from a glory-hole, the 
bottom of which is connected by an extraction raise with 
a long crosscut adit driven N. 30° W. from the mill site 
level. The mill site is 550 below the outcrop of the vein. 
The length of the crosscut was not determined, but the 
extraction raise was driven from it at a point 350 feet 
from the portal of the crosscut adit. Several hundred feet 
of additional workings were driven on the vein on levels 
above the crosscut adit (Tucker, 1924, p. 42). Most of the 
workings were badly caved in late 1958. 



Figure 62. View to northeast of the New Deal mine. Vein dips away 
from observer and crops out from left of photo to bend in road at right. 




132 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




1962] 



Kern— Gold 



GOLD 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Accident claim 








Former claim of Standard Group. (Aubury 
04:8t; Brown 16:486; Tucker 23:160; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:272t) 




Ajax claim 








Former claim of Wegman group. (Aubury 
04:8t; Tucker 23:161; 29:37; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:272t, 311; 40:34, 35). 




Aladdin 


Reported in sec. 
32, TUN, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist., 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined , 1 958 ; 
W. J. Nelson, Los 
Angeles (1904) 


Four— foot vein strikes NE. , dips 
vertically; in granite and porphyry. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under another name. (Aubury 04: 
8t) . 


107 


Allstate prospect 


SEhstik sec. 4, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, ; 
Rand dist. , 2k 
miles southwest of 
Randsburg , on 
northwest side of 
Rand Mts. 


D. P. Shorey, 
W. T. Johnson, 
Randsburg (1957) 


Poorly-exposed iron-oxide- stained 

shear zones in schist. Zone with 

most exploratory work strikes 

N. 30° W. , dips 60° E., is from 2 to 

4 feet wide, and is few tens of feet 

long. 


Two claims. Formerly Raven and No. 1, 
owned by T. B. Peterson. Developed by 
several prospect shafts and adits. 
Probably small output. Idle. 




Alpha 


Reported in sec. 
36, T26S, R32E, 
MDM, (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined , 1957 




Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:8t). 




Amalie mine 








See text under silver. 




America 

(American) group 


Reported in sec. 
26 T29S, R40E, 
MDM, Rand dist. , 
1 mile north of 
Randsburg (1910) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
C. E. and J. Jef- 
fords, Randsburg 
(1910) 


Gold in mineralized fault in schist. 
Fault strikes N. 20 - 30° W. , dips 
40° NE. 


Formerly 3 claims - Blue Bird, Yellow 
Jacket, and U. S. Ore shoots near the 
surface yielded a few thousand dollars 
in gold by 1910. (Hess, 1910, p. 40). 
Probably part of the Snowbird claims, 
which see. (Aubury 04:08t; Hess 10:40) . 




American Mining 
Co. property 








See Pine Tree mine (Aubury 04:08t, 17t; 
Brown 16:506) . 




Amethiste 


Reported in sec. 4 
T10N, R14W, SBM, 
Mojave dist. , on 
southeast flank 
of Tehachapi Mts. 
(1950) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, ,1958; 
George F. Engel 
Cantil (1950) 




Uncorrelated name. Produced 150-175 
tons between 1935-1950 which contained 
an average of about .5 oz. gold per ton. 


108 


Amy 

(Gold State) 
mine 


NE% sec. 5, T29S, 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. area, 3/4 
mile northwest of 
Claraville 


Peter F. Errecart 
and Anna Hagenston, 
P.O. Box 10B, 
Tehachapi City own 
5 unpatented claims 
(1958) 


Several parallel gold-bearing quartz 
veins, two inches to as much as 
three feet wide, strike N. 70 o -80° 
E., dip 65°-70° SE. ; in sheeted 
zones in deeply weathered Mesozoic 
granodiorite. Apparently rich ore 
occurred in kidney-like masses. 


Developed prior to 1916 by 80-foot shaft, 
200 feet of drifts; also one stope, 80 
feet long. High-grade ore treated in 
steam-powered arrastre yielded $20,000 
prior to 1916 (Brown, 1916) or $75,000 
prior to 1898 (Tucker and Sampson, 1933). 
Intermittent small scale operation since 
1900, with $8,900 recovered in 1931 from 
157 tons of ore. By 1933 workings in- 
cluded three adits; one reported (Tucker, 
1933 p. 287) to be 655 feet long, with 
a 70-foot winze 540 feet from the portal 

in which is exposed a '30-inch vein 
carrying $60 per ton in gold. From this 
level a stope 120 feet long was dug 80 
feet to the surface. Other adits 
include an upper 150— foot crosscut 
driven from the south side of the ridge 
to meet a raise driven from a point 

470 feet from the portal, and, 80 feet 
below, a crosscut 300 feet long in 1933, 
driven westerly to intersect the ore 
shoot mined. By 1955, all workings were 
at least partially caved near the collar, 
some were f 1 ooded . Al 1 track and 
machinery rem6ved; long idle. (Brown 
16:496; Eric 48:254t; Tucker, Sampson 
33:272t 287; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:210, 253t) . 




Anaconda 


Reported in sec. 
32, TUN, R12W, 
SBM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
C. C. Calkins and 
L. E. Potter, 
Mojave (1904) 


Five 3-foot veins, strike east, dip 
north in porphyry and granitic 
rock. 


"Uncorrelated old name. May have been 
claim in Four Star Group. (Aubury 04: 

et). 




Ana-Isabell 
mine 








See High Grade group. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:322-323) . 




Anatrosa 


Reported in SW% 
sec. 13, T30S, 
R32E, MDM, Loraine 
dist. on Caliente 
Cr. about 4 miles 
west of Loraine 
(1916) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 

Blodgett, 
Bakersfield (1916) 


Thirty-foot vein strikes NW. , dips 
50° SW. ; in granitic rock and 
schist. 


Uncorrelated old name. Described as 
being west of Golden group (Ferris ?) 
whose location is also indefinite. May 
be listed herein under another name. 
No know production. (Brown 16:486). 



34 



California Division of Mines and geology 



[County Report 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Angus property 



Apache prospect 



Apple Green 
prospect 



Ashford Mines 



Atlas mine 



Austrian Eagle 
claim 

Badger 



Bald Eagle 



Bald Eagle Claim 
Bald Eagle No. 1 



HE'S sec. 3,'T29S, 
R38E, MDM, El Pas 
Mts. , on west sid 
of Bonanza Gulch, 
10 3/4 miles north- 
northeast of Cantil 



Reported in sec. 

11, T9N, R13W, 
SBM, Mojave dist. , 
4 miles northwest 
of Rosamond . 

Reported in sec. 

12, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. , 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

Sec. 4, T30S, 
R40W, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 2 miles 
west of Randsburg 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 



NE*s s 
R40E, 
dist. , 8 miles 
northwest of 
Randsburg, east 
slope of El Paso 
Peaks 

Reported in sec. 
36, T26S, R32E, 
MDM, (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

NW. corner sec . 
17, T30S, R40E, 
MDM, Rand dist. , 
4*5 miles southwes 
of Randsburg , on 
northwest slope of 
Rand Mts 



Rand district 



Wh sec. 14, T31S, 
R33E, MDM, Loraine 
district, about 2 
miles southwest 
of Nellie's Nipple 
in Tollgate Cyn. 



Reported in sec. 
17, T28S, R40E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed , 1957 

Reported 3 miles 
northeast of 
Havilah (1896) ; 
not confirmed , 
1957 



Reported in Goler 
dist. , El Paso 
Mts. (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 



Norman Angus , 
2748 Gale Ave. , 
Long Beach (1958) 



Undetermined, 1958 
E. M. Hamilton 
Rosamond (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958; 
I. D. Short, 
Randsburg (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957; 
Montgomery and 
Maginnis , 
Randsburg (1904) 



J. E . Hicks, 
H. H. Hicks, 
Mojave (1957) 



Undetermined, 1957 



George Ramey, 
Caliente (1958) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Mr. Johnson, 
San Francisco 
(1904) 



Undetermined, 1958; 
Dan Doherty, 
Havilah (1896) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Frank Nugent, 
Mojave (1896) 



Gold-bearing Quaternary terrace, and 

tream gravels which overlie sedi- 
mentary rocks of the Goler forma- 
tion (Paleocene) . Gold occurs as 
flakes and nuggets in lower part of 
terrace gravels which cap low mesas 
on edge of Bonanza Gulch. Gravels 
are from few feet to more than 20 
feet thick. Gold also occurs in 
more recent gravels in gullies down 
slope from terrace deposits . 



One- to 4-foot quartz vein 
composed "granite . 



Undetermined. 



de- 



Quartz vein, 
wide, strikes 
schist. 



nches to 6 feet 
, dips SE . ; in 



Free gold in quartz-bearing fault 
zone in iron-stained schist. Fault 
strikes N. 80° E. , dips 55°S., and 
is exposed on north side of small 
spur of Rand Mts. for a few tens of 
feet. Ore shoots are only few 
inches wide, but have yielded rich 
ore in places. 



Quartz vein, 3 to 5 foot-wide 

trikes N. 40° w. , dips 45° SW. 
Wall rock is strongly foliated mafic 
granitic rock. 



in granite. 



Placer gold in gravel. 



Name of claim undetermined. Developed 
by many short adits driven into lower 
part of terrace gravel s from sides of 
Bonanza Gulch. Probably the source of 
a moderate amount of gold recovered by 
small-scale dry washing methods in 1890 
and 1930 's. Intermittently worked by 
small-scale methods in recent years. 



Uncorrelated old 
part of Tropico m 



iame. Probably now 
.ne. (Aubury 04:8t) 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably a lode 
prospect listed herein under different 
name. (Aubury 04:8t) . 



Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Inclined shaft 186 feet deep and 500 
feet of drifts. Only production 
recorded in 1899. (Aubury 04:8t). 



of Whitmore 



(Tucker 23:162) 



Patented claim of Long Tom mine. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:316). 

See under copper. 

Six claims. Prospected by discovery 
holes and an old 100-foot vertical 
shaft. No production; idle. 



Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:8t). 



Two inclined shafts of undetermined 
depth about 40 feet apart are connected 
by near surface stope. In 1916, one 
shaft was 60 feet deep and 20 tons of 
ore from it contained $1,520 in gold 
(Brown, 1916, p. 487). Several tens of 
ounces of gold were produced 1918-1921 
from ore that contained from 1 oz. to 
4 oz. gold per ton. Property now 
included in Sidewinder group , which see . 
(Brown 16:487). 

Early name for what is mainly the King 
Solomon mine, which see. (Aubury 04:8t, 
lOt, lit, 12t, 13t; Crawford 96:186, 18 
189, 191, 193, 195, 197). 

Developed by 75-foot inclined shaft 
with several hundred feet of workings 
a level at the bottom. 



Part of Glen 



nine (Aubury 04:8t). 



orrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Inclined shaft 204 feet deep. 
(Aubury 04 :8t) . 



Uncorrelated old na 
abandoned prospect. 
96:186) . 



;; probably long 
(Crawford 94:141; 



Patented claim of the Yellow Aster mine. 
(Aubury 04:8t) . 

Worked by dry placer methods in 1890 ' s 
with low daily yield of gold. Probably 
listed herein under different name. 
(Crawford 96:186, 190t) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



1 



GOLD, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 




Owner 
(Nome, address) 


Geo fogy 


Remarks and references 




Bald Eagle No. 2 


Reported in Goler 
dist. , El Paso 
Mts. (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ,- 
Robert Witcher, 
Randsburg (1896) 


Placer gold in gravel. 


Worked by dry placer methods in 1890 1 s 
with low daily yield of gold. Probably 
listed herein under different' name. 
(Crawford 96; 186, 190t) . 


113 


Baltic mine 


SEh sec. 1, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, 
Stringer dist., 1^ 
miles southeast of 
Randsburg 


E. D. and Vivian 
Horkheimer, add- 
resses undetermined 
(1958) 


Many small quartz veins in Rand 
schist. Also tungsten lode and 
placer deposits. 


See text (Aubury (04:8t, 17t; Brown 
16:487; Hess 10:40, 41; Hulin 25:72, 84, 
93, 128; Newman 23:30; 23b:105; Tucker 
29:25; Tucker, Sampson 33:272t; 287-288; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:253t). 




Banner 


Sec. 33, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 1% miles 
west of Randsburg 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
J. L. Price, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Quartz veins in schist. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Developed by 25-foot shaft, 25-foot 
incline shaft, and 50-foot incline 
shaft, 100 feet open cuts, 500-foot 
tunnel (crosscut?) and 50 feet of 
drifts. (Aubury 04:8t) . 


114 


Barbarossa mine 


NE% sec. 16, T30S, 
R33E,. MDM, Loraine 
dist. , on north- 
trending ridge 
between Sand Cyn. 
and Sycamore Cr . 
one mile north of 
Loraine 


Chris F. Rosen- 
hoffer, 

277 Douglas St. , 
Pasadena (1958) 


Two- to 6 foot-wide quartz vein 
strikes N. 35° W. , dips 50°-70° NE. ; 
in rhyolite porphyry dike. 


See text. (Brown 16:487; Tucker 29:25; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 288; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:253t). 


115 


Barnett group 
Barron mine 


SW^s sec. 16, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 4 miles 
southwest of Rands 
burg, Rand Mts. 


Floyd H. Barnett 
and assoc. , 5564 
N. Walnut Grove Ave 
San Gabriel (1957) 


Free gold in silicified schist in 
shear zones which strike about 
N. 60° W. and dip 50° SW. 


Several claims and privately owned land. 
Developed by several open cuts , trenches, 
shallow shafts, and short adits. Total 
output undetermined but probably small. 
Active in 1930's and 1940's. Long idle. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 288; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:253t) 

See Rademacher mine. (Aubury 04:8t). 




Barton 


Reported in Piute 
Mts. , 9 miles 
northeast of 
Piute (1896) r not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
S. Barton , Clara- 
ville (1896) 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Crawford 96:186). 




Bear Track Flat 


Reported in T27S, 
R32E, MDM (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
J. B. Calland, 
Woody (1896) 


Auriferous gravel 3 feet in average 
thickness. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. (Crawford 96:186) . 


146 


Beauregard claim 


NE% sec. 28, T25S, 
R33N, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2 miles 
southwest of 
(new) Kernville, 
west side of Lake 
Isabella 


Kern Development 
Co. , C. S. Long, 
pres. , Box 157, 
Hayward. 
Leased tc Kern 
Mines Inc. , Roland 
Toggnazzini, pres. , 
260 California St., 
San Francisco 
(1955) 


Quartz vein strikes N. 75° E. , 
dips 85° NW. in Mesozolc 
granodiorite. 


See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury 04: 
8t; Brown 16:487-488; Crawford 94:142; 
Goodyear 88:321; Newman 22:146-147; 
Prout 40:389, 393, 416, 417, 419; 
Tucker 24:35, 36-40; 29:27, 42, 43; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 280, 289, 320- 
321; 40:28; 40:323; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:253t). 


117 


Beauregard Ex- 
tension claim 


Nh sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2 miles 
southwest of (new) 
Kernville, west 
side of Lake Isa- 
bella 


Dickson A. Boyd, 
Box 77, Kernville 
(1955) 


Two or more quartz veins, 2 to 4 
feet wide, strike N. 50° E. , dip 
75°-80°SE.; in Mesozoic granodiorite 
and alaskite. Ore is free-milling, 
with some sul fides . Ore shoot 
reported 80 to 160 feet long. 


Relatively recent claim, though pre- 
1940 at least, adjacent to Big Blue 
workings on old San Francisco Belle 
claim (Tucker 1924, p. 34). Developed 
by 300-foot inclined shaft with levels 
at 80, 160, 200, and 240-foot depths. 
From shaft, drifts are 100 feet NE . on 
80-foot level, 100 feet NE. on 160-foot 
level, 50 feet SE. on 200-foot level, 
160 feet SW. and 190 feet NE . , on 240- 
foot level. Fire in 1953 destroyed 
buildings , caused caving underground ; 
necessitated new shaft 50 feet deep in 
1955. No record of production; inter- 
mittently active. (Tucker, Sampson 40b: 
324; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:210, 
254t) . 


118 


Beck property 

Beehive 
Bell claim 


Approximate center 
of sec. 27, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , l*s miles 
northwest of Rands 
-burg 


Harold E. Beck, 
P.O. Box 353, 
Randsburg (1957) 


Moderately fine gold in alluvium 
derived from R t _ id Mts. 


Mined mostly from gold-bearing channels 
exposed in trenches and shallow pits. 
Production undetermined; probably small. 
Part time recovery of gold by concen- 
tration with dry placer equipment. 

Uncorrelated old name; may be in vicin- 
ity of Hoover mine, which see under 
silver. (Hulin 25:128; Tucker 29:25- 
27, 57; Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 288- 
289; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:254t). 

Patented claim of Long Tom mine. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:316). 



36 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GOLD, coot. 



Map 


Name of claim, 


■ 

Location 


Owner 


Geo logy 


Remarks otid references 


No 


mine, or group 


(Name, address) 




119 


Bella Rufin 


Sec. 35, T29S, 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Vertical vein, 4 feet wide, strikes 


Developed by 120-foot shaft, a few short 




(Ruff in , Berry) 


R33E MDM, Loraine 


Tom Da vies , 


northwest; in granitic rock; ore 


dr i f ts , and one s t ope . Pr oduc ti on in 




mine 




Caliente (1939) 


occurs in pockets. 


1897 , 1900 , and 1939 totals between 50 






miles ' northeast 






and 75 ounces of gol d . Idle . ( Aubur y 






of Loraine west 






04 : 8t ; Brown 16 : 488 ; Crawford 94 : 142 ; 






side of Sand Cyn 
si e o an 






96 : 186 ; Goodyear 88 : 320 ; Tucker 29:27; 












Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 289; Watts 












93: 238) . 


1 20 


Be 1 1 f 1 owe r 


NW*» sec. 29, T27S, 


Shatter Bros. Co., 


Iron- stained and cavernous quartz 


Three unpatented claims . Developed by 




(Huntington) min 


= R40E, MDM; Rade- 


P.O. Box 1048, 


vein , in quartz monzoni te , strikes 


drift adit extended northeast along 




macher dist. , 4^ 


Trona (1957) 


N. 70° E. , dips 70° SE. Contains 


the vein for 200 feet and a 100-foot 






miles southwest 




free gold, iron sulfides, and minor 


shaft at portal of drift adit. A mill 






of Fidgecrest 




amounts of copper oxides as green 


was being constructed at the mine in 










stains. Vein ranges in width from 


1957. Probably first developed in early 










few inches to 4 feet and is at 


1900's. Production undetermined. 










least 200 feet long. Largest ore 


(Tucker, Sampson 33:274t, 309-310; 










shoots are at an intersection of 


Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:260t). 










quartz vein and diorite dike 












(Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 310) . 




121 


Belmont prospect 


NW% sec. 1, T30S, 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 


Quar tz vei ns in quar tz monzoni te . 


Long idle prospect. (Tucker, Sampson 






R40E, MDM, Rand 


A . E . Gr aham , 




33 : 272t) . 






dist. 3/4 miles 


Whittier (1933) 










southeast of 












Rand sbur g 










Ben Hur claim 








Former claim name of Silver Queen. See 












Sailor Boy (Tucker , Sampson 33 : 276t , 












326) . 




Bernstine 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined , 1958 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 






12, T29S, R39E, 






herein under different name (Aubury 04: 






MDM, Goler dist. , 






18t) . 






El Paso Mts. 












(1940) ; not con- 












firmed, 1958 










Berry mine 








See Bella Rufin (Crawford 94:142; 96: 












186; Goodyear 88:320). 




Beryl group 








See under uranium (Tucker 29:35; Tucker , 












Sampson, Oakeshott 49:210-211, 254t) . 


122 


Big Blue (in- 


Most of sec. 28, 


Kern Development 


Gol d— bear ing quar tz ve ins in nor th— 


See text . (Aubury 04 :8 t , 1 7 t ; Brown 16 : 




cludes: Beau- 


NW^ sec. 33, Eh 


Co. , C. S. Long, 


east-trending shear zone in 


488-489; Crawford 94:142, 146; 96:186; 




regard, Big Blue, 


sec. 21, T25S, 


pres. , Box 157, 


Mesozoic alaskite and granodiorite. 


Eric 48:254t; Goodyear 88:315; Jenkins 




Big Blue-Sumner , 


R33E, MDM, Cove 


Hayward . Leased 




42:326t; Prout 40:379-421; Tucker 24:35, 




Blue Gouge , Bull 


dist. , 2 miles 


to Kern Mines, Inc. 




36 , 40 ; 29 : 27-28 ; 42-43 ; Tucker , 




Run , Con tent , 


south of (new) 


Roland Toggnazzini , 




Sampson 33:272t: 278, 280, 289-291, 320- 




Frank, Jeff 


Kernville, west 


pres. 260 Calif- 




321; 34:313, 314; 40:11, 28; 40b:323, 




Davis, North 


side of Lake 


ornia St . , San 




324, 329; Tucker , Sampson, Oakeshott 




Ext. Sumner, Red 


Isabella 


Francisco (1955) 




49:211-212, 254t) . 




Hill, -Sumner, 












Urbana , and 












other s ) group 












Big Butte mine 








See Butte mine. (Tucker, Sampson 33: 












272t, 291; 40:11, 29). 




Big Bonanza 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Quartz vein containing copper sul- 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 






16, T29S, R39E # 


J. E. McGinnes, 


fides in porphyr i tic rock . 


listed herein under different name . 






MDM, vie. Gar lock 


Randsburg (1933) 




(Aubury 04:8t; Tucker, Sampson 33:272t). 






(1933) ; not con- 












firmed, 1958 










Big Bonanza 


Reported five 


Undetermined, 1958; 


Gold-bearing zone of crushed 


Last reported 1896. (Crawford 96:186- 






miles north of 


J. B. Ferris, 


material along fault in granite. 


187) . 






Caliente on Basin 


Caliente (1896) 










Cr . , Sierra 












Nevada (1896) ; 












not confirmed. 












1958 








123 


Big Dike (Big 


NW^NW^ sec. 1, 


J. D . O'Shea es- 


Gold-bearing siliceous shear zone 


See text . ( Tucker , Sampson 33 : 27 2t , 




Dyke) mine 


T30S, R40E, MDM, 


tate, Benko 


in quartz monzoni te . 


292; 40:11, 29; Tucker, Sampson, 






Rand dist. , half 


brothers , Por tage , 




Oakeshott 49: 212-213, 254t) . 






a mile south of 


Pennsylvania , and 










east end of Rands- 


Mrs. M. O. Miller, 










burg , west side 


Los Angeles (1958) 










of paved road in 












Fiddlers Gulch 










Big Dyke mine 








See Big Dike mine. 


124 


Big Four claim 


SW*s sec. 34, T28S, 


Walls (?) brothers 


Gold— bearing Quaternary gravels in 


This property was camp site (Bonanza 






R3HE, MDM, El 


and others. 


terrace deposits and in stream 


Gulch camp) and part of the source of 






Paso Mts west 


Los Angeles ( 1958) 


gravels derived from them. Source 


gold mined in the 1930's by a group 






side of Bonanza 




of gold is probably auriferous 


who acquired several claims and tested 






Gulch, 11 miles 




sedimentary rocks of the Goler and 


a large area for gold. Name of group 






nor th-northeast 




Ricardo formations which crop out 


and production undetermined. Probably 






of Cantil 




in a large part of the El Paso Mts. 


some production also in 1890' s. 










Both of the formations underlie the 


Operated mostly by small-scale dry 










gravels on this property. Richest 


washing of gravels mined from small 










deposits appear to be near the base 


workings along base of gravels. 










of the Quaternary gravels which 


(Walter Bickel, personal communication. 










form a mesa on the west side of 


1958) . 










Bonanza Gulch. The mesa gravels 












are from a few feet to more than 












20 feet thick. 





1962] 



Kern— Gold 



137 



GOLD. com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


125 


Big Gold (Big 


Center W*s sec. 3, 


John Kreta, 


Gold-bearing fault zone in quartz 


See text (Hulin 25:84, 130; Jenkins 42: 




Tungsten, Bi- 


T30S, R40E, MDM, 


P.O. Box 251, 


monzonite and schist. Also 


330t; Tucker 23:166; 29:28; Tucker, 




metallic, West 


Rand dist. , one 


Randsburg (1958) 


tungsten and traces of copper. 


Sampson 33:272t, 291-292; Tucker, 




End) mine 


and a half miles 






Sampson, Oakeshott 49:213, 254t, 272t) . 






southwest of 












Randsburg, on 












northwest flank of 












Government Pk. 










Big Horse claim 








Patented claim of the Yellow Aster mine. 










(Crawford 96:187, 194; Hess 10:40). 




Big Indian 


Reported in sees. 


Undetermined, 1957 




Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 






5, 6, 7, T28S, 






herein under different name (Aubury 04: 






R34E, MDM (1904) , 






8t) . 






Piute Mts. f not 












confirmed, 1957 










Big Three (Big 


Sees. 10, 11, 14, 


Undetermined, 1958: 


Six 2- to 4-foot-wide veins strike 


Old name; now part of Tropico group. 




Tree) mine 


15, T9N, R13W, 


V. V. Cochran ; 


northeast, dip 75° SE. ; in por— 


(See text) (Aubury 04:8t). 






SBM, Mojave dis- 


Barmore Gross, 


phyritic rock. 








trict, 4H miles 


Rosamond (1904) 










northwest of Rosa- 












mond 










Big Tree mine 








See Big Three and Tropico group 












(Brown 16:512) . 




B 1 a ck a n d 


Reported in Red 


Undetermined , 1958 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 




Sullivan mine 


Rock dist. (1896) 






abandoned claim. Worked by dry placer 






not confirmed. 






methods in 1890's; about 470 oz. of 






1958 






gold recovered. (Crawford 96:187, 195t). 


126 


Black Bob mine 


Reported in SW^s 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Gold-bearing quartz vein 2 feet 


Developed by 150-foot vertical shaft. 






sec. 10, T9N, 


George L. Harris, 


wide strikes NE. and dips SE. ; in 


100-foot adit, few hundred feet of 






R20W, SBM, about 


2636 Sunset Ave. , 


granitic rock. Ore mined 1932-1934 


drifts. About 800 tons ore produced 






2 miles north of 


Bakersfield (1934) 


contained some lend. 


1932-1934. Idle since. (Aubury 04:8t; 












Goodwin 57 : 526t) 






northwest of 












Frazier Park ; not 












confirmed, 1958 










Black Mountain 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958; 


Gravel containing from 50C to $2 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably in 






10, T29S, R38E, 


Char le s Brewer - , 


per cubic yard in gold (Tucker, 


sec. 2, 3, or 4. May be listed herein 






(also 39) MDM, on 


Los Angeles (1929) 


1929, p. 29). Gold reported to. 


under different name. (Dibblee 52:60t; 






south slope of 




occur about 3 feet above sandstone 


Eric 48:254t; Goodwin 57:527t; Tucker 






Black Mt. (1929) ; 




bedrock. Also reported as lode mine 


29:29; Tucker Sampson 33:272t; Tucker, 






not confirmed. 




by Eric (1948) and Goodwin (1957) 


Sampson, Oakeshott 49:254t). 






19 




with lead, copper, and silver. 












associated with gold. 






Black Point 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined , 1957 ; 


Quartz vein with sulfides in 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 




Copper 


18, T28S, R39E, 


P. Sartiat, 


metamorphic rocks. 


1 is ted herein under different name . A 






MDM, El Paso dist. 


Kern City (1904) 




130-foot shaft, 60 feet of open cuts, 






(1904) ; not con- 






and 80 feet of drifts. (Aubury 04:8t) . 






firmed, 1957 










Black Tiger 








Claim in Standard group (Tucker 23:160). 




claim 




















See Ruby mine. (Tucker, Sampson 33: 324). 


127 


Blue Chief 


SW*s sec. 11, 


Undetermined, 1957; 


Very weak quartz stringer in grano- 


Workings consist of two shafts, and a 




(Turbo) mine 


T26S, R31E, MDM, 


Blue Chief Mining 


diorite strikes N. 22° W. ; nearly 


tunnel trending S. 22°E. / all of which 






near the head of 


Co. , San Fran— 


vertical. Vein contains lead, 


are caved. Dump material indicates at 






Lumreau Cr . 7 


Cisco (1935) 


silver, and copper minerals in 


least a few hundred feet of workings. 






miles southeast 




addition to gold. 


Several hundred tons were milled in a 






of Glennville 






5-stamp mill on the property. Ten to 












twenty tons of silver-gold concentrates 












were shipped in 1934-35 which contained 












recoverable lead and copper. Silver- 












gold ratio was 77 to 1. (Goodwin 57: 












227t; Eric 48:254t) . 




Blue Eagle mine 








See Cactus Queen mine in text (Julihn 










Horton 37:34, Tucker, Sampson 35:467- 












472 ; Tucker , Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 254t). 




Blue Gouge 


SE*s sec. 28, 


Kern Development 


Quartz veins in Mesozoic alaskite 


See Big Blue group in text. (Brown 16: 




(No. 2, No. 3) 


T25S, R33E, MDM, 


Co. , C.S. Long, 


and Paleozoic (?) metamorphic 


489; Prout 40:389; Tucker 24:35, 40; 




mine 


Cove dist. , 2*s 


pres. , Box 157, 


rocks. 


Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 289). 






miles southwest 


Hayward. Leased 










of (new) Kern- 


to Kern Mines, Inc. 










ville, west side 


Roland Toggnazzini, 










Lake Isabella 


pres. , 260 Calif- 












ornia St. , San 












Francisco (1955) 






128 


Blue Jay 


SE^a sec. 26, 


Gordon B. Begg # 


NE. -striking vein in granodiorite. 


Prospect. No recorded production. 




prospect 


T26S, R32E, MDM, 


Bodfish (1957) 










Keyes dist. , 3 












miles northwest 












of Bodfish 









138 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 



GOLD. cunt. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Nome, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


129 


Blue Jay prospec 


: SW^SW^ sec. 32, 
T28S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. area, 
1 1/3 miles north- 
west of Claraville 


John Wyss, P.O. Box 
6, Claraville, owns 
one lode claim 
(1955) 


Steep-dipping, quartz-filled shear 
zones, 3 to 18 inches wide, strike 
N. 10° W. , NE., and E. In 
weathered Mesozoic granodiorite . 
Ore minerals not determined. 


Developed by 160-foot crosscut adit 
driven N. 10° W. , with raise to surface 
about 100 feet from portal. Adits 
driven 25 feet W. , and 30 feet S. 70° W. 
about 100 yards east of raise. Pro- 
duction, if any, undetermined. (Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:214, 254t) . 


130 


Blue Mountain 
(Dreadnot) mine 


SWk sec. 12, T25S, 
R29E, MDM, on west 
slope of Blue Mt. , 
3 3/4 miles south- 
east of White 
River 


D. D. Moore, 
Woody (1957) 


Two parallel quartz veins strike 
northeast and dip 45° SW. in gran- 
itic rock. Veins range in width 

contain free gold with pyrite. 


Known in 1894, but active mainly between 
1909 through 1923. Total production of 
more than 12,000 tons which averaged 

silver ratio 2:1. Development consists 
of a 600-foot and an 800-foot inclined 
shaft and more than 4,000" feet of hori- 
zontal workings on three levels. Most 
recent active period was 1929-1931. Pre- 
viously described in Tulare County. 

94:143^ 296; 96:187, 188, 190, 469; 
Tucker 20:309; 29:31; Tucker, Sampson 
33:273t, 293; Tucker, Sampson Oakeshott 
49:255t) . 




Bob Allen 
(General Grant) 


Approx. NE sees. , 
T25S, R28E, MDM, 
near Tulare Co. 
line on Slate Mt 
5 miles southwest 
of White River 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
P. C. Montgomery, 
Porterville (1896) 


Eighteen-inch vein striking gener- 
ally E. and dipping 60° N. in meta- 
morphic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. Developed by 24-foot shaft, 31- 
foot shaft, and 81-foot drift. Formerly 

(Crawford 96:470) . Y 9 


131 


Bobby prospect 


NW^SE*5 sec. 3, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, 
Rand dist l4 
miles southwest of 
Randsburg near 
crest of north 
flank of Govern- 
ment Pk. 


Clyde Johnson, 
Randsburg (1957) 


Irregular fractures in quartz mon- 
zonite. Most of the fractures are 

only few feet. Present owner was 
informed that small, thin shoots of 
moderately-rich ore were encountered 
in some of the excavation. 


Two claims; formerly Old Glory No. 1 and 
No. 2. Developed by several shallow 
shafts, pits, and short adits, and a 
crosscut adit (caved) several tens of 
feet long. Small production. Idle. 




Bob Lee 


Reported about 2 
miles west of 
Kernville (old 
site) (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Free gold in vein in granite. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name. Three 

1892. (Crawford 94:142; 96:187). 


132 


Bobtail mine 


SW% sec. 6, T10N, 
Rl 2W , SBM , Mo j ave 
dist. 5 miles 
southwest of 
Mo j ave, in a west 
facing canyon on 
northwest part of 
Soledad Mt. 


Mrs. D. McAllister, 
Mo j ave (1958) 


Gold- and silver-bearing quartz 


See text. (Aubury 04:8t; Julihn, 
Horton 37 : 24 ; Tucker , Sampson 33:272t) 




Bodfish Nos. 1 
and 2 


ity of Keyes 
(1904) ; not 
confirmed , 1957 






abandoned (Aubury 04:18t). 




Bonanza 








See Crystal. 




Bonanza 


Reported in El 
Paso Gulch, 2 
miles east of Red 
Rock (1939) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
J. H. Lovall, 
Randsburg (1939) 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Eleven claims. Several hundred ounces 
of gold recovered by dry washing in 
1894, again between 1907 and 1920, and 

(Crawford 1896:187, 195t) . 












Tucker, Sampson 33:293-294). 




Bonnie Brea 


Reported in sec. 
11, T27S, R32E, 
MDM, 1 or 2 miles 
west of Bodfish 
(1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 

A. McDonald, 

Los Angeles (1904) 


One to 12 foot-wide quartz vein in 
granitic rock. Strikes NE. , dips 
vertically. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:9t). 




Boston Extension 








Claim in Standard group (Aubury 04:9t; 
Tucker 23:160) . 


L33 


cla im 

Boston fraction 
Claim 


W^ sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2*s miles 
southwest of (new) 
Kernville, near 
the northwest 
snort of Lake 
Isabella 


Undetermined, 1958 


Quartz veins in granitic rock . 


Undeveloped claim. No recorded pro- 
duction. Idle. (Aubury 04:8t; Tucker 
24:34) . 

One of the claims leased by Internation- 
al. Mng. and Mlg. Co. during 1933, which 
see. (Tucker, Sampson 33:310). 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



I 



GOLD, com. 



Map 

No. 


Nome of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


134 


Boulder claim 


NW^SE^s sec. 3, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. at 
mouth of small 
gulch on north 
side of Last 
Chance Cyn. , 10 
miles north-north- 
east of Cantil 


Walter Bickel, 
P. 0. Box 142, 
Inyokern (1958) 


Gold-bearing Quaternary gravels 
which cap local ridges between 
stream channels and Recent gravels 
in stream beds. Gold occurs as 
flakes and small nuggets at base of 
gravels and locally above cemented 
layers in gravel s . Bedrock is sedi- 
mentary rocks of Goler formation 
(Tertiary) and Mesozoic quartz 
monzonite . 


One 20-acre placer claim. Probably a 
source of gold recovered by ■ small-scale 
dry washing methods in 1890 ' s and 1930' s. 
The gravels are pock-marked with shallow 
excavations and the edges of them con- 
tain short adits. A shaft, about 30 fee- 
deep, was being sunk to bedrock in the 
floor of Last Chance Cyn. in 1958. 
Owner recovers several ounces of gold 
annually and sells it to week-end 
visitors . 




Bowen 


Reported in sec. 
1, T27S, R32E, 
MDM, (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Frank Howard, 
Isabella (1904) 


Quartz vein in granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:9t). 




Bowman mine 








See French mine. 


135 


Bright Spot 


S*s of NW^ sec. 35, 
T26S, R32E, MDM, 
Keyes dist. , 2*5 
miles northwest of 
Bod fish 


C. D. Bell, 
Bodfish (1957) 


Northeast-striking vein in granitic 
rock. 


No recorded production. Idle. 


136 


Bright Star mine 


Center sec. 18, 
T28S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. , 10 
miles southeast of 
Bod fish 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Mrs. Lacy, San 
Francisco (1949) 


Gold-bearing quartz vein in fine- 
grained metamorphic rocks. Vein 
reported to have average width of 
20 inches with a shoot of high- 
grade ore about 120 feet long 
(Brown, 1916, p. 490). Vein strikes 
N. 30° - 55° E. and dips 60° NW. 


Discovered about 1870 and worked mostly 
before 1900 by which time gold valued 
at $600,000 was produced (Brown, 1916, 
p. 490) . Few hundred ounces gold re- 
covered from tailings 1898-1903. Few 
hundred ounces gold mined 1936-1941. 
Main shaft caved and covered over since 
then. Originally a 540-foot vertical 
shaft with 3 levels and several thousand 
feet of drifts and stopes. (Aubury 04: 
9t; Brown 16:490; Crawford 94:142; 96: 
187; Tucker 29:30; Tucker, Sampson 33: 
272t; 40b:325; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:255t). 




Bright Star 


Reported in sec. 
12, T25S,. R29E, 
MDM, on western 
flank of Blue Mt. 
about 4 miles 
southeast of White 
River (1914) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
E. A. James, 
Woody (1914) 


Two parallel veins, two feet wide, 
strike generally NE. , dip 30° S. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned . Devel opment consists of a 600- 
foot drift adit and 800 feet of other 
workings. Idle. (Brown 16:490; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:255t). 




Brite-Burton 
mine 








See Burton-Bright-Blank. (Tucker 35: 
467, 469) . 




British Lion 


Reported in sec. 
34, T27S, R33E, 
MDM, Piute Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Probably part of Glen Olive group. 
(Aubury 04:9t) . 




Br ogan 


Reported 2 miles 
south of Piute 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Wm. Shipsey, 
Piute (1896) 


Quartz vein in porphyry; 6 to 12 
inches wide; strikes NW. , dips 
65° NE. 


Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under different name. Developed 
in 1896 by 42-foot and 80-foot shafts, 
both with short drifts at bottom. 
(Crawford 94:142-143; 96:187). 


137 


Broken Axel 
group 


Eh sec. 20, T28S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 9h 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
R. Salisbury, 
Lancaster (1933) 


Copper-stained shears in dioritic 
rocks . 


Short prospect drifts and shallow open 
cuts. (Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 294). 


138 


Broken Spade 
claims 


SW^NE^g sec. 3, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , west 
side of Bonanza 
Gulch, 10*5 miles 
n or th- n or thea s t 
of Cantil 


Thomas A. Tait, 
c/o Walter Bickel, 
P.O. Box 142, 
Inyokern (1958) 


Gold-bearing Quaternary- stream 
gravel in benches along Bonanza 
Gulch. Gravels are from few feet to 
more than 15 feet thick. Principal 
source of gold is from gravels in 
gullies down slope from the benches. 
Bedrock is sedimentary rocks of 
Goler formation (Tertiary) . 


Two 20-acre placer claims. Developed by 
shallow pits and open cuts along base of, 
gravels and in small gullies. Probably 
some production of gold from small-scale 
dry washing methods in 1890's and 1930 'a 




Brothers 


Reported in sec. 
3, T28S, R32E, 
MDM, Clear Creek 
dist. , northwest 
of Havilah (1904) ; 
not confirmed , 
1&58 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Glen Olive Mining 
Co. , San Francisco 
(1904) 


Seven veins, \ to 1 foot wide, 
strike E., dip S., in quartz 
diorite . 


Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under different name. Original 
workings consisted of a 50-foot inclined 
shaft and 125-foot adit, and a 25-foot 
open cut. (Aubury 04:9t; Brown 16:512). 




Bryan 


Reported in sec. 
19, T29S, R35E, 
(?), MDM, Piute 
dist. , on a ridge 
south of Kelso 
Valley (1949) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Dominic Domenghini, 
Bodfish (1949) 


One- to 4-foot-wide vein strikes NW. 
and dips 10-15° SW. ; in badly 
broken granitic rock. 


Developed by 600-foot crosscut adit to 
vein with drift northwest 275 feet con- 
necting with adit driven 300 feet south- 
east on vein from north side of ridge; 
400-foot drift adit southeast 90 feet 
below 300-foot adit. Two raises connect 
from lower adit to upper level, 200 feet 
and 400 feet from portal. Production, 
prior to 1900, amounted to a few hundred 
ounces of gold (Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 
294; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:255t). 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map Name of claim, 
No mine, or group 



Brymer prospect 



Buckboard 



Bull Moose No. 1 



Bull Run 
(Sherman) 



Burcham clai 



Burning Hosco 



Burton-Bnte- 
Blank (Brite, 
Burton) mine 



Butte (Big Butte 
Butte Lode, 
Butte Wedge) 



Butte prospect 



Butte Wedge 



Reported in sec. 
22, T29S, R38E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1952) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

SE^ sec. 10, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, south- 
west end of 
Stringer dist. , ^h 
miles south- south- 
west of Randsburg 



Reported in sec. 4 
T29S, R29E, MDM, 
9 miles northeast 
of Bakersfield 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Reported 1 mi 
west of Clara 
(1896) ; not c 
firmed, 1958 



NE*» sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2 miles 
southwest of (new) 
Kernville, west 
side of Lake 
Isabella 



N?s sec. 25, T28S, 
R34E, MDM, Bright 
Star Cyn. , Piute 
Mts. , 13 miles 
south of Weldon 



NW*s sec. 16, T10N, 
R13W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , on north- 
east-facing slope 
of southeast part 
of Middle Buttes 



SW^ sec. 36, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, at east 
end of town of 
Randsburg 



NW cor. sec. 8, 
T20b, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacher Dist. , 
7 miles south of 
Ridgecrest 



Jndetermined, 1958; 

F. Forrest, 
Randsburg ? (1952) 



Undetermined, 1957 
(multiple ownership 
by individual claim 
holders) 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Undetermined. 



Sold-bearing fault zone in schist 
strikes approximately west and dip 
about 50° N. Another vein occurs 
along footwall of rhyolite dike 
that strikes N. 30° W. , and dips 
45° NE. Average width of veins 
where stoped is 3 feet; maximum 
width 10 feet. Four ore shoots, 
to 100 feet long, mined on fault 
zone north of main shaft. One ore 
shoot mined on vein along rhyolite 
dike. Each vein about 500 feet 
long. Projected intersection of 
veins is few feet south of main 
inclined shaft. 



Undetermined, 1958; 

Bessueille, 
Kern City (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Albert Bartholomy, 
Onyx (1896) 



n Development Co 
S . Long , pres . , 
Box 157, Hayward. 
Leased to Kern Mine: 

. , Roland 
Toggnazzini, pres. , 
260 California St., 
San Francisco 
(1955) 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Piute Mining Co. , 
Bakersfield (1933) 



Middle Butte Mine, 
. , c/o Emory L. 
Morris, 601 First 
National Bank Build' 

, Santa Ana. 
Leased to Martin 
Beck, Rosamond; 
Sub-leased to 
James and Victor 
Wright, Rosamond 

Butte Lode Mining 
, P.O. Box 195, 
Randsburg, Bert 
Wegman, pres. 
(1957) 

Undetermined, 1957 



Geology 



50 



Placer deposit. 



Quartz 
N. 35° 



2; strikes 
to l*s feet 



Quartz veins in granodiorite . 



Quartz vein from 2 to 4 feet wide 
in quartz monzonite. Vein strikes 
70° E., dips 60°-70" S. , and 
tains gold , pyr i te , and copper - 
bear ing minerals . 



Four- to C 
N. 26° W. , 
porphyry. 



-foot-wide vei 
dips 40° S. ; 



Fault lode veins in schist. 



Copper-stained brecciated layer 
feet thick, in fault zone in 

ioritic rock strikes N. 80" E. , 
dips 50° NW. 



Remarks and references 



An idle prospect; no product! 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:58t) . 



Formerly 6 claims. Now owned in part by 
J. B. Nosser (Police Dog claim) , 

Johannesburg, and Daley, address 

undetermined. Three inclined shafts, 
one vertical shaft, and approximately 
2,000 feet of drifts and crosscuts at 
levels spaced at 50-100 feet intervals 
Maximum depth is 450 feet on approximate 
ly 30° incline. Several stopes were 
developed. Total output reported to be 
$500,000 (Tucker, Sampson, and Oakeshott 
1949, p. 215). Long idle. (Aubury 04: 
9t; Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 294-295; 
Tucker , Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 214-21 5, 
255t) . 



lated old narr 
ed prospect. 



See Glen Oliv 



• ; probably long 
(Aubury 04:18t) . 



(Aubury 04:9t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under different name. (Crawford 
94:143; 96:187) . 

Claim of Pride of Mojave group. (Tuckei 
23:164) . 



See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury 04: 
9t; Brown 16:490; Crawford 94:143; 
Goodyear 88:321; Prout 40:389, 393, 416- 
417; Tucker 24:35, 40-41; 29:30; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:272t; 40b:329; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:255t). 



See Lucky Boy mine. (Aubury 04:9t, 17t; 
Hulin 25:25, 132; Tucker 23:171; 29:30- 
31; Tucker, Sampson 33:272t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:255t). 

Patented claim of Yellow Aster mine. 
(Aubury 04:9t; Crawford 96:187, 194; 
Tucker 33 : 272t) . 

Developed by 550-foot crosscut adit with 
400 feet of drifts; a 700-foot drift 
adit; a 150-foot shaft; and several 
smaller exploratory workings. Most o; 
the workings are on south side of Bright 
Star Cyn. Minor output of gold and 
copper about 1934. Remains of 4-stamp 
mill on property in 1957. Long idle. 
(Eric 48:254t; Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 
295-296; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 
215, 255t) . 

See text. (Julihn, Horton 37:33; Tucker, 
Sampson 35:468, 469, 471; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:215, 216, 255t) . 



See text. (Aubury 04:9t; Boalich, 
Castello 18:12t; Crawford 96:187; Eric 
48:254t; Hulin 25:80, 132; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:272t, 291; 40:11, 29; Tucker 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:216, 255t) . 

Developed by inclined shaft of undeter- 
ned depth. (Tucker, Sampson 33:272t) 



See Butte 



(Aubury 04:9t) . 



(Aubury 04:9t; Crawford 
Sampson 33:272t; Tucker, 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Butte Wedge cla 
(continued) 

Cactus Queen 
(Blue Eagle, 
Cactus) mine 



California mine 



Camp Bird clai 

Canfield Co. ' s 
mines 



Cash Register 



Castle Butte 
(Lost Cabin) 
mine 



Chamberlain 
(New Dawn Amend- 
ded, Saddle 
Ammended claims) 
group 



Charity clai 
Chief group 



Chief clai 



SVfJsNW*, sec. 17, 
T10N, R13W, SBM, 
Mojave dist. , on 
southwest part o 
Middle Butte 



Reported in sec. 
18, T26S, R33E, 
MDM, north of 
Isabella Dam 
(1914) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

sw^sNW^s sec. 1, 

T30S, R40E, MDM, 
Rand dist. , in 
Fiddlers Gulch, 
mile southeast o 
Randsburg 



Reported in Bonan- 
za Gulch, 2 miles 
east of Red Rock 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

Reported in sec. 
11, T27S, R32E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 



Reported in sec. 
24, T29S, R34E, 
MDM, Piute dist. , 
4 miles southeast 
of Claraville, 
north of Cotton- 
wood Creek near 
Lee Spring (1933) 
not confirmed, 
1958 

SW^g'sec. 1, SE^a 
sec. 2, T29S, 
R39E, MDM, El Pas. 
Mts . , west side 
of Goler Cyn . 
14 3/4 miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 



Center, E*5 sec. 22, 
w!j sec. 23, T27S, 
R29E, MDM, 4 miles 
south-southeast of 
Granite Station, 
at head of Moore 
Cyn. 



Cliff G. Burton, 
Rosamond (1958) 



Undetermined, 1958 
A. R. Kiester, 
Isabella (1914) 



Robert G. Mitchell 
Randsburg, and 
Charles Potter, 
1662 Sierra Way 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Canfield Mining Co.. 
Los Angeles (1896) 



Undetermined , 1958 ; 

A. McDonald, 

Los Angeles (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958; 
Lee Arell, J. N. 
Harvey, and George 
Purvis , Bakersf ield 
(1933) 



William A. Hubber 
4223 Eagle Rock 
Blvd. , Los Angele 
Ray Bennett, Sun 
Valley, and Thoma 
J . Hubber , Lancas 
ter (1958) 



N. W. Moore, 
Granite Station 
(1956) 



Seven-foot vein strikes N. 45° W. 
dips 36 to 40° SE. in latite por- 
phry. 



Six-inch vein of "high-grade" 
in granitic rock. 



Gold-bearing shear zone in schist 
strikes N. 75° W. , dips 55° ME. 
Vein poorly exposed on surface but 
has well-defined walls in the mine. 
Probably extends along surface about 
150 feet. Terminated by fault a 
few tens of feet west of shaft. 
Ore of undetermined grade mined 
from 2 nearly flat shoots at inter- 
sections of main fault and vertical, 
sub-parallel shears in footwall. 



Placer gold deposits. 



Three- to 5-foot vein strikes NE. , 
dips vertically with granitic 
hanging wall and metamorphic foot- 



Vein 2 to 4 feet wide strikes NE . , 
dips 70° SE. ; in granitic rock. 
Another vein strikes N. and dips 
70° W. Two veins intersect below 
cabin site. Veins consist of 
quartz with pyrite, marcasite, and 
free gold. 



Placer gold in form of dust, flakes, 
and nuggets in Quaternary gravels. 
Gold obtained from deposits at base 
of gravels and in gullies downslope 
from the gravels. Bedrock is sedi- 
mentary rocks of Tertiary Goler 
formation, which is auriferous in 
part, and metamorphic rocks of the 
Permian (in part) Garlock series. 



Narrow quartz veins strike NE. 
E., vertical; in hornblende-bic 
granodiorite. 



Sampson, Oakeshott 49:255t. 



See text. (Eric 48:254t; Gardner 54:51, 
55; Julihn, Horton 37:4, 34, 35; 
Tucker, Sampson 35:467-469, 471, 472; 
40:10, 29-30; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:216-217, 255t) . 

Claim of Queen Esther mine. See text 
under under Golden Queen mine. (Tucker 
23:162; Tucker, Sampson 33:282; 35: 
pl. 7). 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably within 
Isabella Reservoir land withdrawal. 
Originally developed by 620-foot drift 
adit and short crosscuts. (Brown 16: 
490; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:256t). 



Two patented claims and 4 unpatented 
claims. Principal shaft is 250 feet 
deep on an incline of about 60° NE . 
Drifts a few tens of feet long have been 
extended northwest on the 80- and 105- 
foot levels. Shallow workings developed 
to the east and south of shaft. Minor 
production since 1942. Production 
previous to 1942 probably included with 
production from Yellow Aster mine when 
claims were part of that group. See 
Hardcash claim. Idle. (Aubury 04:09t; 
Crawford 96:188, 194; Hess 10:40). 



Clai 



Standard group (Tucker 23:160) 



Fifty-one claims in Bonanza Gulch. 
About 650 oz. gold recovered in 1894. 
Claims probably listed herein under 
different names. (Crawford 94:143; 
96:188) . 

Uncorrelated old name. May have been 
part of Bonnie Brea property. Probably 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:9t). 



Klondike group (Tucker 29:51). 



May be part of Locarno-Simon group, 
which see under tungsten. Developed by 
several drift adits as much as 150 feet 
long and a 50-foot shaft. No recorded 
production. (Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 
296) . 



One of the principal sources of nugget 
gold in the Goler Cyn. area during 1890s 
and 1930's. See also Janney group, 
Goler Canyon placers, and Jewell group 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:60t; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:217, 256t) . 



Claim of Elephant group. (Tucker 23: 
159) . 

Discovered prior to 1896 by D. M. 
Dresser, Bakersfield. Developed by 120- 
foot and 380-foot adits. No recorded 
production. Idle. (Brown 16:490-491; 
Crawford 96:188; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:256t). 



(Tucker, Sampson 



Claim in Gwynne mine. 
33:307-308) . 

Placer claim formerly in Goler Cyn. 
placer group; now part of Jewell group. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:306-307). 

Former claim of Goler Cyn. Placer 
group ; now included in Putnam group 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:306-307). 

Uncorrelated old name; may be part of 
Commonwealth mine (Aubury 04:9t). 



142 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map Name of claim, 
No mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Cincinnatti 
prospect 



Clara Gibbons 



Claraville 
placers 



Clay Bank min 



Collar Button 
prospect 



Columbia 
(Zig Zag) 



Commonwealth 
claim 



Confidence clai 



Confidence group 



Consolidated 
(Good Hope, 
Kenyon, Kinyon) 



Copenh ig 
prosper ; 



Reported in Goler 
dist. , El Paso 
Mts. (1896) r not 
confirmed, 1958 

Approx. T25S, R29E, 
MDM, in Chileno 
(Grizzly ?) Gulch, 
3 miles southeast 
of White River 
(1894) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

Sees. 3, 4, 5, 
T29S, R34E, MDM, 
and vicinity. 
Piute Mts. area, 
along Kelso Cr . 
and headwater 
tributaries from 
about 1 miles west 
of Claraville to 
Landors Meadows 
about lh miles 
east of Claravii: 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 
M. R. Williams, 
Randsburg (1896) 



Undetermined, 1957; 
C. H. Gibbons , 
A. Brown, White 
River (1894) 



Fulton 
1 , oper 



ches to 2 feet 



Quartz vei: 
strikes NE. , dip 
granitic rock. 



Gravels in creek banks as 
15 feet high , overlie Me si 
granodiorite . Fine gold \ 
small nuggets is present; 
from nearby stringers and 



much as 

'ZOIC 

-ith some 

derived 

quartz 



Reported in sec . 
26, T26S, R32E, 
MDM, (1904) not 
confirmed, 19 57 



Reported approx. 
sec. 13, T27S, 
R32E, MDM (1896) 
not .confirmed, 
1957 



Reported in sec. 
27, T28S, R38E, 
MDM, El Paso dist 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

SE^ sec. 35, 'T29S 
R40E, MDM, east 
end of town of 
Randsburg 



NW% sec. 33 and 

■ :h sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2*s miles 
southwest of (new) 
Kernville, west 
side of Lake 
Isabel, la 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 
A. Radke, 
Keyes, (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Andrew McNitt, 
White River (1896) 



Undetermined, 1958; 
D. W. Decker and 
Co. , Garlock (1904) 



Consolidated Min 
Co. , 1402 S. 
Wilton PI . , Los 
Angeles (1949) 



Kern Development 
Co. , C. S. Long, 
pres. , Box 157, 
Hayward. Leased to 
Kern Mines Inc. , 
Roland Toggnazzi 
pres. , 260 Calif 
ornia St. , San 
Francisco (1955) 



Quartz vein 2 feet 



Three veins 
strike N. , 
rock. 



nches 
grani 



-striking vein, dips 
itic rock. 



Quartz ve i ns in me tamorphi c r ocks . 
Veins strike NW. , dip NE., and 
contain iron sul fides and oxides . 



Rand schist. 



Worked by dry washing in 1890 1 s with 
low daily yield of gold. Probably 
listed herein under different name. 
(Crawford 96:188, 190t) . 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. Developed prior to 1900 by 
90-foot inclined shaft, 100-foot drift, 
and 125-foot crosscut adit. Previously 
described in Tulare County. (Crawford 
94:296; 96:469) . 



Placer gravels in creek beds and banks 
worked intermittently for many years by 
various operators at various places by 
small scale placer methods. Production 
undetermined. (Tucker , Sampson 33 : 273t, 
296; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:256t) 



See Minnehaha mine in text under tungs 



See Rand group. (Crawford 94:143; 96:18E 

A prospectf west of Bright Star mine and 
owned by W. B. Grant in 1916. Probably 
same as "Old Grant shaft" listed under 
Jenette-Grant mine. (Aubury 04:9t; 
Brown 16:491; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:256t). 



name; may be pai 
(Aubury 04:9t) . 



t of 



Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under another name. Development 
consists of 25-foot shaft, 60-foot 
incline, 650 feet of drifts. (Aubury 
04:9t) . 

Uncorrelated old name, probably aban- 
doned. Developed by 50-foot shaft and 
50-foot adit. (Crawford 96:188). 



Claim in Big Blue group. (Aubury 04:9t; 
Brown 16:482, 491; Crawford 94:143; 
Tucker 24:41; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 
281, 40b -.325; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:256t) . 

See Rand group. (Aubury 04:9t; Goodyea: 
88: 316) . 

See College Girl group under copper. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:59t; Tucker, Sampson 
33:296-297) . 

Thirteen claims in 1904. Probably long 
abandoned. Rocks in reported location 
are Tertiary sedimentary rocks and 
Quaternary basalt. (Aubury 04:9t). 



See text. (Aubury 04:llt, 12t, 17t; 
Boalich, Castello 18:12t; Brown 16:496; 
Crawford 96:188, 191. Fink 16:688; 26: 
702; Hulin 25:80, 132-133; Jenkins 42: 
330t; Tucker 21:309; 29:31; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:273t, 297; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49: 259t) . 

See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury 04 
9t; Brown 16:489, 505; Crawford 94:143; 
Prout 40:385, 389, 390, 392; Tucker 
24:41; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 289; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:256t). 



See Donnie prospect . 



1962] Kern-Gold 



GOLD, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Copper Age 


Reported in sec. 
13, T28S, R39E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Wissahickon Gold 
and Copper Mng . Co . 
Searles (1904) 


Sulfides in limestone and porphyry. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Sixteen claims, 100-foot incline, 65- 
foot drift. (Aubury 04:9t). 




Copper King 


Reported in sec. 
12, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, Goler dist. , 
El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
J. W. Short, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Quartz vein with "sulphide" and 
bismuth in granitic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name. Formerly in- 
cluded Silver Queen and Silver Link 
group of claims. (Aubury 04:9t) . 




Copper Wire 


Reported in sec. 
14, T28S, R39E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
D. O'Donoghue, 
Searles (1904) 


Quartz vein with sulfides in granite 
and limestone. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Developed by 200-foot incline. (Aubury 
04:9t) . 




Cowboy 








See Gold Peak and Cowboy mine in text 
under silver. 


150 


Crescent prospect 


E^SE^a sec. 17, 
T10N, Rl 3W , SBM, 
8^ miles northwest 
of Rosamond, on 
Middle Butte 


Mrs. Geo. B. Kim- 
ball , 1701*5 Glencoe 
Way, Glendale 8 
(1958) 


Narrow northwest-striking quartz 
vein in rhyoli tic volcanic rock . 
Kaolinitic and alunitic alteration 
evident along walls of the vein. 


Developed by shallow open cuts and 
short adits. No known production. 
(Julihn and Horton, 1937, p. 34). 




Croesus (Little 
Charlie) group 


Approx. sec. 6, 
T30S, R38E, MDM, 
2 miles northwest 
of Gypsite siding 
of Southern Pac- 
ific R.R. , south- 
east flank of El 
Paso Mts. 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 
Formerly Mrs. J. S. 
Bishop (deceased) 


Gold-bearing quartz vein, 6 inches 
to 2 feet wide, strikes N. 40° W. , 
dips 75° SW. ; in metamorphic rocks. 


Formerly 3 claims; abandoned by Bishop 
family. May be listed herein under 
different name. Developed by 200-foot 
drift adit driven northwest. Active 
in 1933 but probably no production. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:59t; Tucker, Sampson 
33:315-316; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:217, 256t) . 




Croesus mine 








See Pinmore mine (Brown 16:507). 




Crown 


Reported in sec. 
35, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


In metamorphic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be part of 
Red Wing mine, which see. Developed by 
15-foot and 30-foot drifts and 20-foot 
open cut. (Aubury 04:9t). 




Crown claim 








Claim of Red Wing mine, which see. 




Crystal 
(Bonanza) 


Reported in sec. 
2, T29S, R31E, 
MDM, 22 miles 
north of Caliente 
(1916) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
A. R. Cox, Bakers- 
field (1916) 


Ten inch to 2 foot-wide vein in 
granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned prospect. Originally developec 
by 120-foot shaft. (Aubury 04:9t; 
Brown 16:491) . 


151 


Culbert 

(Josephine T.G.) 
group 

Cunningham group 
Curly Jim mine 


NE cor. sec. 10, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, 
Rand dist. , 1 3/4 
miles southwest 
of Randsburg, in 
center of small 
valley south of 
Government Pk. 


Flora Dye, 
W. C. Dick, 
Mrs. Gerogetta 
Roush, addresses 
undetermined (1958) 


Gold-bearing siliceous vein in 
fault zone strikes N. 70° E. and 
dips 65° N. Vein composed of 
brecciated, iron-stained, and sili- 
cified schist in multiple fault 
zone in Rand schist. Principal ore 
shoots appear to be at intersections 
of main zone with sub-parallel , 
vertical to steeply-south-dipping 
shears in footwall. Poor exposure 
of vein for about 400 feet in nearly 
level valley floor. Other irregu- 
lar veins on east and north side of 
smal 1 hill about 1,800 feet south- 
west of principal workings. 
Average content of all ore mined 
was 0.85 oz. gold per ton. Ranged 
from 0.16 to 1.7 oz. of gold per 
ton. Also low grade manganese near 
southwest workings. 


Fifteen claims. Principal workings are 
several hundred feet of dr i f ts extended 
on several levels from an inclined shaft 
at least 400 feet deep. Some near- 
surface stopes near shaft and several 
other shafts of undetermined depth. 
Several short adits and narrow surface 
stopes in area to southwest of main 
vein. An early discovery in the Rand 
district but production probably not 
greater than several hundred ounces of 
gold. Most of ore mined 1901-1905, 
1910-1915, and 1929-1938. Other periods 
of small production ; most recent was 
1951. (Brown 16:498-499; Trask, Wilson, 
Simons 43:16t, 123t; Trask et al 50:84). 

See Jewell group. (Dibblee, Gay 52: 
60t; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:217- 
218, 256t) . 

See Ruby mine. (Tucker, Sampson 33:324). 




Custer 


Reported in sec. 4, 
T27s, R32E, MDM, 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
B. Chavis, 
Havilah (1904) 


Two quartz veins strike generally 
NE. , dip E. ; in granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under another name. Development 
consists of a 200-foot inclined shaft, 
several adits 50 to 200 feet long, and 
600 feet of drifts. (Aubury 04:9t). 




Daly claims 








See McKendry group. (Dibblee, Gay 52: 
60t) . 




Darwin 


Reported in sec. 3, 
T28S, R32E, MDM, 
(1888) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably now 
part of Rand group. (Goodyear 88:316). 



144 California Division of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 



COLD, com. 



Mat 


Name of claim. 


Location 


Owner 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


No. 


mine, or group 


(Nome, address) 






David King and 








See Waterhole prospect. (Tucker, 




Tango prospect 








Sampson 33:273t; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:256t). 






Reported approx. 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 


Two- foot vein str ikes west, dips 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably 






in T27S, R31E, 


Wm. Davis, 


45° N. ; in granitic rock. 


abandoned. (Crawford 96:188). 






MDM (1896) ; not 


Bakersfield (1896) 










confirmed, 1957 










d R ' 


Reported in sec 


Undetermined , 1958 


A 300-foot -wide gravel bed 6 to 8 


Mostly inundated by I sabe 11a Lake . 




Cr) 3 J" ver 

anne prospec 


17 T26S R33E, 




feet deep in an east— f 1 owing 


Mined intermittently since 1890. Pro- 






MDM I sabel 1 a area 




tributary to Kern River. Gravel 


duction undetermined. (Aubury 04:18t; 






2 miles north of 




rests on granitic r ock . Average 


Brown 16 : 491 ; Tucker , Sampson 33 : 27 3 1 , 






Isabella dam 




pay of gravel reported to be 504 


297 ; 40b: 326 ; Tucker , Sampson , Oake- 










per cubi c yard . 


shott 49: 256t) . 




De d Tree claim 








Claim in Gwynne mine, which see. 












(Aubury 04 : 9t , 17t ; Brown 16 : 498 , 499 ; 












Tucker 29:36; Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 












shott 49:257t) . 


153 


De rborn mine 


North central sec. 


J. C, Geringer 


Gold— bear ing guar tz str ingers and 


Devel oped by 3 incl ined adits 50 feet 






36, T29S, R34E, 


estate (1958) , 


veins as much as 6 inches wide 


or more in length, with undetermined 






MDM, Piute Mts. 


Ba nk o f Ame r i ca. , 


occur in shear zone 3— to 4— feet 


lateral openings and mined from stope 






area, 5^ miles 


Baker sf ield, trus- 


wide striking N. and dipping 20° W. ; 


about 100 feet on strike, 50 feet on 






nor th of Clara- 




in deepl y we a the red Mesozoi c gr ano— 


dip , and 4 feet wide . Work ing s par tly 






ville , south of 






caved and filled with decomposed country 






Geringer Grade Rd. 






rock and water. Long inactive and 






about h miles 






largely inaccessible in 1955. Pro- 






west of Cottonwood 






duction tfnde ter mined . ( Tucker , Sampson 






Cr . crossing 






33:273t, 297; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 












49: 257t) . 


154 


Deerhun ter (?) 


SE^s sec. 31, T30S, 


Tom Davies, 


Six inch to one foot-wide shear 


Developed by 65-foot drift adit, 40-foot 




prospect 


R33E, MDM, Loraine 


Caliente, 1958 


zone strikes N. 70° W. and dips 


inclined shaft, and 4 by 10 by 10-foot 






dist. , 2 3/4 miles 




23° NE.; in deeply-weathered quartz 


surface stope. No production. Idle. 






southwest of 




diorite. Vein consists mainly of 








Loraine, between 




iron— stained fault gouge. Apparent- 








Antimony ridge and 




ly weakly mineralized at inter- 








Studhorse Cyn. 




section with a second shear which 












strikes N. 8 5° E . and dips 60° SE . 






Deerhunter mine 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Quartz vein 1 to 2 feet wide 


Developed several drift adits; long- 






20 , T30S , R34E , 


M. D. Elliot, 


strikes N. 40° E. , dips 50° SE. ; 


est is 400 feet. Ore stope 3 feet wide, 






MDM, Loraine dist., 


Piute (1949) 


schist hanging wall and granitic 


80 feet high, and 60 feet long. Mined 






5 miles east of 




footwall. Ore shoot 1 foot wide, 


approximately 50 tons of ore from stope. 


















Cr . ; not confirmed. 




the^d^ ^° n ^' ^ feet l° n< 3 a ' own 
e ip. 


(Brown 16:491; Tucker 33:273t; Tucker, 






1 958 






Sampson, Oakeshott 49:257t). 




Defender claim 








Patented claim of Yellow Aster mine. 












(Aubury 04:10t; Crawford 96:188) . 




Defiance 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Three 4-foot veins strike N. , dip E., 


Uncorrelated old name. May have been 






32, TUN, R12W, 


C. C. Calkins, K. A 


in porphyry and granite. 


claim of Four Star Mine. (Aubury 04: 






SBM, Mojave dist. , 


Calkins , Mojave 




lOt) 






(1904) ; not con- 


(1904) 










firmed, 1958 








155 


Demand Note 


NW^ sec. 11, T29S, 


Undetermined, 1958; 


Shear zones and quartz stringers of 


Probably no production except for pos- 




pr ospec t 


R39E, MDM, El Paso 


Real Goulet, P.O. 


var i ous or ien ta t ion in me t amor phi c 


sible recovery of placer gold from 






Mts. 2 miles north 


Box 864, Bishop 


rocks. Green oxides of copper and 


alluvium. An old prospect developed by 






-east of Garlock, 


(1952) 


traces of gold occur in parts of 


two. drift adits driven S. 10° W. about 






in Iron Cyn . and 




the shear zones. 


200 feet from east side of ridge east 






ridge on east side 






of Iron Cyn. , and N. 60° E. -driven adits 






of cyn . 






and vertical shafts in Iron Cyn . Long 












idle. (Dibblee, Gay 52:59t). 




Democrat 


Reported sec. 8, 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Eight inch to 7 foot-wide quartz 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably 






T28S, R31E, MDM, 


W. R. Rose, 


vein strikes NE. , dips 32° SE. ; in 


abandoned. (Aubury 04:10t, 17t) . 






(1904) ; not con- 


Auburn (1933) 


granitic rock. 








firmed, 1958 










Desert claim 


Reported in 


Undetermined 1958 ; 


Twelve foot vein strikes N dips 


Uncorrelated old name Probably listed 






32, TUN, R12W, 


Desert Mining Co. , 


E. ; in porphyry. 


herein under another name. (Aubury 04: 






SBM, Mojave dist. , 


Mojave (1904) 




10t) . 


















MoJ a ve S on °s t andar d 












Hill (1904) ; not 












' ■< nf irmed 1958 










Desert Queen 








See Standard group in text. (Julihn, 












Horton 37:27; Tucker 23:160, 161; 












Tucker, Sampson 33:301, 302; 34:11; 40: 












35, 36). 




Desert Queen 








Patented claim of King Solomon mine at 




claim 








Johannesburg, which see. (Aubury 04:10t). 




Dirego 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Three parallel veins in granitic 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably 






4, T28S, R32E, 


Geo. Carelton, 


rock. 


abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:10t). 






MDM, Clear Cr. 


Havilah (1904) 










dist. (1904) ; not 












confirmed, 1958 









1962] 



Kern— Gold 



145 



Mop 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Nome, address} 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Discovery claim 



Doble (Summit, 
Wall Street) 
mine 



Donnie (Copen- 
hagen , Sargert) 
prospect 



Dos Pican 
prospect 



Double Standard 
claim 



Double Standard 
prospect 

Double Thirteen 
prospect 



Drunkards Dre 



Early Sunrise 



Ebers and Heaps 
property 



sec. 5, T10N, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , lower north- 
east slope of 
Soledad Mt. 

NE^NE% sec. 19, 
T28S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. , north 
end of French 
Meadows , 11 miles 
southeast of 
Bodf ish 

Approximately sec. 
19 (?) , T30S, 
R33E, MDM, Loraine 
dist. , just north 
of Caliente Cr . 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

East side sec. 6, 
T29S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. area, 
lh miles west of 
Claraville, west 
side of Kelso Cr. 
tr ibutary 



Reported in 
Fiddler Gulch, 1 
mile east of 
Randsburg (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 

NW*a sec. 5, T10N, 
R12W, SBM, 4*5 



iles 



ath 



rth 



Mo j ave on 
si ope of Soledad 
Mt. , east of 
Karma mine 



SW?a sec. 10, T28S, 
R33E, MDM, Clear 
Cr. dist. , 4 miles 
east of Havilah, 
north side of 
King Solomons 
Ridge 



NW sec. 6, T27S, 
R32E, MDM, Green- 
horn dist. , about 
2 miles east- 
southeast of 
Davis Guard Sta. 



SW^gSW^ sec. 3, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , 
9 3/4 miles north- 
northeast of 
Cantil 



Mojave Mining & 
Milling Co., Mojave 
(1958) 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Jenette-Grant 
Mining Co. (1940) 



Undetermined, 1958; 

Souser , 
Caliente (1896) 



Allen W. Sargert, 
P.O. Box 971, 
Weldon (1955) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Benson Bros., et.al 
Randsburg (1896) 



Mojave Mining Co. 
Milling Co. , 
Mojave (1958) 



L. C. Schaefer, 
(1957) address 
undetermined 



E. C. Fuhr (1957) 
address undeter- 
mined 



Mildred Ebers an 

Heaps , addresses 

undetermined (1958) 



Gold-bearing quartz vein in fine- 
grained metamorphic rocks. 



Three quartz veins strike N. 60°-7 
in weathered porphyritic rock. 



Quartz veins, about 12 in. wide 
and 25 feet apart strike N. 65°-70° 

and dip steeply through deeply- 
weathered Mesozoic granodiorite. 



Three- to 5- foot-wide ve*in strikes 
northeast, dips 40° NW. ; in quartz 
latite porphyry. 



Two parallel veins strike N. 70° W. 
and dip 45° NW. in granitic rock, 
and join at depth of 50-feet. Ore 
consists of quartz, granite gouge, 
and free gold in a 2- to 4- foot 
wide zone. A fault striking 
parallel to the vein but dipping 
65° SE. displaces vein, possibly to 
the north. Average gold content of 
ore milled was about *s oz . per ton . 



Narrow fracture 
E. , dips 70° -80" 
diorite . 



:one strikes N. 
SE. ; in grano- 



Gold-bearing Quaternary gravels 
several feet thick cap flat-topped 
ridge west of Bonanza Gulch. 



Claim name of Mojave Mining & Milling Co. 
(Aubury 04:10t) . 



A long-abandoned caved shaft. May be 
same as Yellow Boy shaft. Probably 
part of Jenette-Grant mine claims. 
(Brown 16:511; Tucker , Sampson 33:276t, 
333; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:269t). 



Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under another name. Developed 
by short adits on 3 levels. (Crawford 
94:143; 96:188). 



Developed by 3 adits, 100 to 150 feet 
long, driven southwest on the veins an> 
100 to 200 feet apart; also a 120-foot 
crosscut . All portals badly caved in 
1955 and the workings almost inacces- 
sible. Idle; production, if any undetei?- 
mined. (Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:218, 257t) . 

Extension of vein on Maria claim. Last 
reported 1896, probably known by dif- 
ferent name now. (Crawford 96:188). 



See Mojave Mining & Milling Co. pro- 
perty. (Aubury 04:10t; Brown 16:491, 
492; Tucker 23:158; 29:31; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:273t, 283; 35:468; Tucker 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:257t). 



See Sixteen to One (Aubury 04:15t). 



See Sidewinder 



See Blue Mountain mine (Aubury 04:10t; 
Brown 16:492; Crawford 94:143; Tucker 
29:31; Tucker, Sampson 27 

Discovered in 1933 when rich float was 
found by J. L. Stubblefield on the slope 
of the ridge. The vein was found after 
trenching along the slope. Development 
consists of a 170-foot crosscut adit 
N. 40° W. to the vein, a 375-foot drift 
west, a 25-foot ?haft, and several open 
cuts disposed along the vein. Ore was 
milled in 10-ton Huntington mill situ- 
ated on the property. Idle since about 
1938. (Tucker, Sampson 33:298; 34:313, 
315; 40b:326; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:257t) . 

Workings consist of two shafts of un- 
determined depth (one caved) and severa 
" a " e "1 surface cuts. Numerous mounds of 
1 indicate placer mining long ago. 
corded production. Idle. 



No 



Lode claim of Jewell group. (Dibblee, 
Gay 52:59t) . 

Former claim of Ashford Mines. 
(Crawford 96:188) . 

See High Grade group. (Brown 16:492; 
Tucker 29:45; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t). 

Probably some production of placer gold 
Not as extensively-developed as other 
claims in Bonanza Gulch. 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



cni.o, com. 



Map 


Name of claim. 


Location 




Geology 


Remarks and references 


No 


mine, or group 




(Name, address) 






Echo mine 






Quartz vein in rhyolitic rocks. 


See text under Golden Queen mine. 










(Aubury 04:10t, 17t; Brown 16:497; 












Julihn, Horton 37:20; Tucker 23:158, 












159; 29:31, 32; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 












279, 280, 283, 298, 299; 35:465, 472, 












473; 40:33, 34; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:257t) . 




Eckley & Mountair 








Former claim name . See Elephant gr oup . 




View claim 








(Aubury 04:10t) . 




Ederl group 








See Por ter group . (Tucker , Sampson 33: 










299, 300; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 












49 : 25»7t) . 




Edith prospect 








See Golden Cross prospect under silver 










(Aubury 04 : lOt) 


161 


Edith E mine 


SE%NW*s sec. 12, 


Charles Berry, 


Recent stream gravel as much as 65 


One 20-acre placer claim. One of the 






T29S, R39E, MDM, 


P.O. Box 263, 


feet deep on northwest side of 


earliest sources of placer gold in the 






Goler di st . , 2h 


Randsburg ( 1956) 


Goler yn. imme la e y e ow pom 


Goler dist. Probably several hundred 






miles northeast of 




where cyn walls widen. Part of 


ounces of gold produced from the prop- 






Garlock, at mouth 




the gravel may be fanglomerate over- 


erty. Most recent production of gold 






of Goler Cyn. , 












southwest flank of 




source of the mined gold has been 


Developed by 17 vertical shafts, 10 to 






El Paso Mts. 




from gravel jus t above bedrock and 


65 feet deep, with one to 4 drifts 










from crevices^in^bedrock. ^Gold 














Idle since 193 5. 










ranges in size ^ r °ts V wei hin^ 
par lc es o nugge s weig ing 














r 


162 


Elbow and Bouldei 


Sec. 33 , T27S , 


Harold Bankson , 


Re cen t g ol d— bear ing river gravel . 


Idle. Most recent reported activity was 




prospect 


R31E, MDM , on 


2007 Cedar St. , 




a sand pumping operation by H. D. Smith, 




Kern River about 


Bakersfield (1957) 




W. M. Cambell, and L. M. Duncun in 1931, 






l^s miles northeast 






(Tucker, Sampson 33:300; Tucker, Sampson 






of Democrat 






Oakeshott 49 : 257t) 






prings 










Eld d 


NE^s s ec 33 T2 7S 


Undetermined (1957) 


1 sed ou rt ein 3 


De vel oped by 60- foot ver t i cal sha ft in 




pr ospect 


R40E MDM Rade _ 




inches^wide° S strikes N V lo"'w dips 








macher dist. , 5% 




55° NE.; in quartz monzonite. 


monzonite. A prospect; idle. 






miles south of 




Vein crosses a vertical dior i te 








Ridge ere s t 




dike and follows a fracture zone 












in rhyolite along part of its 












surface trace. 




164 


Elephant group 


W*2 of sec. 6 , T10N 


Goodwin J. Knight, 


Three sub-parallel veins in quartz 


See text. (Aubury 04:10t; Brown 16:492; 




{Hope, Excelsior 


Rl 2W , SBM , 5 miles 


Los Angeles (1958) 


latite porphyry, strike N. 20W. , dip 


Tucker 23, 159; 29:32, 33; Tucker , 




Elephant -Eagle ) 


s ou t hwe s t of 




from 60° NE . to vertical . 


oampson jJii/Jt, z/y, zoj, juu, j 1 *. jijj 






Mojave on the 






35*465 468 469 472—474* 40*33 34* 






extreme northwest 






Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49 : 257t) . 






part of Soledad 












Mt . 










ep an - ag e 








See Elephant group (Tuck Sampson 




mine 








35:472-474* 40:33 34) 




ri ay 


epor e in 


Undetermined, 195B; 


Three— to 4 foot— wide vein strikes 


U ltd Id "M bltd 
ncorre a e o name. ay e is 








Fmley and Sweet, 


E. , dips vertically; in porphyritic 








miles SW. or 


Kernvi lie (1904) 


rock. 


o^iot) " 6r an ° er name u ur ^ 






Amalia mine (1904): 












not confirmed, 












1958 










El 

i group 


Reported in sec 6 


Undetermined 1 9 58 ■ 




Uncorrelated old name Probabl lonq 






T31S R34E MDM 


J. N. Thomson & Co. 




abandoned (Aubury 04:10t) . 






Loraine dist. , 


Kern City liyU4) 










5 miles southeast 












of Loraine between 












Stevenson and 












Indian Cks. (1904) 












not confirmed. 












1958 








165 


Eli zabe th 


Approx. center 


Fred L. Moore (195^ 


Fault in schist strikes N. 70° W. , 


Owned by Patterson in 1925; claim 




prospect 


east half sec. 4, 


address undeter- 


dips 55° NE., and is composed of 


named undetermined. Developed by 






T30S, R40E, MDM, 


mined 


4-foot-wide zone of brecciated 


inclined shafts and prospect holes. 






Rand di st . , 2 




schist. Length undetermined but at 


Production , undetermined . Long idle . 






miles southwest 




least few tens of f eet . Faul t con- 








of Randsburg , on 




tains lenses of brecciated quartz 








northwest side of 




approx. 2 feet wide and 6 feet. long. 








Rand Mts . 




Mangani f er ous material occurs in 












hanging wall of fault and in quartz 












and quartzite at several places in 












nearby area. 






Elk claim 








Former claim in Elephant-Eagle group. 












(Tucker 23 : 159 ; Tucker , Sampson 35 :pl . 1\ 


166 


Ell [roup 


NZh sec. 15, T30S, 


Undetermined, 1958, 


Two-foot-wide quartz vein strikes 


Developed by a crosscut adit driven 220 






R33E, MDM, Loraine 


Ted Adamson and 


N. 25° E. , dips 65° SE. Pale blue- 


feet to the vein, a 60-foot drift N. 25° 






dist. , 3/4 mile 


M. Abbott, 


gray schist in hanging wall and 


E. to the bottom of a 50- foot shaft. 






north of Caliente 


Rosamond (1939) 


highly altered granitic rock in 


At a point about 15 feet northeast of 






Cr . , and h mile 




footwall . 


the 220-foot crosscut, a 50-foot cross- 






east of Sand Cyn. 






cut was driven N . 25° W. into the hang- 












ing wall. Production undetermined. 












(Brown 16:493; Tucker 29:33; Tucker, 












Sampson 33:273t) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



147 



Map Name of claim, 
No. mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Ellston 
(Producer) 
prospect 



Emerald mine 



Esperanza mine 



Eureka claim 



Excelsior clai 



Exchange prospect 



SVih sec. 9, T29S, 
R31E, MDM, 2 mile: 
south of Hoosier 
Flat, 5h miles 
southwest of 
Breckenridge Mt. 

Reported near Ken 
River, 4 miles 
south of Isabella 
told site) (1896) 
not confirmed, 
1957 

Reported Ah miles 
northeast of Piute 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Reported in sec. 7, 
T26S, R33E, MDM 
(1904) ; not con 
firmed, 1957 

Reported in NE 
part of T27S, R31E 
MDM (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

Reported in T25S, 
R28E, MDM, on 
Slate Mt. , 5 miles 
southwest of White 
River (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

Reported in sec. 
24, T29S, R37E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958; may 
be in R38E 

Reported in sees . 
5 and 6, T29S, 
R35E, MDM, east 
flank of Piute Mt. 
on northwest side 
of Kelso Valley 
(1949) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 



Reported 5 miles 
southwest of Kern- 
ville (old site) 
(1894) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

Reported in sec. 
27, T28S, R38E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Reported in sec. 
11, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, Goler dist. 
El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Undetermined, 1954 
R. E. Ellston, 
Caliente (1949) 



Undetermined, 1957 



Undetermined, 1 
J. B. Ferris, 
Caliente (1896) 



Undetermined, 1957 



Undetermined, 1957; 

F. Boettler , 
Woody (1896) 

Undetermined, 1957 ; 
J. A. G. Smith, 
White River (1896) 



Undetermined, 1958; 

J. Harker, 
Garlock (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957; 
Laura N. McFadden , 
1310 S. Wilton PI. , 
Los Angeles (1949) 



Gold-bearing pockets in quartz 
veins in quartz diorite. 



Four- foot-wide vertical quartz vein 
in granite. 



Quartz vein in granite; 5 to 7 feet 
wide; strikes N. 8° W. , vertical 
to 85° S(W?) . 



vein strikes NE. 
granitic rock. 



Six inch wide quartz 
NE., dips 80° NW. ; in 



strikes 
schist. 



in granitic rock. 



Quartz vein, 6 inches to 3 feet wide, 
strikes NW. , dips 45° SW. , and is i: 
granitic rocks. Tucker and Sampson 
(1933, p. 301) reported three ore 
shoots were 40 to 100 feet long, 20 
ches wide, and averaged $15 per 
■n in gold as free gold and aurife 
ous sulfides. 



Undetermined, 1957 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 

S. Brigham, 
Randsburg (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958; 

J. Loggie, 
Randsburg (1904) 



Quartz in "porphyry." 



Placer gold in alluvium. 



Developed by 80-foot shaft and short 
drifts. Small production during 1913- 
1914. Long idle. Aubury 04:14t, 17t; 
Brown 16:493; Tucker 29:33; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:273t; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:-257t). 

Uncorrelated old name; probably listed 
herein under di f f erent name . Six 
hundred-foot "tunnel" in 1896. 
(Crawford 96:189) . 



Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under different name. Probably 
some production. Developed in 1894 by 
200-foot tunnel and 60-foot air shaft. 
Vein stoped 15 feet below tunnel but 
water below that level. A 300-foot 
drain tunnel, 100 foot below stopes, was 
being driven in 1896. (Crawford 94:143; 
96:189) . 



Uncorrelated old na 
herein under differ 
lOt) . 



may be listed 
name (Aubury 04: 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. Developed by 3 shallow shafts 
and 90 foot of drifts. (Crawford 96: 
189) . 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. Developed by a 50- foot shaft 
and a 100-foot adit. Formerly described 
in Tulare County. (Crawford 96:470). 



Uncorrelated old name . Probably long 
abandoned prospect. Developed by 40- 
foot and 120-foot vertical shafts, 80- 
foot inclined shaft, and 108-foot hori 
zontal working. (Aubury 04:10t). 



1933 

Upper 
100 fee 
and 
with 
is of 
-35. 

Tucker , 



Group consisted of 10 claims in 
on which 3 adits were developed 
adit (caved) was 350 feet long; 
below was 700-foot adit (caved) 
150 feet below was 170-foot adi 
300-foot drift on vein. Few te; 
ounces of gold produced in 1932 
Idle since then. (Tucker 29:33 
Sampson 33:273t, 300-301; Tucke 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:257t). 



Claim in Wegman group. (Tucker, Sampson 
40 : 11 , 30; Tucker , Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:218, 257t) . 

Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Crawford 94:143). 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect . Devel oped by 50- 
and 80-foot shafts. (Aubury 04:10t). 



Claim in Elephant group. (Aubury 04:10t 
Brown 16:493; Julihn, Horton 37:21; 
Tucker 23:159; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 
300) . 

Worked by dry placer methods in 1890 's 
and early 1900 's with low daily yield of 
gold. Probably listed herein under 
different name. (Aubury 04:18t; 
Crawford 96:189, 190t) . 



See Standard group in text. (Aubury 04: 
lOt, 17t; Brown 16:493, 504-505; Eric 48 
255t; Haley 22:46; Julihn, Horton 37:4, 
25-27; Newman 23:221, 307; 23b:98; 
De Kalb 08:310-319; Trask, et. al . 50:84 
Trask, Wilson, Simmons 43:123t; Tucker 
23:157, 160-161; 29:33-34; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:273t, 279, 284, 301-302; 
34:11; 35:465, 468-469, 474; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:218-219, 258t) . 



148 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Extension claim 



Extension Kar 
claim 



Fair View 



Fairview mine 



Fairy Prince 



Faust prospect 



Ferris (Golden 
Jack Rabbit) 



Reported in 
Loraine dist . 
(1893) 

Reported in sec. 
34, T27S, R33E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed , 1957 



Reported in sec. 
21, T28S, R32E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

Reported in sec. 
34, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
Dist. (1904) ; no 
confirmed, 1957 



NW^NW^s sec. 11, 
T28S, R33E, MDM 
Piute Mts . , on 
southwest side ■ 
Bodf ish-Claraville 
Rd. , Ik miles 
southwest of 
Bodf ish 

Vicinity of Vaughn 
(Bodfish) (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 

Reported in sec. 
11, T9N, R13W., 
SBM, Mojave dist. 
3 miles northwest 
of Rosamond (1904 
not c on f i rme d , 
1958 

N*s sec. 24, T30S, 
R32E, MDM, 7 mile; 
east of Caliente, 
on Caliente Cr. 



Undetermined, 1958 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Griffith and Harris 
Vaughn (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 

Morning Glory Min- 
ing Co. , Pasadena 
(1904) 

Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Underwood and 
McNitt, Bakers field 
(1904) 



Undetermined, 1958 



Undetermined, 1957 



Undetermined, 1958 
E. M. Hamilton, 
Rosamond (1904) 



California Engels 
Mining Co. , 
Caliente (1949) ; 
Ferris millsite is 
owned by Richard 
Frasch and Frank 
Rudnick , Caliente 
(1958) 



Ten-foot vei 



Quartz vein in granite. 



Quartz in granitic rock. 



in slate and porphyry. 



Quartz stringers in parallel shears 
in quartz monzonite. Stringers 
strike N. 20° E., dip 50° NW. ; in 
zone about 3 feet thick which 
contains 4 inches of quartz in 
several stringers mostly in hanging 
wall side of shear zone . 



in in granite. 



One 
dips 



Gold- and silver-bearing quartz 
veins in schist and quartz dior ite . 
A vein occurs on the northeast side 
of Caliente Creek about 200 feet 
above the canyon floor . Vein 
strikes N. 55° W. and dips 70° NE. ; 
schist hanging wall and rhyolitic 
footwall at collar of shaft. Vein 
is composed of clayey gouge about 2 
feet wide and is locally stained 
dark blue-gray with manganese and 
iron oxides. Brecciated quartz 
occurs in parts of vein still 
exposed in mine workings. Vein 
contained silver at surface but at 
depth of 85 feet silver content 
decreased, vein widened to 20 feet, 
and was mined for low-grade gold 
ore. Other northwest- trending 
veins were developed on southwest 
side of Caliente Creek. 



Claim in Standard group. (Aubury 04:10t 
Tucker 23:159-160) . 

Former name of claim in Wegman group . 
(Aubury 04:10t; Tucker, Sampson 40:35, 
36) . 

Claim name. See Wegman group. (Aubury 
04:10t) . 

Claim name. See Wegman group. 
(Aubury 04:10t) . 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under another name. (Watts 
93:238) . 

Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:10t). 



See Tropico mine (Aubury 04:10t; Brown 
16:493; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t; 35:484). 

Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:10t; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:273t). 



Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect. Thirty-foot incl 
(Aubury 04:10t) . 



Former claim of Ashford Mines. 
(Crawford 96:189) . 



Former claim of Ashford Mines. 
(Crawford 96:186) . 



Former claim of Ashfc 
(Crawford 96:189) . 



Developed by 20-foot open cut. Probably 
no production. An idle prospect. 



Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:10t). 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably no 
part of Tropico mine. Also see Ann 
(Aubury 04:10t) . 



Discovered in 1895. Principal develop- 
ment is 220-foot shaft with levels at 
65, 110, and 200 feet. The 65-foot 
level consists of a N. 70° E. crosscut 
adit driven 80 feet to connect with the 
shaft and a '60-foot drift extending N. 
30° W. from the surface to below the 
65-foot level. Horizontal workings on 
all levels were about 300 feet in total 
length. A mill was constructed on the 
southwest side of the creek to treat the 
ore. Ore from nearby mines probably 
also treated. Principal mining was b 
tween 1897 and 1914. Minor activity 
1918-1942. Total output probably 
several hundred ounces of gold from o 
which averaged less than 0.5 oz. gold 
per ton and an undetermined quantity 
silver. Idle since 1942; mill equipment 
removed. (Aubury 04:llt; Brown 16:495; 
Crawford 96:189, 605; Tucker 29:35; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 304; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:258t, 259t) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



COLD, coin. 



Map 

No 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


171 


Fine Gold group 


Appr ox . NW^ sec . 
12, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, near mouth of 
Goler Cyn. , El 
Paso Mts. , 3 miles 
northeast of 
Gar lock 


J. M. Behrens, 
P.O. Box 272, 
Randsburg (1958) 


Gravels in floor of Goler Cyn. are 
from 55 to 60 feet deep in center 
of cyn. and overlie granitic bed- 
rock. Principal nugget-gold zone 
is near bedrock in sandy and 
bouldery gravels which range from 
few inches to 3 feet in thickness. 
Gold also in gravels in benches 
along east side of cyn. Average 
gold content of best gravels ranged 
from S5 to S6 per cubic yard, with 
some nuggets valued at $40 (Tucker 
and Sampson, 1933, p. 302). 


Three 20-acre placer claims. Gold was 
mined from bottom of 61-foot vertical 
shaft from which about 500 feet of 
drifts were extended in gravel above 
bedrock. Gravels on side of cyn. mined 
from surface pits . Gravel s have 
probably yielded several hundred ounces 
of gold mined mostly in 1890's and 
1930's. Idle since 1938. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:273t, 302; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:258t). 




Fl ami o fumes Co. 
prospect 


Reported in sec. 
28, T29S, R36E, 
MDM, Jawbone Cyn. 
dist. 


Undetermined, 1957; 
The Flamiofumes Co. 
(1904) 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Ten shafts 10 to 80 feet deep, minor 
lateral workings; had 10-stamp mill in 
1904. May be former name for Payday or 
Sidewinder mines, which see. (Aubury 
04:10t, 17t). 


172 


Florence claims 


SE^SW^j sec. 3, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , at 
intersection of 
Bonanza Gulch 
with Last Chance 
Cyn. 


Cornel ius Losey, 
Glendale (1958) 


Gold-bearing Quaternary gravels 
a few feet thick resting on sedi- 
mentary rocks of the Tertiary 
Goler formation. 


Two (?) claims. Developed by shallow 
excavations. Probably the source of 
some gold in 1890 ' s and 1930's. Idle. 




Florence & 
Bertha 


Reported at 
appr ox. T25S, 
R32E, MDM, 3 miles 
southwest of White 
River (1930) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Dan Rickards, 
White River (1930) 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. Formerly described in 
Tulare County. (Franke 30:440). 




Flying Dutchman 


Reported in Clear 
Cr. dist. , 4 miles 
south of Havilah 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958; may 
be near Flying 
Dutchman' Cr. 


Undetermined, 1958; 
John Hayes, Havilah 
(1896) 


One foot vein strikes N. , dips 80° 
E. ; in granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect . Originally 
developed by 150-foot tunnel, 80-foot 
shaft. (Crawford 96:189) . 




Four Jacks 


Reported in vicin- 

(1940) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Los Angeles (1940) 


Six-foot quartz vein strikes E, 

Free -gold and minor sul fides . 
Silver-gold ratio 15:1 maximum. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
here i n under another name . Devel oped 
by 300-foot shaft with 3 levels. Some 
production. (Tucker, Sampson 40:30; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:258t). 




Four Star Mines 
group 








See Pride of Mojave mine (Eric 48:255t;' 
Julihn, Horton 37:32; Tucker, Sampson 
35:474, 475; 40:35, 36) . 




Fraction 


Sec. 11, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, south 
of Randsburg 


Undetermined, 1957; 
B. M. Atkinson, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Two quartz veins, 18 inches wide, 
strike NE. , dip 50° N. , ; in schist. 
Free milling. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Two inclined shafts 30- and 70-foot 
deep, 200 feet of open cuts, 100 feet of 
drifts. (Aubury 04:10t). 




Francis H. , No.l 
claims 








Former claims of Yellow Dog mine. Now 
known as Lakeview and Lakeview No. 1. 
Tucker 23:163) . 




Frank claim 








Former claim of Beauregard mine. Now 
claim in Big Blue group. (Aubury 04 : lOt 
Crawford 94:143; Prout 40:389, 393, 416- 
417; Tucker 24:39; Tucker, Sampson 33: 
320-321) . 




Frank and Rey 


Reported in sec. 
9, T28S, R33E, 
MDM, Piute Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 






Uncorrelated old name . Owned or under 
least to King Soloman Gold Mng. Co. 
in 1904. (Aubury 04:10t). 


173 


Fredle claim 


NE^NW^ sec. 3, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , 
10*s miles north- 
northeast of 
Cantil, in small 
gulch west of 
Bonanza Gulch 


James D. Fredle, 
4540 San Bias Ave. , 
Woodland Hills 
(1958) 


Gold-bearing Quaternary gravels 
which underlie narrow mesa on west 
side of Bonanza Bulch. Gravels 
range in thickness from few feet to 
at least 20 feet. Gold occurs at 
base of gravels. Bedrock is sedi- 
mentary rocks of Tertiary Goler 
formation. 


One 20-acre placer claim; name undeter- 
mined. Probably some production of 
gold recovered from small-scale dry 
washing operations in 1890 's and 1930's. 
Long idle. 


174 


French (Bowman, 
French Meadows, 
Trestle) mine 


Center SW% sec. 
29, T28S, R34E, 
MDM, Piute Mts . , 
east side of 
French Gulch, 12 
miles southeast 
of Bodfish 


A. 0. Griswold, 
Bodfish (1958) 


Gold in quartz vein in granitic 
rock. Vein strikes N. 70° E. , 
dips 70° SE. , and ranges in width 
from 6 inches to 2h feet. Also 
pyrite and marcasite. Two main 
ore shoots developed on vein with- 
in 500 feet of portal of main drift- 
One at 100 feet northeast of portal 
was 150 feet long and extended to 
surface. Other at 452 feet from 
portal was 80 feet long. 


Production of several hundred ounces of 
gold from ore that averaged 1 oz . per 
ton. Mined mostly in 1906-1907, 1937- 
1941. A drift adit, 650 feet long 
driven NE. was caved at 30 feet from 
portal in 1957. In 1958, a 15-foot 
winze was being sunk at 30 feet from 
the portal . Gold ore treated in 
arrastre formerly, then in 3-stamp mill 
which is still on property. No pro- 
duction since 1941. (Brown 16:512; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:272t, 276t, 293; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:214, 
255t, 268t) . 



150 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GOLD, com 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




French Lillies 








Probably old claim of Glen Olive mine 
(Aubury 04:10t) . 




French Meadows 








See French mine. 


175 


Friday Gulch 
(Friday) mine 


Center SW'a sec. 3, 
T28S, R32E, MDM, 
Clear Cr . dist. , 
3/4 mile northwest 
of Haviiah, h mile 
south of O'Brien 
Hill 


Undetermined, 1958; 
John Hayes, Haviiah 
(1904) 


Two- to 3-foot-wide vein strikes 
NE., dips 85° SE. ; in granitic rock. 


Abandoned mine. Originally developed 
by 150-foot shaft, several hundreds of 
feet of drifts and crosscuts. Small 
production. (Aubury 04:10t; Crawford 
96:189) . 


176 


Gallup prospect 


Midpoint of west 
boundary of sec. 
16, T29S, R34E, 
MDM Piute Mts . 
area, 2 miles 
south of Clara- 
ville, 2/3 mile by 
dirt road north- 
west of Gallup 
Camp 


Ed Jones, 
6332^ Victoria, 
Los Angeles 43 
(1954) 


Quartz stringers several inches wide 
strike S. 40° W. , dip near vertical, 
through decomposed granitic rock. 
Veins contain muscovite, limonite, 
and $16 to $17 per ton in free gold. 


Quartz-rich zone explored by 35-foot 
adit driven S. 40° W. , and for about 
half a mile by shallow, discontinuous 

known production , long idle . 




group 


Vicinity of Vaughn 
(Bodfish) (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
(Aubury 04:10t) . 




Gar lock 


Reported in sec. 
16, T28S, R38E, 
MDM, El Paso dist. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
E. T. Gar lock, 
Garlock (1904) 


Quartz vein in metamorphic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
1 is ted here in under different name . In 
1904, contained a 200-foot inclined 
shaft and a 400-foot tunnel (crosscut 
adit?). On sec. 22, T28S, R40E , MDM, 
owner had an 8— stamp mill. (Aubury 04: 
lOt, 17t) . 




Garnet placer 
claim 


Reported in sees. 
17, 18, TUN, 
R23W, SBM, (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 
Western Minerals 
Co. , Pioneer (1904) 




Uncorrelated old name. No known pro- 
duction of gold from area in which 
claims were reported to be. (Aubury 
04:18t) . 




Garnishee mine 








See Keyes mine. (Aubury 04:10t; Brown 
16:493; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 311- 
312) . 


177 


Gateway (Lutz) 
claims 


Approx . center sec 
17 T29S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. , 
llh miles north- 
east of Cantil, on 
east side of mouth 
of Mesquite Cyn. 


Fred Gerbracht and 
others, c/o Delia 
G. Gerbracht, 
P.O. Box 346, 
Randsburg (1958) 


Northwest-trending shear zones and 
quartz stringers parallel to bed- 
ding planes in metasedimentary 
rocks. 


Five lode claims. Development undeter- 
mined. See also College Girl group 
under gold. No production. Long idle. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:59t). 


178 


G. B. Mine 


Center sec. 1, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, 
Stringer dist. , 
1^ miles south- 
east of Randsburg, 
adjacent to paved 
county Rd. 


Paul J. Mccormick, 
2615 N. Vermont, 
Los Angeles (1957) 


Gold-bearing vein along fault which 
strikes N. 20° W. and dips 55° NE. 
Fault is in Rand schist and extends 
along surface for about 700 feet. 
Vein material is brecciated, iron- 
stained, and silcified schist with 
free gold and locally scheelite. 
Width of vein ranges from few 
inches to several feet. Gold is 
mostly in shoots in hanging wall 
of vein which contain closely- 
spaced fractures. Also along inter- 
sections of main fault with nearly 
horizontal faults in footwall. 
Most of the ore contains tiny 
particles of free gold, but richer 
shoots contain coarse gold. Mined 
ore averaged 0.3 to 0.5 oz. gold 
per ton . 


One claim. Developed by 4 main shafts 
and other access shafts, numerous open 
cuts, and stopes. Deepest shaft is 
next to road at north end of claim. It 
extends 260 feet down a 55° incline to 
the northeast. Most extensive levels 
are the 85-and 165-foot levels, which 
have a total of about 1,000 feet of 
drifts. Extent and location of stopes 
unde termined but much of sur face al ong 
vein south of deepest shaft is caved 
into near-surface stopes. Some stopes 
were as much as 18 feet wide. Principal 
mining was during 1896-1910 and 1938- 
1941. Total production undetermined. 
Idle since 1948. (Aubury 04:10t; 
Boalich, Castello 18:13t; Brown 16:493- 
494; Crawford 96:189; Hess 10:40, 41; 
Hulin 25:72, 84; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t 
310; 34:315; Tucker Sampson Oakeshott 
49: 258t) . 


L79 


Gen< nine 
Gem claim 

1 


Sec. 5, T28S, 
R31E, MDM, less 
than one mile 
southwest of 
Democrat Springs 


Undetermined, 1958? 
John Wilson Estate, 
San Francisco 
(1933) 


One to 4 foot-wide vein strikes 
northeast, dips 45° SE. ; in granitic 
rock. 


Development consists of crosscut-adit 
driven 650 feet S. 20° E. to vein, with 
60-foot drift southwest and 200 feet 
northeast. At 550 feet from adit a 90- 
foot raise was driven at 45°. From this 
point a sublevel was driven 110 feet 
northeast. An ore shoot was encountered 
in the sublevel 75 feet from the raise. 
Ore averaged from $8 to $20 per ton for 
45 feet. Another crosscut adit 200 feet 
above the first was driven 100 feet to 
the vein where additional ore was mined. 
(Aubury 04:10t, 17t; Tucker 29:34; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:302-303, 273t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:258t). 

Claim of Mojave Mining 6. Milling Co. 
(Aubury 04:llt) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



151 



COLD, coot. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




General Grant 








See Bob Allen. (Crawford 96:470). 




Gilliam and 
Welch 


Reported in sec. 
31, T26S, R33E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Unde ter mined , 1957; 
Gilliam and Welch, 
Isabella (1904) 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Uncorr elated old name ; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:llt, 16t) . 




Girblick 


Reported in sec. 
16, T9N, R13W, 
SBM, Mojave dist., 
6 miles west of 

not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
D. Girblick, 
Rosamond (1904) 


Three to 30-foot-wide vein strikes 
NW. , dips SW. ; in decomposed 
granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under another name. (Aubury 04: 
lit) . 




Gladys claim 








Patented claim of Holly Rand mine, which 
see. (Tucker, Sampson 33:273t) . 


180 


Gladys prospect 


NE*s sec. 11, T29S, 
R38E, MDM, El Paso 
Mts. , 10k miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Frank Curtis, 
Bakersfield (1952) 


An alluvial contact with bedrock 
along the east edge of a small 
shallow valley in upper part of 
Last Chance Cyn. 


Uncorrelated name. Probably listed 
herein under different name. Developed 
by adit driven NE . along base of gravel, 
probably in search of placer gold. Adit 
caved; long idle. (Dibblee, Gay 52: 57t). 


181 


Glen Olive 
(Bulgarian 
Troubles) 


Approx. center 
sec. 33, T27S, 
R33E, MDM, Piute 
Mts., west side of 
Bodf ish Cr . , 5 
miles southeast 
of Bodfish 


Bob Frisbee (?) , 
Los Angeles (1955) 
owns 480 acres of 
patented land 


Two quartz veins about 200 feet 
apart containing free gold and iron 
sulfides; in granitic rock. Veins 
strike NW. and dip NE. Width 
ranges from 6 inches to 9 feet; 
average is about 3 feet. Some ore- 
shoots large and high grade . One 
was 7 feet wide and averaged $70 in 
gold. Yielded $325,000 in gold in 
28 months in 1880 ' s or 1890' s 
(George Ross, personal communica- 
tion, 1955). Other shoots aver- 
aged $25 per ton (Brown, 1916, p. 
494) . Veins were called Bulgar- 


Discovery date undetermined; gold pro- 
duced by 1914 valued at $500,000 
(Brown, 1916, p. 494). Several hundred 
ounces gold produced between 1917 and 
1942 when mine was active every year 
except 1919, 1924, 1926, 1928, and 1936. 
Principal workings are two adits 200 
feet apart and 700 feet long. Also 
several hundred feet of horizontal 
workings, several winzes, -and raises. 
Both adits apparently driven southwest 
to intersect main veins. Ore lowered on 
2-car tramway to millsite in bottom of 
cyn. Idle since 1940's. (Aubury 04:9t, 
15t" Brown 16*494* Crawford 96*189* 
Tucker 29:34; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 
280; 40b: 327; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:258t) . 


182 


Glorietta and 
Discarded claims 

Gold Bag mine 


SE^ sec. 35, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, in 
southeast part of 
town of Randsburg 


Chelirene Edmonds 
and others, address 
undetermined (1957) 


Shear zones in quartz monzoni te 
and Rand schist. 


Patented claims. At least two explora- 
tory vertical shafts probably about 
100 feet deep. (Tucker, Sampson 33: 
273t) . 

See Gold Bug mine in text. (Tucker, 
Sampson , Oakeshott 49: 258t) . 


183 


Gold Bar prospect 


S^NE^ of sec. 33, 
T27S, R31E, MDM, 
on Kern River 
about one mile 

Democrat Springs 
on the northeast 
tip of a horse- 
shoe bend in the 
Kern R. 


Mrs. Elizabeth J. 
Herceg, Los Angeles 
114 W. 58 PI. 
(1958) 


Auriferous Recent gravel. Also 
contains traces of scheelite. 


Intermittent activity since 1934. Pro- 
duced 1600-1700 cu. yds. of material 
containing about .05 ounces of gold per 
cu. yd. Gold-silver ratio 6:1. Idle 
( Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 49: 219, 258t 


184 


Gold Bug mine 


NEV, NW*s sec. 34, 
T27S, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacher dist. , 
5 miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


A. De Mayo, P.O. 
Box 14 

Ridgecrest (1957) 


Quartz veins in quartz monzonite. 


See text. (Aubury 04:llt, 17t; Eric 48: 
255t; Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 303-304; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:258t). 


185 


Gold Coin 
(Stanford) -group 


SW. cor. sec. 1 
and NW. cor. sec. 
12, T30S, R40E, 
MDM, Stringer 
dist. , 1 3/4 miles 
southeast of 
Randsburg 


George Carr , Bakers 
-field; leased to 
Carl E. Stibs, 
Johannesburg (1957) 


Gold and scheelite veins in schist. 
Veins strike N. 75° E. to N. 30° W. 
and dip 25°-60° N. Principal vein 
about 400 feet long on surface; 
others 50 to 200 feet long. Veins 
in faults are as much as 4 feet 
wide at surface; average about 18 
inches. Other veins are fraction 
of inch to 8 inches wide. Ore 
mined 1898-1916 contained average 
of 2/3 oz. gold per ton. Scheelite 
content of vein and placer material 
erratic. Hess (1910, p. 45) 
reports some parts of stringers 
contain more than $120 per ton in 
gold. Arsenopyrite and pyrite in 
veins below 100- foot level; sul- 
fides oxidized upwards to surface. 


Four patented claims - Gold Coin, 
Orphan Boy, Stanford, and White Dike. 
Mined principally 1898-1916, but some 
activity 1931-1934, 1938-1941, and 1946- 
1948. Scheelite recovered from alluvium 
by dry placer methods in 1957. Workings 
consist of one shaft 425 feet deep and 
several other shafts of undetermined 
depth; approximately 2,000 feet of hori- 
zontal workings; moderate volume of 
stoping mostly at depths above 150 feet. 
Numerous surface pits developed in 
shallow alluvium. Several thousand 
ounces of gold produced before 1916; a 
few tens of ounces produced since then. 
(Aubury 04:llt, 14t, 15t; Boalich, 
Castello 18:14t; Brown 16:485; Hess 10: 
40, 41, 45; Hulin 25:144; Tucker 29:47; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:276t; Tucker, Sampson 
Oakeshott 49:267) . 


186 


Gold Coin claim 


Mostly in the 
extreme eastern 
part of the NE^s 
of sec. 31, TUN, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , 3 miles 
southwest of 
Mojave, west of 
Standard Hill 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
New Tonopah Divi- 
dend Mining Co. , 
Tonopah, Nevada 
(1929) 


Shaft collar is in alluvium. 


Shaft was sunk with intention of explor- 
ing for veins parallel to Yellow Dog 
vein to the east. (Tucker 23:162; 
29:35) . 



152 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Sold Crown group 
(Gold King) 



Gold Dollar 

Golden group 

Golden Badger 
mine 

Golden Carrier 
claim 

Golden Cross 

Golden Cross 
prospect 

Golden Curry 
claim 

Golden Eagle 

Golden Extensio 

Golden Glow 
prospect 

Golden Gulch 
Nos. 1 to 3 
claims 

Golden Oak clai 



Golden Queen 
(Echo, Gray 
Eagle , Queen 
Esther , Silver 
Queen, Soledad 



Golden Rule 
(Robinson) 



Golden Rule 



NW^a sec. 12, NE^s 

. 11, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Stringei 
t. , 2 miles 
th of Randsburg 



Reported near 

mit of "Pah Ute' 
. (1894) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 



Sec. 12, T29S, 
R38E, MDM, El I 
. , 10*s miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 



Reported in sec. 7, 
T27S, R33E, MDM, 
(1904) ; not con- 
med, 1957 



Reported in sec. 

12, T29S, R39E, 

MDM, Goler dist. , 

El Paso Mts. 
(1904) : not con- 
firmed, 1958 



SE*s sec. 31, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, Green- 
horn dist. , 2h 
miles east of 
Davis Guard Sta. 



SWSsNW's sec. 3, 
T27S, R33E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. , on 
northeast side of 
Bodf ish-Clara- 
ville rd. , 6 mile 
southeast of Bod- 
fish 

North central and 
south central 
portions sec. 6, 
T10N, R12W, SBM, 
Mojave dist. , 5 
miles southwest o 
Mojave on the 
north slope of 
Soledad Mt . 



Vicinity Ke: 
(old site) (1904 
not confirmed, 

1957 

Sec. 36, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, vie. 
Johannesburg 



lie 



Owner 
(Nome, address) 



Hiram E. Casey (?) 
Los Angeles (1957) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Barney Collins, et 
al, Weldon (1894) 



Donald C. Weiss, 
Clarence D. Weiss 
Richard D. Weiss, 
addresses undeter 
mined (1958) 



Undetermined, 
Ed. Palmer, 
Vaughn (1904) 



Undetermind, 1958 ; 
V. C. Brodarson, 
Randsburg (1904) 



George Morr 
(1957) 

address unc 
mined) 



William H. Milton, 
Bodfish (1958) 



Dr. Leroy 0. 
Schultz, 527 
Kenneth Rd. , 
Glendale (1958) 



ined, 1957 



Geology 



NE.-to E. -striking gold- and 
scheelite-bearing stringers in 
schist. Some schist altered to 
pale-to dark-colored talc or soap- 
stone strikes K. 5° E., dips 50° W. 
and crops out in an area a few ten; 
of feet long and several feet wide 
on nearly level surface. 



10 to 12 inches 



with arsenic-bear 
me tarn orphic rocks 



cer gold in alluvi 



quartz monzo 



Quartz veins in intrusive and 
extrusive rhyolitic volcanic rocks. 



Quartz vt 
milling. 



in in schist. 



Remarks and references 



Three patented claims. Stringers are 
developed by shafts to a depth of at 
least 100 feet, and numerous open cuts. 
Talc or soapstone is exposed in shallow 
trenches. Undetermined production of 
gold and scheelite. Idle. (Boalich, 
Castello 18:13t; Brown 16:494, 522t; 
Partridge 41:287; Tucker 29:35; Tucker, 
Sampson 33: 27 3 t , 304 ; Tucker , Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49: 258t) . 



Uncorrelated old nan 
abandoned prospect. 



Probably long 
(Crawford 94:144) . 



Includes Golden Extension, Ore, Side 
issue and Southern Golden claims. See 
Ferris mine. 

One lode claim adjoining Copper Chie'f 
group , which see under copper . Gold , 
valued at about $4,000, produced in 
1940-1941 by previous owner. (Dibblee 
Gay 52:59t) . 

Claim in Standard group. (Aubury 04:llq\- 
Tucker 23:160) . 

Uncorrelated old name ,- probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:llt). 



Patented claim of Long Tom 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:316). 



Pr obabl y 1 i 
name. (Aubu 



related old na 
n under differ 



See Ferris mine. 



No recorded product! 



Former claims of Goler Cyn. Placer 
deposits ; now included in Putnam grou 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:306-307). 

A prospect on south edge of property 
of Glen Olive mine. Developed by 
25-foot inclined shaft which is only 
few feet below the road. Probably no 
production . 



See text. (Eric 48:255t; Julian, 
Horton 37:6, 14-21; Tucker, Sampson 35: 
469, 475-479; 40:10-11, 30-31, 33; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 220-223, 
259t) . 



Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name. (Aubury 
04:llt) . 



sveloped by a 100-foot incline shaft, 

250-foot tunnel and 300 feet of drift; 
Be Grannis Land Co. (Aubury 04:llt). 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Golden Rule 
prospect 



Golden Star 



Golden Thorn 



Golden Treasu 



Golden Vault 
claim 



Gold Hill 



Gold Hill No. 1 
and No. 2 claim: 



Gold Flint 
prospect 



Gold King 



Gold King group 



Gold Nugget 
claim 



One/eighth mile 
north of center 
sec. 20, T29S, 
R38E, MDM, El 
Paso Mts. , 6 3/4 
miles north-north- 
east of Cantil, a 
few tens of feet 
from road in Last 
Chance Cyn . 



Reported in sec. 
15, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

N*5SW*s sec. 16, 
T29S, R39E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , 3/4 
mile northwest of 
Garlock 

Approx. T25S, 
R29E, MDM in 
Chileno (Grizzly? 
Gulch, south of 
White River (1894) 
not confirmed 



Reported 2 mi 
southwest of 
Bright Star m 



Vicinity Randsburg 



Reported in sec . 
27, T27S, R33E, 
MDM, (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

Reported in sec. 

9, T29S, R34E, 
MDM, Piute Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

Reported in sec. 
32, TUN, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist. 

3 miles south of 
Mojave (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 

Reported in sec. 

10, T9N, R13W, 
SBM, Mojave dist. 
west tip of 
Tropico Hill 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

Reported in sec. 

4 (?) , T28S, R31E 
MDM (1929) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 



NW^SW^ sec. 2, 
T29S, R39E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , 14*s 
miles northeast 
of Cantil, on 
east side of 
Iron Cyn. 



Undetermined, 1958 
Earl Holloway, 
Olancha (1952) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Estate of Jo. 
Monaghan (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958 
formerly Herman 
Gowin ( deceased) 



Undetermine 
J. Jacombs, 
White River 



Wm. A. Atkinson, 
Randsburg (1918) 



Undetermined, 1958 
C. F. Bennett, 
Kernville (1904) 



Undetermined , 1958 
C. C. Calkins, 
K. A. Calkins, 
Mojave (1904) 



Undetermined, 19^ 
Mr. Walters, San 
Francisco (1904) 



Undetermined, 19 
Charles Ball, 
Alhambra (1929) 



William A. Hubber , 
4223 Eagle Rock 
Blvd. , Los Angeles 
Ray Bennett, Sun 
Valley, and 
Thomas J. Hubber, 
Lancaster (1958) 



Moderately- to well-cemented coarse 
stream and fanglomerate gravels 
several feet above the floor of 
Last Chance Cyn. Gravels are 
isolated remnants a few tens of fee 
thick, several tens of feet wide, 
and several hundred feet long on 
both sides of the cyn. Workings 
are mostly along lower few feet of 
the gravels. Bedrock is quartz 
diorite. Lower member of Goler 
formation is source of most of the 
cobbles and boulders in the gravels. 



Quarts vei 



in granitic rock. 



Faintly copper-stained bedding 
plane shear in quartzite ; strikes 
N. 25° W. , dips 60° NE . 



One-foot vein strikes NE . , dips 
20° SE.; in granitic rock. 



Quartz vein 



4 to 7-foot-wide veins strike 
dip NE . ; in porphyry. 



One to four foot- 
NW. , dips SW. ; in 



Placer gold mostly in gullies 
slope from Quaternary terrace 
gravels. Bedrock is Permian m 
sedimentary rocks and Paleocen 
sandstone. 



Developed by benches cut along the 
canyon side of the gravel beds. Benches 
have been cut to a depth of about 10 
feet and many small pockets were exca 
vated in basal part of the gravels. 
Probably some production. Long idle. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:60) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. Developed by 60- 
foot inclined shaft, 100 feet of drifts 
and a 108-foot tunnel. (Aubury 04:llt) 



An old prospect developed by an adit 
driven several tens of feet N. 25° W. 
Long idler no production. (Dibblee, 
Gay 52:59t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. Formerly described in 
Tulare County. (Crawford 94:296) 



Former claim of Goler Cyn. Placer de- 
posit; now included in Putnam group. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:306-307). 

Probably an older name for the Hilltop 
mine, which see. (Tucker, Sampson 
33: 273t, 304-305; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:259t). 

Probably part of the Bellflower mine, 
which see. (Aubury 04:llt). 

In 1904, had 80-foot shaft and 80-feet 
of drifts. Listed also as tungsten 
mine. Last reported in 1918. (Aubury 
04:llt; Boalich, Castello 18:12t). 

Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:llt, 17t) 



Uncorrelated old name. May be mis- 
stated location of part of Rand group 
near Havilah. (Aubury 04:llt). 



Uncorrelated old name. May have been 
claim in Four Star group. (Aubury 04: 
lit) . 



Uncorrelated old 
part of Tropico m 



Probably now 
(Aubury 04:llt) 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. Over 200 ounces of gold 
recovered 1897-1900. (Tucker 29:35; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:274t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:259t). 

See Gold Crown group. (Brown 16:494) 

Formerly Livingston claim. Some gold 
nuggets obtained from gravels in 
gullies. See also Chamberlain group. 



154 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GOLD, com 



Maf. 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address J 


Geo fogy 


Remarks and references 


195 


Gold Pass mine 


SE^ sec. 22, NW% 
sec. 26, T27S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 4 
miles south- south- 
east of Ridge- 
crest 


Undetermined, 1958 
F. Reynolds, Rands- 
burg (1933) 


Silicified, iron-stained, crushed 
rock in fault zone that strikes N. 
50° E . , dips 80° SE. to vertical; 
in quartz monzonite and rhyolite. 
A quartz vein about 1 foot thick 
in quartz monzonite, about 2,000 
feet to northwest from fault, 
strikes N. 40° E. , Vertical. Quartz 
vein exposed on surface for several 
tens of feet and crosses rhyolite 
dikes. Fault zone extends about 
1 , 000 feet southwest along surface 
from shaft. 


Five claims in 1933; number not deter- 
mined in 1957. Developed by a 120-foot 
shaft and a 70-foot drift adit driven 
southwest aloncj the fault zone from 
shaft collar. On 60-foot level an 85- 
foot drift was driven southwest and a 
stope 20 feet long, 2h feet wide, and 
20 feet high was developed. Quartz 
vein developed by 8- to 20 foot-wide 
trench about 100 feet long. A crosscut 
adit has been driven N. 50° W. about 
80 feet below the trench to intersect 
the quartz vein. Probably minor pro- 
duction . Long idle . (Tucker , Sampson 
33:273t, 305; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49: 259t) . 


1 96 


Gold Peak mine 

Gold Peak mine 

Gold Peak and 
Cowboy mines 


NE^» sec. 6, T29S, 
R36E, MDM, 27 
miles north of 
Mojave, on east 
side near crest 
of Gold Peak, in 
southern Sierra 
Nevada 

Loraine dist. 


Undetermined , 1957 ; 
Gold Peak Mines, 
Ltd., G. A. Karpe, 
612 Heilman Bldg . , 
Los Angeles (1933) 


Nor thwes t s tr iking, 15° — 20° we s t— 
dipping vein in granitic rock . 
Vein is from 6 inches to 4 feet 
wide and contains free gold and 
aur i f erous pyr ite . 


Developed by several adits, the longest 
of which is 120 feet. Principal work 
was done in 1930's; idle since then. 
Production undetermined. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:305-306; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:259t) . 

See under silver. 

See in text under silver. 


197 


Gold Standard 
prospect 


NW^NW^ sec. 19, 
T28S, R34E, 
MDM, Piute Mts. , 
on east side of 
south fork of 
Erskine Cr . , 1 
mile southeast of 
Bright Star mine 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
J. E . Moreland, 
Bodfish, and es- 
tate of Mrs. J. H. 
Potter (1949) 


Two quartz veins about 100 feet 
apart in phyllite; strike N. 70° E. 
dip 50° SE. Phyllite strikes N. , 
vertical. Quartz veins average 
about 1 foot in width and contain 
free gold and chalcopyrite . 


Three claims. Several tens of ounces of 
gold and few hundred pounds of copper 
mined between 1931 and 1940. Developed 
by drift adit driven N. 70° E. At 100 
feet from portal is 30-foot winze and 
stope to surface. Drift adit extends 
several tens of feet farther northeast 
from the winze but is locally caved. 
The other vein, north of the main adit, 
is developed by a 30-foot drift. Idle 
since 1940. (Eric 48:255t; Tucker, 
Sampson 40:327; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:220, 259t) . 




Gold Standard 


Reported in sec . 
32, TUN, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist., 
3 miles south of 
Mojave (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
C. C. Calkins and 
K. A. Calkins, 
Mojave (1904) 


Four 1 to 5-foot-wide veins strike 
NW. , dip NE.; in porphyry. 


Uncorrelated old name. May have been 
claim in Four Star group. (Aubury 04: 
lit; Tucker 33: 273t) . 




Gold State mine 








See Amy mine. (Brown 16:496; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:272t, 287) . 




Gold Zone claim 








Former claim of Goler Cyn. Placer 
deposit ; now included In Putnam group. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:306-307). 


198 


Goler Canyon 
placers 


Sees. 1, 2, 3, 
10, and 11, T29S, 
R39E, southeast 
slope of El Paso 
Mts. , 14 miles 
northeast of 
Cantil 


Formerly Goler 
Canyon Mining Co. , 
Inc. , Los Angeles 
(1933) 


Gold-bearing gravels in streams and 
in terrace deposits along southeast 
flanks of El Paso Mts. and in Goler 
Cyn., Reed Gulch, and Benson Gulch. 
Gravels range in thickness from a 
few feet to few tens of feet , are 
as much as a quarter of a mile wide 
and 1 mile long. Principal gold 
deposits are in lowest beds of 
gravels and in crevices in bedrocks. 
Also occurs locally above well- 
cemented layers of gravel. An 
estimated 10,000,000 to 15,000,000 
cubic yards of gravel contained an 
average of 68 C wor th of gold per 
cubic yard (Tucker and Sampson, 
1933, p. 306). Nuggets valued at 
as much as S400 were obtained from 
test holes made in the gravel in 


Formerly consisted of 20 placer claims 
comprising 1,500 acres. Claims are 
included in several other groups of 
claims; principally the Chamberlain, 
Janney, and Jewell groups, which see. 
A pilot washing and sluicing plant was 
constructed in the 1930 's about 1 mile 
northwest of the mouth of Goler Cyn. 
Gravels obtained from open pits devel- 
oped in several of the terrace deposits 
were tested in the pilot plant. 
Scarcity of water at local sources was 
critical problem. Gravels have been 
source of gold recovered intermittently 
since 1893 mostly by dry washing 
methods. Production undetermined. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 279, 281, 
306-307 ; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 
49:223, 259t) . 




Goler Cons. 
Placer and Hy- 
draulic Mining 
Co. properties 


Reported in Goler 
dist. , El Paso 
Mts. (1896), not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Goler Cons . Placer 
and Hydraulic 
Mining Co. , Los 
Angeles (1896) 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


A short-lived consolidation of placer 
claims which were to be mined by 
hydraulicing with water from a proposed 
canal in Owens Valley. Project abandon- 
ed in 1896; no production. (Crawford 
94:144, 96:190). 




Good Hope (and 
Kenyon) mine 








See Consolidated mines in text. 
(Aubury 04:llt; Brown 16:496; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:273t; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:259t). 




Good Luck 


Reported in sec. 
1, T30S, R40E, 
MDM, vie. Rands- 
burg (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 j 
J. R. Parker, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Quartz vein in granite. Free 
milling. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under different name. Developed 
by 105-foot vertical shaft, 30-foot 
open cut, 30 feet of drifts. (Aubury 
04:llt) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



155 



GOLD, cont. 



Mop 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
ame, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Good Luck mins 


Reported in sec. 


...... 

J. B. Williams, 


Quartz vein in granite. 


eve ope y oo a i an ^ 






16, T27S, R29E , 


Granite Station 




o ri s. eporte to have y ie -j- e 






MDM , 2 miles sou t r 


(1956) 




ore f r om a 40- f oot— 1 ong s tope . Ore i 






of Granite Statior 






milled in arrastre. (Brown ^'^^.i 






between Adobe Cyn . 






Tucker 29:35; Tucker , Sampson 33:274t; 






and Monotti Cr . 






Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:259t). 






(1914) ; not con- 












firmed, 1956 










race group 








Old N t f W 

name. ° w P ar ° - G ^^, 9 rou P- 












(Br own 1 b : 4 9 / ; Tu cker Jj:2/4t) . 




Grand Prize 


R ported in sec 


Undetermined , 1958; 


Two 3 foot wide veins strike NE 


Uncorrelated old name May be listed 






32, TUN, R12W, 


B. Van Briessen, 


dip 65° SE. ; in porphyry and granite 


herein under another name . ( Aubury 






SBM, Mojave dist. , 


Mojave (1904) 




04:llt) . 


















Mojave (1904) ; 












not confirmed , 












1958 










rani e ing 


NE 's NW^j sec 33 


U d t 


° or , Y expose , ver ica , nor 


d 60 f t h f t ' th 60 f 
cave oo s a wi ee o 




prospec 


T29S R 3 6E MDM 


Charles Burch, 












Mojave (1949) 


Contains free ^ld 1 " ^ ^ ran ° lori e 
on ains ree go 


idle ^roduction^ndetermined" mili g 






of Kelso Valley - 






facilities in Butterbread Cyn. (1934) . 






Hoffman Cyn. Roaa 






(Aubury 04:llt; Tucker, Sampson 33:274t, 






with Butterbread 






307; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:259t) 






Cyn Road. 










Granite Queen 


Sec. 28, T29S, 






See Granite King prospect. (Aubury 




prospect 


R36E, MDM 






04:llt) . 


200 


Grannis Land Co. 


Sec . 36, T29S , 


John W. Luter , 


Veins in granite . 


Several cl a im 1 oca ti ons whi ch were 




( includes Golden 


R40E , MDM , 


Randsburg (1918) 




declared invalid when mineral rights to 




Rule, Jolly 


J ohannesburg 


Mostly subdivided 




section were established by court decree 




Gir 1 , Juani ta W , 




for home sites 




to belong to purchaser of the section. 




Terre Marie 




(1957) ; Several 




See under claim names. 




claims) property 




owners 








Grant shaft 








A caved 125- foot shaft on a northeast- 












trending quartz vein south of the 












J ene t te— Gr an t campsite. See Jenette— 












Grant mine. 


201 


Granton (Alfred) 




Arthur P. Gariand, 


Several poorly-exposed , irregular 


Formerly Ready Cash. Principal mining 




mine 


T30S, R40E , MDM, 


Edward Pasich, 


to straight shear zones which trend 


activity in 19JU s at which time a mill 






Rand dist. , 2^3 


Ralph McMall , 


N. 60° W. , dip 45° NE. ; in schist. 


was operated on the property. Previous 






miles southwest 


Che t Wood , ad- 


Range in width from few inches to 


names undetermined. Developed by 






of Randsburg , on 




about 2 feet and in length from 


several inclined shafts and drift adits 






northwest side of 


mined (1957) 


few to several tens of feet. 


near crest of small hill. Probably 






Rand Mts . 






small output. Long idle. 






SW^j sec. 25, T26S, 


B R ' d 


Narrow NE.— striking vein in quartz 


No recorded production. Idle. 




prospect 


R32E, MDM, Keyes 


Bodfish' (1957) 


diorite . 








dist. , 3 miles 












north of Bod fish 










Gray Eagle 








Claim of Golden Queen mine. (Aubury 




claim 








04:llt; Brown 16: 497; Julihn, Horton 












37:(fig. 5); Tucker 23:158-159; 29:31-32; 












Tucker, Sampson 33:274t, 279-280, 283; 












34:315; 35:465, 468, 472—474; 40:33, 34; 












Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:259t). 




Gray Eagle Ex- 








... 

Claim of Golden Queen mine. (Tucker 




tension claim 








23 : 158-159 ; 29 : 31 , 32 ; Tucker , Sampson 












33:282; 35: pi. 7) . 


203 


Great Unknown 


Approx. sec. 30 , 


Formerly Mrs. J. S, 


Traces of gold m quartz vein 2 to 


, dbfe 




group 


T29S , R37E , MDM, 


Bishop , (deceased) 


6 fee t wide , al ong 100 — foot— wide 


1929 by an 80— foot shaft with east and 




8 miles north of 




iron— stained quartz-rich porphyri- 


west crosscuts at bottom. (Tucker 






Cinco 




tic dike which strikes N. 10° W. in 


29:35; Tucker, Sampson 33:274t; Tucker, 










granite. 


Sampson, Oakeshott 49:260t) . 




Green 


Reported 4 miles 


Undetermined , 1957 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Uncorrelate o name, may e is e 






south of Isabella 






■!} er fr^ ^nder , 1 c . e 5" e " na ?aAc SVe ° Pe 






(old site) (1896); 






by 150- foot shaft be tor e 189b . 






not confirmed. 






(Crawford 96:190) . 






1957 








204 


Greenhorn Caves 


Sees. 12, 13, 24, 


Undetermined , 1958; 


Gold— bearing quartz gravel deposit- 


Developed by a crosscut adit driven 






T27S, R31E, and 


H. P. Bradshaw 


ed in open- crevice channel along 


188 feet west to fault and a connecting 






sec. 19, T27S, 


(Bardshaw?) 


fault zone, which can be traced 


drift 72 feet northwest. A 100-foot 






R32E, MDM, about 


Estate, Los 


several miles. Strikes east and 


shaft was sunk from a point 450 feet 






6 miles west of 


Angeles (1949) 


is as much as 500 feet wide. Gold 


above these workings to a depth of 100 






Bodfish along 


has been found on benches in fault 


feet and drifts were driven 100 feet 






Greenhorn Cr . on 




zone. 


s ou the a s t and 75 feet n or thwe s t . Uncon- 






a ridge north of 






firmed reports indicate a production of 






the Kern R. 






$60,000 in gold and silver, but is 












probably much less. Recorded production 












accounts for less than 20 ounces of 












gold and 5 ounces of silver. Last 












known activity was in 1940. (Tucker, 












Sampson 33:307; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:223, 260t) . 



156 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



COLD, corn 



Map 




Location 


Owner 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


No 


mine, or group 


( Name, address ) 






Grizzly mine 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1957; 


Four inch to 4- foot-wide vein 


Uncorrelated old name . Probably 




13, T25S, R29E, 


Blue Mt. Mining Co. 


strikes NW. , dips 45° SW. 


abandoned. Developed by 150-foot shaft 






MDM (1896) ; not 


(1915) , address un- 




and about 1,000 feet of horizontal 






confirmed, 1957 


determined 




workings. Production of over 100 tons 












of ore averaging 7/10 ounce of gold and 












30 ounces of silver. (Aubury 04:llt; 












Crawford 94:144; 96:190). 




Grizzly Gulch 


Reported in sec . 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 




Development undetermined. Less than 50 




prospect 


10, T25S, R29E, 


A. H. Leach, 




tons produced 1932-1934 averaging 3/4 




MDM (1934) ; not 


Box 5, Ventura 




ounce per ton. 






confirmed, 1957 


(1936) 








Grubstake Hill 








See McKendry group. (Dibblee, Gay 52: 




claim 








60t; Tucker 29:35-36; Tucker, Sampson 












33 : 274 t ; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 












49: 260t) . 




Gulch Extension 








Claim in Standard group. (Tucker 23: 




claim 








160) . 


205 


Gum Tree mine 


Eh sec. 32, TUN, 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 


Four to 6-foot-wide vein strikes N. 


Developed by two 200-foot shafts with 






Rl 2W , SBM , Mo j ave 


Goodwin J. Knight 


30° W. , dips 60° NE . 


over 1,000 feet of horizontal workings 






dist. , 3 miles 


344 Las Palmas, 




on 100- and 200-foot levels. Recorded 






south of Mojave 


Los Angeles (1949) 




production is over 200 tons which 






on eastern flank 






averaged 0.2 oz . of gold and 1.7 oz. of 






of Standard Hill 






silver. (Tucker, Sampson 40:31, 32; 












Tucker, Sampson, and Oakeshott 49:260t). 


206 


Gunderson group 


Approx. center N*5 


George Hall , R. S. 


Gold-bearing brecciated schist in 


Five claims. Mine workings consist of 




{King George, 


Nmj sec. 10, T30S, 


Roher, 1027 E. 7th 


fault zone that strikes N. 25° E. , 


2 main inclined shafts on southwest 




Minnesota) 


R40E , MDM, Rand 


St. , Long Beach 


and dips 50-70° NW. Host rock is 


part of vein and other shafts farther 






dist. , 2 miles 


(1956) 


Rand schist which strikes N. 20° W. 


northeast. Also a 44-foot west-driven 






southwest of 




and dips about 30° SW. Vein matter 


drift adit, with winze at west end of 






Randsburg, at 




is brecciated, iron-stained, and 


drift, lies between the two main shafts. 






west end of small 




silicified schist from a few inches 


Winze connects with dr i f ts of undeter- 






valley south of 




to one foot or more thick. Fault 


mined extent between shafts. Depths of 






Government Pk . 




zone is poorly exposed at surface 


shafts undetermined but 3 shafts were at 










but can be traced at least 200 feet. 


least 100 feet deep in 1916. Some 










At 100 feet east of the westernmost 


stopes at surface in east part of vein. 










exposure the east half of the fault 


Probable total output of few hundred 










zone is offset a few feet to the 


ounces of gold mined mostly 1919-1920 










southeast along a crossfault which 


and 1946-1948. Other intermittent 










strikes N. 35° W. and dips 55° NE . 


mining between 1905 and 1940. Idle 










The gold occurs free in the hang- 


since 1948. (Brown 16:503-504). 










ing wall side of the vein. Most of 












the gold is in small high-grade 












streaks . Bulk of ore mined 












contained 1 to 1.75 oz. gold per 












ton. Remainder averaged 0.3 to 0.5 












oz. per ton. 




207 


Gwynne (Dead 


Eh sec. 21 and W*s 


J. C. Geringer 


Gold- and tungsten-bearing quartz 


See text. (Aubury 04:9t, 12t, 15t, 17t; 




Tree, Jennette, 


sec. 22, T29S, 


estate (1958) , 


veins in granitic rock. 


Brown 16:498, 499; Crawford 94:146; 




Kern Co. Consol- 


R34E, MDM, Piute 


Bank of America, 




Jenkins 42-.329t; Tucker 29:36, 37; 




idated Gold 


Mts. area, 3 mile; 


Bakersfield, 




Tucker, Sampson 33:307-309, 274t; 34: 




Mines ; includes 


south of Clara- 






315; 40:11, 32; 41:575-576; Tucker, 




Chief, Hard 


ville, at end of 






Sampson, Oakeshott 49:223-224, 257t, 




Luck, and Shasta 


dirt road 






260t, 261t, 273t) . 




claims) mine 












Gypsy claim 








Claim of Golden Queen mine. (Aubury 












04:llt; Tucker 23:158; Tucker Sampson 












33:282; 35: pi. 7) . 




Gypsy Lode 


W*s sec. 34, T29S, 


Wm . Harmon , 


Narrow quartz vein in schist. 


Undeveloped prospect. Idle. 




prospect 


R30E, MDM, 2*5 


address undeter- 










miles north of 


mined (1955) 










Bena 










Haeger (Hoegee) 








See Last Chance mine (Tucker 29:36; 




claim 








Tucker, Sampson and Oakeshott 49:260t). 




Haight 


Reported 4 miles 


Undetermined, 1958 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 






east of Havilah 






abandoned prospect. (Crawford 96:190). 






(1896) ; not con- 












firmed, 1958 










Hamilton mine 








See Tropico mine. (Aubury 04:llt, 17t; 












Brown 16:501) . 


208 


Hanover (A B C) 


NE's sec. 21, T29S, 


L. J. Glynn, 10609 


Gold-bearing quartz vein, 4 to 12 


Developed through 150-foot drift adit 




mine 


R34E, MDM, Piute 


S. San Pedro St. , 


inches wide, strikes N. 70° E . , 


driven northeast with 100-foot stope 






Mts. , 2 3/4 miles 


Los Angeles (1955) 


dips 45° SE. ; in granitic rock. 


above it, also 300-foot crosscut adit 






south of Clara- 




Reported S40 per ton in gold. 


driven south to vein, 140 feet below 






ville, west side 




drift adit, with drift 500 feet north- 






of Gwynne mine 






east and 100 feet southwest in vein. 






Rd. 






Production undetermined. Long idle. 












(Crawford 94:144; 96:190; Tucker, 












Sampson 33:274t, 309; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:224, 260t) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



GOLD, com. 



Map 
No 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Hardcash claim 


SWijNWlj sec. 1, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, 
Rand dist. in 
Fiddlers Gulch, 1 
mile southeast of 
Randsburg 


Robert G. Mitchell, 
Randsburg, and 
Charles Potter, 
1662 Sierra Way, 
San Bernardino 
(1957) 


Iron-stained shear zone in schist 
strikes N. 85° W. , dips 85° NE. in 
hanging wall of fault 2one that 
strikes N. 60° E. , dips 55° SW. , and 
can be traced approx. half a mile 
to NE. and one mile to SW. Lens of 
white to pale green clayey material 
that crops out for 30 feet north- 
east from the shaft appears to be 
altered and bleached schist in the 
hanging wall of the fault. Contains 
small proportion of tiny grains of 
sulfides and has been prospected to 
a limited extent. 


Nearly vertical shaft of undetermined 
depth (50-100 feet ?) and about 20-foot 
shaft 500 feet to east. Part of Calif- 
ornia group, which see. No recorded 
production. Idle. 




Hardcash 


Reported in sec. 
32, T29S, R40E, 
Rand dist. (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Uncle Sam Mining 
and Milling Co. , 
Los Angeles (1904) 


Quartz veins in schist . 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
(Aubury 04:llt) . 




Hard Luck claim 








Claim in Gwynne mine. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:307-308) . 


209 


Hard Tack 
prospect 

Hard Tack mine 


SW^ sec. 24, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , Ik miles 
northwest of 
Johannesburg 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Hard Tack Mining 
Co. (1925) 


Rand schist; no mineralization 
apparent at surface. 


Vertical shaft 135 feet deep in schist; 
350 feet of horizontal workings at 
depth of 105 feet. A prospect. No 
production. Long idle. (Hulin 25:135). 

See Blue Mountain mine. (Brown 16:492; 
Crawford 96:188, 190). 




Hard Times 
prospect 


Approx. T25S, 
R29E, MDM, (1894) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
J. Jacombs, White 
River (1894) 


Three to six-inch-wide vein 
striking generally east, dipping 
30° S. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. Formerly described in Tulare 
County. Developed by 70-foot adit and 
open cut. (Crawford 94:296; 96:470). 




Harley mine 


Repor ted nor theas t 
of Kernville 
(1888) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Uncorrelated old name. Property 
developed by 900-foot tunnel near crest 
of a peak; vein worked to depth of 150 
feet below level of tunnel. Twenty- 
stamp mill built in 1877. Idle in 1888 
when last reported (Goodyear 88:314). 




Harold G. 








Uncorrelated old name; may be part of 
Commonwealth mine (Aubury 04:llt). 




Haroldson and 
Sullivan pros- 
pect 


Reported to be 16 
miles northeast of 
Mojave (vicinity 
of Cinco?) (1894) ; 
not confirmed , 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 

Haroldson , 
Tehachapi (1894) 


Low grade gold ore in granitic 
rock which was reported to be in a 
belt about 1,000 feet wide and 
several thousand feet long. 


A long abandoned prospect. No pro- 
duction. (Crawford 94:144). 


210 


Hart mine 
Hatchet mine 


Sec. 13, T30S, 
R32E, MDM, 7 miles 
east of Caliente, 
h mile north of 
Caliente Cr . , on 
west side of 
Goldpan Cyn. 


Kate Hart, Charles 
Ganns estate, and 
others , addresses 
undetermined (1958) 


Quartz vein from 1 foot to a few 
feet wide strikes N. 80° W. in 
quartz diorite. Vein is vertical 
in lowermost workings of mine and 
dips steeply north or south in 
upper workings. Walls of vein 
contain brown iron- stained clayey 
gouge. In uppermost workings vein 
feathers out upwards into three 
stringers each about half an inch 
wide. Elsewhere the vein appears 
to occupy a zone of closely 
spaced fractures . 


Developed by a west-driven water-logged 
lower drift adit 50 feet above floor of 
Goldpan Cyn. Length undetermined but 
at least 160 feet long. Three or four 
other west-driven drift adits, all 
caved at or near the portals, at approx- 
imately 50-foot vertical intervals 
above the lowermost adit. Caved stopes 
formerly connected some of these adits. 
Few hundred ounces of gold produced in 
1932-41 from ore which contained less 
than half an ounce of gold per ton. 
Idle since 1942. 

See Lucky Boy mine (Aubury 04:llt) . 




Hattie and Isa- 
bella prospect 


Near Long Tom 
mine, 25 miles 
northeast of 
Bakersfield (18961 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 
L. S. Johnston, 
Visalia (1896) 


Not described. 


Probably long-abandoned prospect. 
(Crawford 96:190) . 


211 


Haunita (Crown 
Consolidated?) 
prospect 


mh sec. 26, T27S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 4^ 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


Phillip 0. Liebel, 
Beowawe, Nevada, 
and Mrs. Fred 
Risley, address 
undetermined (1957) 


Quartz vein, 6 inches to 3 feet 
wide in fault zone, 2 to 4 feet 
wide, which strikes N. 75° E., dips 
30° NW. ; in granodiorite . Locally 
heavily stained with iron-oxides 
and in places near footwall with 
green copper oxides. Vein crops 
out for about a quarter of a mile 
northeast from mine workings. 


Developed by drift to southwest at 
point where vein crosses stream channel 
and by 3 successively higher short 
drifts to southwest. Probably minor 
production of gold. Long idle. 


212 


Havilah 
prospect 


SEh sec. 3, T28S, 
R32E, MDM, Havi- 
lah dist. ; few 
hundred yards 
west of Havilah 
on west side of 
Clear Cr. 


Henry G. Miller, 
address undeter- 
mined (1957) 


Shear zones about 3 feet wide which 
strike N. 15° E. and dip 70° - 80° 
SE. ; in fine-grained granitic rocks. 
Moderately iron stained quartz in 
clayey gouge in shear zones. 


Probably very old workings that have 
been cleaned up in recent years . 
Principal open working is 1 55- foot 
drift adit S. 15° E. with two crosscuts, 
about 30 feet long, to the northwest 
and another drift to the southwest at 
end of one of the crosscuts. Also 
caved adits and shafts nearby. Probably 
no production. 



158 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map Name of claim, 
ft/o , mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, oddress} 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Havilah prospect 
Hawkeye mine 



Hector clai 



Helen Galvin 



Hemp Williams 



See So 



ither 



Crc 



group. 



Henrietta 



Henry For 
prospect 



Hidden Treasu 



High Grade 
(Pennsylvania, 
Early Sunrise, 
Sunrise, Ana 
Isabell) mine 



Hillside 
prospect 



Hilltop pros- 
pect 



Hob son claim 

Hoegee claim 

Holly Rand mi 

Home stake 
prospect 



SE^s sec. 1, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, 
Stringer dist. , 2 
miles southeast 
of Randsburg, at 
east end of Gold 
Coin claim 



Reported in sec. 
5, T28S, R31E, 
MDM, just above 
Democrat Springs 
(1933) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Repor ted in 
Loraine dist. , 
vicinity of 
Loraine (1894) 



SE^ sec. 26, T29S 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. area, 4 2/3 
mi. south of 
Claraville, on 
east side of 
Geringer Grade Rd 

NE . cor. sec. 2, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, 
in Fiddlers Gulch 
h mile southeast 
of Randsburg 
postof f ice 



Gordon Gulch, 
locality undeter- 
mined 

SWh sec. 35, 
T26S, R32E, MDM, 
Keyes dist. , H 
mile south of old 
Keysville town- 
site and *s mile 
northwest of the 
Mammoth mill 

NE^s sec. 4, T28S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 6 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 

SEkSW% sec. 30, 
T28S, R34E, MDM, 
12 miles south- 
west of Bodfish 
on nor th- trending 



ridge 
Mts. 



SE*s sec. 26, 
T26S, R32E, MDM, 
Keyes dist. , 3 



Eleanor Van Zant 
(1958) , 

c/o H. B. Quick, 
32 Orange Ave . , 
Pasadena 33 (1933) 



ed 



Undetermine 
Wm. Nestell 
and Helene Burns 
4628 Foreman Aye 
No. Hollywood 
(1933) 



Undetermined, 1958 



Rudy G. Shellen- 
berger, 6114 Glen 
Oak, North Holly- 
wood (1954) 



Charles Allen, U. 
Navy, and J. D. 
Shea estate, Okla 
homa City, Okla- 
homa (1957) 



Undetermined, 1958 
C. Biggs, White 
River (1894) 

W. H. Whitnall, 
6315A Benson St. , 
Huntington Park, 
E. Schoneman, 
(address undeter- 
mined) (1957) 



Undetermined, 1957 



Lloyd E. McManus 
address undeter- 
mined (1958) 



Elvira Long, 
Bodfish (1957) 



Gold-bearing vein is silicified 
multiple shear zone in iron-stained 
schist. Vein strikes N. 30° W. , 
dips 55° NE. ; is 6 inches to 4 feet 
thick. Has well-defined footwall; 
hanging wall less well-defined. 
Vein exposed for several tens of 
feet. 



Recent auriferous river gravels i 
regularly distributed on benches 
and in adjacent canyons. 



One foot to 18 inch-wide quartz 
vein strikes E . ,- in granitic rock. 
Gouge on hanging wall and footwall. 



Iron-stained gold-bearing vein 
quartz occurs as discontinuous 
stringers in deeply weathered 
granitic rock. Quartz-bearing zone 
exposed for about 100 yards, trends 
N. 25° W. 



Siliceous veins along faults in 
quartz monzonite. Several gold- 
bearing, iron-stained seams in 4- 
foot-wide zones of fractured quart; 
monzonite. Principal vein strikes 
N. 15° W., dips 55° NE. , and is 
exposed along surface for several 
hundred feet. Terminated (?) at 
north end by similar vein which 
strikes N. 75° W., dips vertically, 



Placer deposit . 



Two parallel quartz veins which 
strike about N. 40° E., and dip 
70° SE. ; in biotite quartz diorite, 



Six-inch-wide, iron-stained quartz 

\ro in in miai-f7 mi-in -7 i~\w i fe • efriVac 



quartz 
W. , dips 40° 



ite; strikes 
NE. 



Quartz vein of undetermin 
in schistose and phylitti 
sedimentary rocks. 



One-foot vein strikes N. 40° E. , 
dips 70° SE. ; in quartz diorite. 
Vein material consists principally 
of gouge with free gold, very 
little quartz. Fault zone is 2*s 
feet wide. 



Probably same as Ben Hur extension (see 
Hulin 1925, p. 129). Developed by 
inclined shaft of undetermined depth am 
by drift adits and near-surface stopes 
along the vein for 75 feet. Production 
undetermined. Alluvium mined in places 
for scheelite. Idle. (Crawford 96:191; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:274t). 

Patented mining claim of King Solomon 
mine at Johannesburg, which see. 
(Aubury 04:llt; Crawford 96:191). 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably aband- 
oned. (Tucker, Sampson 33:309; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:260t). 



mine (Crawford 94:144). 



Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under another name. Originally 
developed by three 30-foot shafts and 
two 100-foot adits. (Crawford 94:144; 
96:191) . 

Exposed in 4 prospect pits, 3 to 6 feet 
deep, largely caved. No known pro- 
duction, idle. 



Principal vein mined through two shaft; 
about 300 feet apart which are connected 
with several hundred feet of drifts and 
stopes on the 300-foot level of the 
northeast-dipping vein. Only shallow 
stopes on vertical vein. Mined mostly 
in 1930's by lessees; ore contained 
about 2/3 oz. gold per ton. During 
1957, a shallow shaft was being develop 
ed on the vertical vein by a Mr . Hogan . 

Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Crawford 94:45). 



See text. (Aubury 04:14t; Tucker 29:45 
Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 322, 323; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:265t). 



Two inclined shafts probably more than 
50 feet deep and about 100 feet apart. 
A prospect, idle. 



Claim located in 1939. Developed by 2 
shafts about 50 feet apart. South 
shaft is highest in elevation, about 
30 feet deep, and partly caved. North 
shaft has largest dump and is complete- 
ly caved to surface. An adit driven 
S. 40" W. is caved 60 feet from portal 
in vicinity of north shaft. Idle; no 
recorded production. 

Patented claim of Long Tom mine. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:316). 

Patented claim of Standard group. 
(Aubury 04:llt; Tucker, Sampson 23 :160 

See Haeger claim. 

See under tungsten . 

Development consists of 75 to 85-foot 
crosscut adit connected to a 100-foot 
drift and a small stope; a second adit 
(caved) connected to a shaft (caved) . 
Yielded more than 150 ounces of gold 
since 1894 from undetermined tonnage 
of ore. Idle. 



962] 



Kern— Gold 



159 



COLD. com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Honker 


Reported in vici- 
nity of Bodfish; 
not confirmed 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Sweet Bros., Bakers 
field (1904) 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. (Aubury 04:18t) . 


220 


Hoodoo prospect 

Hope claim 
Hornspoon claim 


NW*s sec. 34, T27S, 
R40E, HDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 5h 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


P. M. Siddens (1957 
address undeter- 
mined 


Quartz vein in fault zone in quartz 
monzonite. Vein strikes N. 25° W. , 
dips 65° NE. , contains 8-to 10- 
inch width of heavily iron-stained 
quartz with minor amount of copper 
oxides . 


Developed by 2 shafts about 70 feet 
apart. Southeast shaft is 50 feet deep, 
northwest shaft is 80 to 90 feet deep. 
Idle; probably no production. 

Claim of Elephant group. (Aubury 04:llt 
Tucker 23:159; Tucker, Sampson 33:282, 
283, 300; 35:468, pi. 7) . 

Patented claim of Standard group. 
(Aubury 04:llt) . 


221 


Horoscope claim 


SVfh sec. 28, T27S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 5 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Barney Sharp (1941) 
address undeter- 
mined 


Quartz vein 2 to 6 inches wide in 
quartz monzonite. Strikes N. 65° 
W. , dips 80° NE., contains iron 
oxides as stains and incrustations. 


Developed by 100-foot or deeper shaft. 
May be part of Lost Keys group, which 
see . 


222 


Hub prospect 


Center N*5 sec. 4, 
T31S, R35E, MDM, 
on ridge on north 
side of Jawbone 
Cyn. , 16 miles 
north of Mojave 


E. W. Little (1955) 
address undeter- 
mined 


Poorly-exposed quartz vein about 

2 feet wide strikes N. 10° E. , dips 

50° E. ; in rhyolite. 


Shallow shaft and trenches. Five tons 
mined in 1939 yielded about 1 oz. per 
ton in gold from a prospect pit; idle 
since. (Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49: 225, 260t) . 




Hubbard 


Reported 4^ miles 
northeast of Piute 
on west side of 
Emerald claim 
(1894) : not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
J. B. Ferris, 
Caliente (1896) 


Quartz vein in granite strikes N. 
64° and dips 30° SE. 


Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under different name. Developed 
in 1894 by 150-foot tunnel. Idle in 
1896. (Crawford 94:145; 96:191). 




Hugh Mann 
prospect 








See Mace prospect (Crawford 94:145). 




Huntington mine 








See Bellflower mine. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:274t, 309-310; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:260t). 


223 


Iconoclast mine 


SE^SE% sec. 25, 
T27S, R33E, MDM, 
7 miles southeast 
of Bodfish, west 
side of Erskine 
Cr . , near end of 
Erskine Cr. Rd. 


Mrs. Lillian Miles, 
2101 E. Mountain, 
Pasadena (1954) 


Thin bands and lentils of fractured 
quartz in vein zone 2 to 4 feet 
wide as exposed in 1954 (12-foot 
width reported in 1893). Zone 
strikes N. 50° E. , dips nearly 
vertical in partly talcose serici- 
tic schist and metavolcanic rocks 
of Carboniferous (?) age. Schist- 
osity strikes N. 50° W. , dips 60° 
SW. Secondary iron oxides and 
alteration to clayey materials 
obscures original mineralogy. 
Values of ores variously reported 
in previous reports as ranging from 
few dollars to $250 per ton, 
largely in silver. 


Forty acres patented. Discovered in 
1890' s but little production before 1916, 
and intermittent production through 1947. 
Total production undetermined . Workings 
include 2 drift adits driven S. 45° W. 
about 60 feet apart vertically. Lower 
adi t , partly caved and flooded near 
portal in 1954, was 525 feet long in 
1940 with 50-foot winzes 150 and 400 fee 
from the por tal . Upper adit, inacces- 
sible in 1954 because of caving, was 
240 feet long in 1940. Some open stopes 
extend between levels and in places to 
surface. About 400 tons of ore reported 
in 1940 to have yielded $15 per ton, 
mostly in silver, mined from ore shoot 
50 feet long about 250 feet from portal 
of lower adit. (Brown 16:497; Crawford 
94:145, 147; 96:198, 605; Tucker 29:36; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:274t; 40b:327; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:261t; 
Watts 93:237) . 




Ida 


Reported approx. 
in T27S, R31E, 
MDM, (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
F. F. Boettler, 
Woody (1896) 


Twenty-inch vein strikes NE. and 
dips 45° SE. ; in granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably aband- 
oned. Developed by a 40- foot and a 
75-foot shaft. (Crawford 96:191, 199). 


224 


Illinois and 
Golden Bell mine 

Independence 
claim 


Approx. center 
sec. 16, T27S, 
R33E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. , 3 miles 
east-southeast of 
Bodfish, on ridge 
between Erskine 
and Bodfish 
Creeks 


Undetermined, 1958; 
last operated by 
H. V. Porter, 
Havilah, about 1927 


Quartz vein along west side of 
north- trending pendant of meta- 
morphic rocks. A pocket of gold 
ore was mined from a vein 12 inches 
wide. 


An old property. Reported to have yield- 
ed gold valued at $12,000 before 1916 
(Brown, 1916, p. 497) and probably some 
ore mined in 1927. Principal working is 
300-foot adit. Idle since 1927. (Brown 
16:497; Tucker 29:36; Tucker, Sampson 
33:274t; 40b:328; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:261t). 

Old claim name of Glen Olive mine. 
(Aubury 04:llt) . 


225 


Independence 
prospect 

Independent 
claim 


SE^SW^s sec. 31, 
T26S, R32E, MDM, 
Greenhorn dist. , 
2 miles east of 
Davis Guard Sta. 


W. J. Parmley (1957) 
mined 


Narrow gouge-filled vein strikes 
NE . in granitic rock. 


Short drift adit driven northeast. No 
stoping evident. No recorded production. 
Idle. 

Claim of Queen Esther mine (see text 
under Golden Queen mine) . (Aubury 04: 
lit; Tucker 23:162; Tucker, Sampson 
33:282; 35:pl.7). 



160 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GOLD, con. 



Map 
No 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


226 


Indian Queen 
prospect 

Indian Wells 
Valley group 

Intention 
(Intension) claim 


Reported in sec. 
15, T27S, R29E, 
MDH, approx. 2 
miles south-south- 
east of Granite 
Sta. (1949) ; not 
confirmed, 1956 


J. B. Weringer, 
Granite Station 
(1956) 


Vein with "granite" hanging wall 
and "diabase" (?) footwall. 


Developed by 80-foot adit and short 
drifts. Reported to have yielded some 
high-grade ore prior to 1914. (Brown 
16:497; Tucker 29:36; Tucker, Sampson 
33:274t; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:261t) . 

See Vera Queen group. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:274t, 310; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:261 t) . 

Claim in Wegman group. (Tucker 23:16; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:311). 


227 


Iriquois prospect 
Iron Hat group 


Center sec. 26, 
T27S, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacfher dist. , 
5 miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


Al C. Haun 
(address undeter- 
mined 1957) 


Quartz vein, one foot or less in 
width, strikes N. 50° W. , dips 
70° NE. ; in coarse-grained grano- 
diorite. Vein contains small 
stringers and lenses of oxidized 
pyrite. 


Vein exposed in 20-foot inclined shaft 
and in an open cut 100 feet to the south- 
east. A prospect, idle. 

See B. Copper and Smith mine under 
copper. (Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:225, 261t) . 


228 


Iron Peak 
(Pyramid) pros- 
pect 

Isabella 


NE^NW^a sec. 2, 
T28S, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacher dist. , 
6*5 miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


A. De Mayo, P.O. 
Box 14, Ridgecrest, 
and Marvin Harris, 
P.O. Box 597, Eloy, 
Arizona (1957) 


Multiple shear zone 2 to 10 feet 
wide in quartz monzonite, strikes 
N. , dips vertically to steeply west 
Heavily-iron-stained quartz veins 
as much as 2 feet thick exposed in 
800- foot- long shear zone. Green 
copper oxides stains in parts of 
shear zone. Gold is free and most- 
ly in fines in shear zone . 


Developed by 90-foot vertical shaft, 15- 
foot shaft, and several tens of feet of 
trenches and crosscuts. Only minor 
production of gold . Idle . 

See St. Lawrence Rand mine under silver. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:310). 




Isabella Exten- 
sion (Bevel) 


Reported in Long 
Tom gulch, 23 miles 
northeast of 
Bakersfield (1896); 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
A. P. Tucker, 
White River (1896) 


Quartz vein, 10 inches wide, dips 
45° N. between granite walls. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long- 
abandoned prospect. (Crawford 96:186, 
191) . 




Isian Pk. 


Approx. T25S, R29E, 
MDM, near Grizzly 
Gulch and I sham 
Hill (?) (1894) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
G . Dover , 

White River (1894) 


Six-inch to one-foot-wide vein. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. Formerly described in Tulare 
County. Twenty- five- foot shaft. 
(Crawford 94:297; 96:470). 




Island Mountain 
group 


Reported in sec. 
12, T31S, R33E, 
MDM, Loraine dist., 
about 4*5 miles 
southeast of 
Loraine (1904) ; 
not confirmed , 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
H. C. Jones & Co. , 
Paris, Calif. (1904) 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned. May be near Nellie's Nipple. 
(Aubury 04:12t) . 


229 


Jackpot group 
Jack Rabbit mine 


m\ sec. 34, T27S, 
R32E, MDM, Clear 
Cr. dist. , 1 mile 
northwest of 
Rankin Pk. 


Seager (address 
undetermined) (1957) 


Veins in granitic rock. 


Comprises 6 claims. Lease held by Earl 
Johnson, Bodfish (1957) . 

See Ferris mine. (Brown 16:495; Tucker 
29:35, Tucker, Sampson 33:304). 




Jackson 


Reported in sec. 
17, T28S, R38E, 
MDM, El Paso dist., 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Thomas Jackson, 
Garlock (1904) 


Quartz vein in metamorphic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Developed by 250-foot tunnel (crosscut?). 
(Aubury 04:12t) . 


230 


Janney placers 


Mostly in NW^ of 
T29S, R40E, MDM, 
along southeast 
flank of El Paso 
Mts. between 
townsite of Goler 
and U.S. Hwy. 395 


John Janney, 
Pioche, Nevada; 
S. M. Mingus, P.O. 
Box 94, Randsburg, 
superintendent 
(1958) 


Quaternary terrace deposits, fan- 
glomerate, and alluvium along north 
edge of Cantil Valley at southeast 
edge of El Paso Mts. Includes 
gravel deposit mined for aggregate 
and clay in dry-lake bed formed in 
sag pond along the Garlock fault. 
Only traces of gold in gravels at 
surface. Bedrock is probably a 
minimum of several hundred feet 
below surface of valley. 


Consists of 11 claims comprising 1,360 
acres in east group of claims and 6 
claims compr ising 840 acres in west 
group of claims. Formerly included 
11,200 acres now mostly abandoned or 
part of other claims . See also Putnam 
group under gold , Janney deposi t under 
clay, and Triangle Rock Products under 
sand and gravel. Undetermined pro- 
duction of placer gold 1934-1941, mostly 
from claims of Putnam group. Idle 
since 1940's. (Dibblee, Gay 52:60t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:225, 261t). 



1962] Kern— Gold 161 



Map Name of claim, 
A/o. mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Jeff Davis 



Jenette-Grant 
( Jeanette-Grant , 
Jennette Grant) 



Jenette 
( Jeanette) 



Jennie Lind clai 
Jerry mine 



Jerry prospect 



NE^ sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2 miles 
southwest of (new) 
Kernville, west 
side of Lake 
Isabella 



mh sec. 18, T28S, 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mts., in tributary 
to south fork of 
Erskine Cr. 9^ 
miles southeast of 
Bodfish 



Kern Development Co., 

S. Long, pres. , 
P.O. Box 157, 
Hayward. Leased to 
Kern Mines, Inc. , 
Roland Tognazzini, 
;s. , 260 Calif- 
lia St. , San 
Francisco (1955) 

Delia Bergner, 
pres. , Jenette- 
Grant Mining Co. , 
M echanicsburg , 
Pennsylvania (1958) 



Jewell group 
(Chief assistant 
Cunningham group 
Eagle Roost, 
Stardust, part o: 
Goler Cyn. placer 
group, and othe: 
claims) 



Center of S% sec. 
34, T27S, and NE^a 
sec. 3, T28S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 6 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 



Nor theasternmost 
corner of sec. 9, 
T29S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. area, 
\ mile southeast 
of Claraville, 
about \ mile west 
of Geringer Grade 
Rd. 

SE% sec. 35, T28S, 
R40E, MDM, Summit 
dist. , 4-3/4 miles 
northeast of 
Randsburg, Summit 
Range 

Mostly in sec. 2 
and west part of 
sec. 1, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. , 
on both sides of 
Goler Cyn. , 15 
miles northeast of 
Cantil 



Marvin Harris, P.O. 
Box 597, Eloy, 
Arizona (1957) 



ra M. Thomas, 
4541*2 Melbourne 
Ave., Los Angeles 
(1954) 



Edward and Maudena 
Van Sant, Elizabeth 
McGlohn, address 
undetermined (1958) 



Kathleen M. Jewell , 
Randsburg (1958) 



ns in granodiorite and 



Quartz veins in metamorphic rocks. 
Principal exploration has been for 
northwest extension of Bright Star 
vein (see under Bright Star mine) . 
Gold associated with several guartz 
veins prospected on the property, 
in old Grant shaft. Old Doble shaft 
Mayflower shaft,- and others. Veins 
also contain chalcopyrite and 
pyrite. Stibnite contained in 
quartz veins along contact between 
limestone and schist several tens 
of yards north of main campsite. 
Most of the veins strike NE. and 
dip nearly vertically. 



Quartz veins in poorly exposed 
shear zone in quartz monzoniter 
strike N. 30° W. , dip 60° NE. 
Shear zone is from 3 to 18 inches 
wide with quartz veins along hang- 
ing wall and footwall. Principal 
vein strikes N. 35° W. , dips 75° 
NE., and is in hanging wall of 
shear zone along a diorite dike. 
Vein is 2 to 3 inches thick but 
near main shaft is as much as 8 
feet thick. 

Quartz-filled sheeted zone 2 to 3 
feet wide strikes N. 60° E. , dips 
60° SE. ; in deeply weathered 
granitic rock. 



See descripti 
Placer mines . 



Gold-bearing terrace and stream 
gravels along Goler Cyn. and lode 
deposits in Paleozoic metasediment- 
ary rocks. Gravels worked for 
gold are 1,000 feet long, 200 feet 
wide, and an average of 7 feet 
deep . Average value in gold 
reported to be 68 C cu. yd. (Tucker, 
Sampson, and Oakeshott 1949, p. 
217-218) with nuggets ranging in 
value from 50C to $400 each. Fault 
zone trending N. 10° E. in meta- 
sedimentary rocks contains thin 
stringers of manganese oxides in 
f aul t gouge . Also strong vein 
reported to contain gold along 
fault striking N. 30° W. and dip- 
ping 50° NE. in metavolcanic rocks 
in center of sec. 2. 



See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury 04: 
12t; Brown 16:498: Crawford 94:145; 
Goodyear 88: 321 ; Prout 40:382;. 389, 392, 
393, 416, 417; Tucker 24:40, 41; 29: 
36-37; Tucker, Sampson 33:274t, 280; 
40b:329; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49: 261t) . 



Several unpatented claims. Principal 
devel opment in recent years has been 
extension of crosscut adit driven S. 60 
E. toward Bright Star vein from bottom 
of cyn. 3,000 ft. northwest of Bright 
Star mine. Crosscut, started in 1930's, 
was 950 feet long in 1958. Some traces 
of sphalerite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and 
gold in fractures in limestone walls of 
crosscut. Stibnite adit, few hundred 
feet north of crosscut adit portal is 70 
feet long . Antimony ore valued at 
$13,000 shipped in 1918 (Tucker, Sampson 
and Oakeshott, 1949, p. 226) and 2,750 
lbs. containing 33.5 percent antimony 
sold to Harshaw Chem. Co. in 1943-1944 
(N. C. Anderson, personal 'communication, 
1955) . About 1 ton of ore containing 
11 percent of copper shipped in 1943 
(N. C. Anderson, personal communication, 
1955) . Probably some production of gold 
from older workings south of campsite. 
(Tucker, Sampson 40b:328; Tucker, Samp- 
son, Oakeshott 49:207, 225-226, 252t, 
261t).. 

See Gwynne mine in text. (Aubury 04:12t, 
17t; Brown 16:498; Crawford 94:145, 146; 
96:191; Tucker 29:37; Tucker, Sampson 33: 
274t, 307-308; 40:32; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:224, 261t) . 



which see. 



Former claim of Ashford Min 
(Aubury 04:12tj . 

Developed by a 125-foot main shaft and ar 
84-foot shaft 75 feet to the northwest. 
A drift connects the shafts on the 60- 
foot level and extends 60 feet southeast 
of the main shaft. Twenty-foot drifts 
have been extended northwest and south- 
east from the main shaft on the 120-foot 
level. Mr. Harris states that about 
$12,000 in gold has been produced fro 
the mine. Idle. 



Explored by 35-foot adit driven N. 60° E 
and by 75-foot adit, southwest of above 
opening, driven S. 15° W. along clay- 
filled shear planes in massive decomposed 
granite. No stopes or known production; 
long idle. 



About 25 placer and lode claims. 
Probably some production of lode gold 
from vein in center of sec. 2. Developed 
by 150-foot northwest-trending drift adi 
100-foot inclined shaft 30 feet north of 
portal of drift, and 30-foot vertical 
shaft at portal of drift adit. Drift 
adit contains short stopes 2h to 4 feet 
wide northwest of incline. Many shallow 
drifts and shafts elsewhere on property 
I numerous excavations in gravels, 
ncipal source of gold from gravels 
appears to be on southwest side of Goler 
Cyn . near mouth of an east-draining 
gulch. Production of placer gold during 
1930-1934 valued at least at $1,500 

Tucker, Sampson, and Oakeshott, 1949, 
p. 218) . Probably much larger yield of 
gold prior to 1930. Idle since 1930's. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:59t, 60t, 61t; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:306-307; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:217-218, 256t) . 



162 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map Name of claim, 
No. mine, or group 



Joe Walker mine 



Josephine mine 



Josephine 
prospect 



Josephine clai 



Josephine T.G. 

Juan Dosie 
(Juan Dosia, 
Jann Dosie) mi 



ita W. clai 



Judy Ann prospect 



Sec. 35, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, in 
center of RandE 
burg 



Mostly in the E*s 
sec. 12, T29S, 
R32 E, MDM, in the 
northern part of 
Walker Basin, 
1 3/4 miles north- 
west of Johns Pk. 

Reported in sec. 

20, T28S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

Reported in sec. 

21, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

Sec. 36, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, 
Johannesburg 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

Reported in sees. 
2/ 3, 4, 5, 8, 
T25S, R29E, MDM, 
5 miles southeast 
of White River 
(1916) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

Reported in sec. 
34, T27S, R33E, 
MDM, Piute Mts. , 
5*s miles southeast 
of Bodfish (1949) ; 
not con f i rmed , 
1958 



Sec. 2, T30S, R33E, 
MDM, Loraine dist. 

miles northeast 
of Loraine on the 
east side of Sand 
Cyn. 



Sec. 36, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Vic. 
Johannesburg 

SE^SE^ sec. 6, 
T29S, R40E, 6*5 
miles northwest of 
Randsburg , on east 
side of small cyn. 
on southeast flank 
of El Paso Mts. 



Reported in sec. 
35, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 

dist. 



B. Maginnis, 
Randsburg (1933) 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 

B. Haggin and 
Phoebe Hearst 
Estates, New York 
(1949) Vern Schell 
Ranch (?) 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 

C. McKinney 
Randsburg (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957; 
Underwood and 
McNitt , Bakers fielc 
(1904) 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Simes and Co. , 
Randsburg (1904) 



Undetermined, 

Adams , 
Corinth, Miss. 
1916) 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Tom Smith, Bodfish 
(1949) 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Tom Davies (?) , 
Caliente (1958) 



Undetermined, 195 

R. Parker 
Randsburg (1904) 

W. Groves, 
address undeter- 
ed (1958) 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 
A. Huntington , 
Francisco (1904) 



Geology 



Two to 20 foot-wide vei 
N. 45° E., dips 60° SE. 
granitic rock. 



Quartz vein with sulfides in 
"slate and porphyry". 



Quartz vein in "slate and porphyry' 



Quartz vein 



Six parallel quartz veins, maximu 
width of 8 feet, strike NE. dip 



Quartz vein, 6 to 18 inches wide; 
in granite; strikes N. 10° W. and 
dips 40° NE. Vein locally has 
visible free gold and high grade 
pockets . 



One to 4 foot-wide vein strikes E. , 
dips 60° N. ; in granitic rock. 
Vein has been traced 1,200 feet on 
sur face . Consi sts mostly of quartz 
Two rhyolitic dikes in the area 
f orm the wa lis of the vein at some 
points. Ore shoot on 70 level is 
50 feet long, 70 feet high, and 1 
to 2 feet wide; on 200 level an ore 
shoot is 50 feet long, 100 feet 
high, and 1 to 2 feet wide. 

Quartz vein, 10 inches wide, 
strikes E. , dips N. ; in granitic 
rock. Free milling. 

Brecciated quartz containing 
pockets of hydrous iron oxides and 
gypsum in fine-grained dioritic 
rock. Quartz is a lens 10 feet 
wide, 30 feet long, and at least 
20 feet deep in shear zone trending 
NW. An assay made by owner showed 
S8 in gold. 



Remarks and references 



Patented mining claim which underlies 
part of town of Randsburg. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:274t) . 



See Esperanza mine. (Tucker 29:33). 

See text (Aubury 04:12t; Goodyear 88: 
317, 318; Tucker, Sampson 33:274t, 27 
280, 310-311). 



Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name, peveloped 
by 1904 by 150-foot incline, 250 feet 
of drifts and 150-foot tunnel (crosscut 
?) . (Aubury 04:12t) . 

Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name. One 40- 
foot and one 60-foot inclined shaft. 
(Aubury 04:12t) . 



One 40-foot vertical shaft, 60-foot 
incline shaft, 25 feet of drifts. S 
Grannis Land Co. (Aubury 04:12t). 



Development consists of several thousand 
feet of horizontal workings. No record- 
ed production. Brown 16:498; Crawford 
94:145; 96:191; Tucker 29:37; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:274t; Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 
shott 49:261t) . 



Two claims in 1949; 3 claims in 1940. 
May be listed herein under different 
name and location. Developed by approx- 
imately 100 feet of horizontal workings 
in 2 adits. Small production likely. 
(Tucker, Sampson 40b:328; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:226, 261t) . 

Patented claim of Long Tom mine. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:311). 

See Culbert group. (Brown 16:498-499). 

Discovered by McKay & Struther in 1889. 
Developed by 220-foot shaft with levels 

80, 100, 150, and 200 feet; 70-foot 
shaft; and 135-foot adit. Few hundred 
feet of horizontal workings. Estimated 
total production is 2,000 to 2,500 tons 

ore containing an average of 0.5 to 
0.75 oz. gold per ton. Long idle. 
(Aubury 04:12t; Crawford 94:145; 96:191, 
199; Tucker, Sampson 33:274t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:262t; Watts 93:238) 

Four inclined shafts 40 to 100 feet 
deep, 90 feet of drifts. See Grannis 
Land Co. (Aubury 04:12t). 

eveloped by 10-foot adit across quartz 
ens and 20-foot open cut along the lens 
inor excavations in several quartz 
tringers in immediate area. A prospect 
no production; idle. 



Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
1 is ted herein under di f f erent name . 
(Hulin 25:135-136) . 

Probably former claim at Bellflower min 
which see. (Aubury 04:12t). 



Group of 3 claims in Goler dist. aban- 
ed since 1952 (Dibblee, Gay 52:59t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:226-227, 
262t) . 

im in Wegman group. (Tucker 23:161; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:311). 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



163 



Mop Name of claim, 
f4o mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Karma mine 



Katydid claims 



K.C.N, claim 



Kelso Creek 
placers 



Kentucky, The 



Kenyon 



Kern County 
Consolidated 
Gold Mines 

Kernville min 



Keyes (Old Keyes, 
Garnishee! mi 



Keyesville Mines 
placers 



Keyesville 
Placer 



King George 
group 



Reported in sec. 
T28S, R32E, MDM, 
(1904) r not con- 
firmed, 1958 

Reported in sec. 

TUN, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist. 
vicinity of 
Standard Hill 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Sec. 16, T28S, 
R35E, MDM, Sageland 
dist. , near town- 
site of Sageland 



Undetermined, 1958; 
Morning Glory 



Undetermined, 1958; 
Calkins, and Potter, 
Los Angeles (1904) 



Quartz in granite. 



Quartz veins in volcanic and 
granitic rock. 



Andrew Miller, 
Sageland (1933) 



Reported in sec. 
T29S, R31E, MDM, 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Undetermined, 1958 
Tupman and Munger , 
Bakersfield (1904) 



Recent stream gravels from 10 to 
30 feet thick and 150 feet wide 
resting on granitic bedrock. 
Mostly fine gold, but some coarse 
pieces reported, presumably 
derived from gold quartz veins in 
Piute Mts. 



Quartz vein in granite. 



S^SW^g sec. 26 and 
N^NW^s sec 35, T26S 
R32E, MDM, about 
2,000 feet N. 30°W. 
of the old Keys- 
ville townsite 



Mrs . Ivie Copelir 
Keysville (1957) 



NE^s of sec. 35, 
T26S, R32E, MDM, 
Keysville dist. , 
2 miles northwest 
of Isabella, on 
the flat, h mile 
northeast of old 
Keysville 

Reported in sec. 
36, T26S, R32E, 
MDM, Keyes dist. , 
east of old Keys- 
ville (1919) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 



. B. Coe, 
ox 662, 

sabella (1957) 



Undetermined, 1957 
G. Henschkel, 
Isabella (1919) 



One-to 2 J s-foot quartz vein strikes 
N. 45° E. , dips 70° SE. ; in Meso- 
zoic quartz diorite. Principal 
ore shoot was mined about 250 feet 
along strike near the main level 
and 450 feet along the rake to the 
surface. The ore body raked about 
60° NE. 



Auriferous Recent stream gravels in 
intermittent streams. 



Abandoned river channel trending 
NW. with about 10 to 15 feet of 
loose, poorly sorted gravel. Bed- 
rock is Isabella granodiorite. 



See Wegman group. (Aubury 04:12t, 17t; 
Brown 16:497, 499; Julihn, Horton 37:22 
Tucker 23:161; 29:37; Tucker, Sampson 
33:274t, 279-280, 282, 283, 311; 35:465 
468, 479-480, pi. 7; 40:34-35; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:227, 262t) . 

Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:12t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under another name. (Aubury 04: 
12t). 



Eleven placer claims formerly part of 
Goler Canyon Placers group. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:306-307). 

Name of patented claim of St. Lawrence 
Rand mine. (Tucker, Sampson 33:310). 

A short-lived attempt was made in 1932 
or 1933 to recover the gold by separat- 
ing fines through revolving screens 
then passing through sluices. Average 
gold value of gravels was reported to be 
50C per cubic yard (Tucker, Sampson, 
1933, p. 311). Scarcity of water 
resulted in shutdown. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:311; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 
266t) . 

Claim of Big Gold mine, which see. 
(Tucker 23:166; Tucker, Sampson 33:291) 

Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:12t). 



See Consolidated 
(Crawford 96:188, 



Old name; now part nf Big Blue group. 
(Aubury 04:12t) . 

Discovered 1852 by Col. Keyes. Active 
intermittently until 1938. Total pro- 
duction $450,000. Since 1900, pro- 
duced ore valued at over $200,000. Most 
ore averaged 2 ounces per ton. Develop- 
ment consists of a main level crosscut- 
adit driven 840 feet west to the vein 
and a 1,400-foot drift and numerous 
winzes, raises, and sublevels (see fig. 
in text) . Ore was milled in a 5-stamp 
mill on the property. (Aubury 04:12t; 
Brown 16:483, 499-500; Crawford 94:145; 
96:191; Tucker 20:34; 21:310; 29:37-38; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:274t, 278, 280, 311, 
312; 40:32, 33; Tucker, Sampson Oake- 
shott 49:262t) . 

Worked by simple panning methods during 
periods when streams are running. No 
recorded production. 



Probably old name. Production history 
limited to period 1894-1919, when more 
than 600 ounces gold were recovered. 
(Brown 16:500) . 



See Gunderson group (Brown 16:503). 



164 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Kings prospect 



King Solomon 
(Ashford) mine 



244 King Solomon 
(Pleasant View) 



King Solomon 

Kinyon mine 
Kinyou mine 
Kirner 



Klondike group 
(Bond Buyer, 
Cash Register, 
Voss Consoli- 
dated, Placer 
mines) 



Kootenai clai 



La Crosse 
prospect 



Ladd prospect 



NE^a sec. 2, T28S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
Tiacher dist. , 6*5 
Tiiles south of 
Ridgecrest 

NE^SWJa sec. 36, 
T29S, R40E, MDM, 
d dist. , half a 
e east of Rands- 
burg, on north 
slope of Rand Mts. 



NW^a sec. 18, T28S, 
R33E, MDM, Clear 

dist. , 3 miles 
t of Havilah, 
_.. south side of 
King Solomon Ridge 

Reported in sec. 2! 
T27S, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacher dist. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 



Reported approx. 
sees. 25, 26, 35, 
36, T26S, R32E, 
MDM, (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

SE^s sec. 1 , T30S, 
R37E, MDM, south- 
east flank of El 
Paso Mts., 3 miles 
north-northeast of 
Cantil 



NE^a sec. 11, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, 
Stringer dist. , 
1 3/4 miles south- 
southeast of Rands 
burg, southeast 
slope of Rand Mts. 



Reported in sec. 
36, TUN, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist. , 
3 miles due east 
of Standard Hill 
on northeast slope 
of small butte 
(1949) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

N*s sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2 miles 
southwest of (new) 
Kernville, west 
side of Lake 
Is =tbella 



Lady Langtry 



Marvin Harris, P.O. 
Box 597, Eloy, 
Arizona (1957) 



Shipsey Mining Co. 
Alban Walton, pres 
600 Mound Ave. , 
South Pasadena 
(1958) 



Richard Aston, 
Liston Arbro, 
(address undeter 
mined) (1955) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Underwood and 
McNitt, 

Bakersfield (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Thomas Kirner 
Keyes (1904) 



M. D. and Cora F 
Blanvelt, Sacra- 
mento (1958) 



Anna M. Osborn , 
address undeter- 
mined (1957) 



Undetermined, 1958 
0. H. Ladd, 
Mojave (1949) 



Kern Devel opment 
Co. , C. S. Long, 
pres. , Box 157, 
Hayward. Leased 
to Kern Mines, Inc. 
Roland Toggnazzini 
pres. , 260 Calif- 
ornia St. , San 
Francisco (1955) 



Quar 
pyri 



vei 



inche 



ide, 



ith 



trikes N. 40° W. , vertical 
monzonite. Vein poorly- 
exposed on surface and probably of 
short lateral extent. 

Gold-bearing veins in Rand schist. 



Free gold in quartz vein in 
granitic rock. 



Quartz vein in granite. 



One-foot vein strikes NE., dips SE. 
in granitic rock. 



Placer deposits of gold in stream 
gravels and fanglomerate on south- 
east flank of El Paso Mts. and gold 
mineralization along several north- 
west-trending shear zones in meta- 
sedimentary and igneous rocks. 
Unconfirmed reports of recovery 
of gold nuggets weighing several 
ounces. Value of gold in gravels 
reported to average 30* to S2 per 
cubic yard (Tucker, 1929, p. 51). 
NW . -trending shear zones dip 
45°-70° SW., are from few inches 
to 2 feet thick , and are exposed on 
surface for several tens of feet. 
Most of exploratory work has been 
done on iron-stained quartz lenses 
and stringers in the shear zones. 



Gold-bearing quart; 
N. 30° W. , vertical 
Average width 2 to 
mum of 20 inches, 
free in quartz and 
pyr ite . 



vein strikes 
; in schist. 
6 inches ; maxi 
Gold occurs 
with arseno- 



Series of northeast-striking 
fractures, 6 to 8 inches wide; in 
rhyolitic rock. Rhyolitic rock 
strikes east, dips 60° N. On the 
south side of butte, 2 parallel 4- 
foot quartz veins strike east, dip 
steeply north. 



Quartz veins in granodiorite and 
alaskite. 



Developed by 10-foot shaft 



See text. (Aubury 04: lOt, lit, 12t, 
13t; Brown 16:500; Crawford 96:186, 188 
189, 191, 193, 195, 197; Eric 48:255t; 
Hulin 25:80, 81, 88, 136-137; Tucker 
21:310; 24:191; 29:38; 34:315; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:274t, 280, 310, 313-314; 
40:11, 33; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49: 227, 262t) . 

See text. (Aubury 04:12t; Brown 16:500 
Tucker 33:274t, 312, 313; 40b:328, 329; 
49:262t) . 



Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name. Developed 
by 30-foot open cut. (Aubury 04:12t). 



See Consolidated 
(Aubury, 04:12t) . 



See Consolidated 
(Aubury 04:17t) . 



line in text. 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. Developed by 65-foot 
300-foot adits. (Aubury 04:12t). 



Several claims. Probably includes part 
of former Orange Blossom group (see 
under copper) . Placer ground developed 
by several pits, shafts, and open cuts. 
Shear zones developed by short adits, 
shallow shafts, and open cuts. Probably 
some production of placer gold in 1890': 
Names of claims at that time undeter- 
mined. No production from lode deposit 
Long idle. (Dibblee, Gay 52:61t; 
Tucker 29:51; Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 
293-294 ; Tucker , Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:255t, 269t) . 



Patented claim of King Solomon mine at 
Johannesburg, which see. (Aubury 04: 
12t) . 

One claim. Developed by several shafts 
from 20 to about 100 feet deep and 
about 400 feet of drifts. Output of 
several hundred ounces of gold in 1909 
from ore that contained about 3*s ounces 
gold per ton. Minor production in 1937 
Long idle. (Aubury 04:12t; Brown 16: 
500 ; Tucker 29: 39 ; Tucker , Sampson 
33 : 274t ; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 
49:262t) . 

Developed by 100-foot trench, 6 feet 
deep, several smaller trenches, and a 
35-foot shaft with 25-foot crosscut 
north. Assays of veins and fractures 
average $3.00-$4.00 per ton in gold. 
(Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:227, 
262t) . 



See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury 
04:12t; Brown 16:501; Crawford 94:145, 
147; Prout 40:382, 389, 392, 416, 419; 
Tucker 24: 35, 40-41, 42; 29:30; Tuckei 
Sampson 33:274t, 280; 40:28; 40b:329; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:262t). 



Patented claim of Long Tom mine. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:316). 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



165 



001 .D. com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address J 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Lass, Archer E. 


Sec. 33, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 2 miles 
west of Randsburg 


Undetermined , 1957 ; 
Bouchard and Hansen, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Quartz vein, 6 feet wide, strikes 
NE., dips SE. ; in granitic rock 
and met amorphic rock . 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
One 40-foot shaft, 50 feet open cuts, 
30 feet drifts. (Aubury 04:12t). 


247 


Last Chance 
(Nymph and Last 
Chance, Haeger, 
Hoegee) mine 

Last Chance claim 
Last Chance claim 


NE^j sec. 15, T9N, 
R13W, SBM, Mojave 
dist., on south- 
west flank of 
Tropico Hill, 4^ 
miles northwest of 
Rosamond 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
W. H. Haeger, 4639 
Prospect Ave. , Los 
Angeles (1949) 


Four-foot vein strikes east, dips 
60° S. ; in rhyolitic rocks. 


230-foot shaft, couple hundred feet of 
drifts; produced 100-200 tons containing 
.3 oz. gold per ton. (Tucker 29:36; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:275t; Tucker, Sampson 
and Oakeshott 49:260t). 

Formerly part of Yellow Aster mine. 
Part of California and Hardcash group. 
(Aubury 04:12t) . 

Formerly claim of Exposed Treasure and 
Desert Queen mines. See Standard group. 
(Aubury 04:12t; Tucker 23:160). 




Last Chance 


Reported in sees. 
4, 5, T29S, R38E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
S. J. Harker, 
Garlock (1904) 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under different name. (Aubury 
04:18t) . 


248 


Latham Tunnel 
prospect 


NW*3 sec. 23, T27S, 
R32E, MDM, 3*s 
miles north of 
Havilah on Hooper 
Hill 


Undetermined, 1957 


Barren granodiorite . 


Six hundred- foot adit driven N.30° W. in 
1908. No production. 


249 


Laurel mine 


SW^NE^s sec. 26, 
T27S, .R33E, MDM, 
1 mile west of 
Erskine Cr . , 6 
miles southeast of 
Bod fish 


Undetermined, 1955 ; 
John Hooper , 
Hobo Hot Springs 
(1949) 


Fault contact between limestone 
and met a volcanic rocks of Carbon- 
i f erous (?) age strikes northwest 
and dips steeply northeast. Brec- 
cia ted and gouge- filled f aul t zone , 
reported to be as much as 12 feet 
wide, contains quartz, pyrite, 
chalcopyrite , and sphalerite with 
values of $7 in gold and 4 ounces 
of silver per ton, and 2 percent 
copper . 


Six unpatented claims (Perth Amboy 1, 2, 
3, and Marble 1, 2, and 3) in 1949). 
Developed by two addits about 90 feet 
apart vertically. Lower adit driven 
west 100 feet from which point two 
branches about 70 feet long were driven 
(caved in 1955). One driven S. 30° W. 
with 80-foot raise to connect with 45- 
foot shaft and 130-foot crosscut; one 
driven N. 80° W. with 70-foot raise and 
1 30- foot crosscut. Upper adit driven 
40 feet N. 60° W. then 50 feet N. 30°W. 
Winze at turning point filled below 
4 feet in 1955. Ore carried on aerial 
tramway to mill (now dismantled) at base 
of hill. Mining periods and production 
undetermined. Long idle. (Tucker, Samp- 
son 33:274t, 314-315; 40b:329-330; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:263t). 


250 


Lehigh Valley 
group 

Liberty claim 
Lida mine 

Lillian 

Little Angel 
mine 


SW^NW^ sec. 29, 
T27S, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacher dist. , 
5 miles south- 
southwest of 
Ridgecrest 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
P. R. and J. B. 
Light, C. P. Walker, 
Maxwell Orr , 
Inyokern (1933) 


Free gold and pyrite in quartz 
veins that strike N. 70° E. , dip 
60° NW. ; in crushed granitic rock. 
A 6-inch-wide quartz vein is along 
the footwall of a 6-foot-wide fault 
zone. A parallel quartz vein 6 
inches to 2 feet wide, occurs along 
a felsitic dike 50 feet to the 
north. Both veins are poorly ex- 
posed and several tens of feet long. 


Developed by three shallow shafts with 
short drifts along south vein. North 
vein prospected by shallow trenches. A 
1 5- foot-wide arrastre was constructed in 
1933 to recover gold from ore that con- 
tained from $15 to ?25 in gold per ton. 
Long idle. (Tucker, Sampson 33:274t, 
310; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:261t). 

Former claim of Yellow Dog Extension 
mine. (Tucker 23:164) . 

See Tropico mine (Aubury 04:12t; Brown 
16 : 501 ; Tucker 29 : 39 , 50 ; Tucker , Samp- 
son 33:274t; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:263t) . 

Uncorrelated old name; may be part of 
Commonwealth mine (Aubury 04:12t). 

See Warrington mine. (Aubury 04:16t, 
17t; Crawford 94:148; Crawford 96:197; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:333; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:269t; Watts 93:238). 


251 


Little Audrey 
prospect 


Center s*s sec. 28, 
T27S, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacher dist. , 
5 miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


Arthur Savage, 
address undetermin- 
ed (1957) 


Iron-stained shear zone along north- 
east wall of a vertical diorite 
dike that strikes N. 50° W. 


A prospect developed by a vertical shaft 
about 100 feet deep. Idle. 




Little Blue 


Reported in NW^ of 
T27S, R32E, MDM, 
west of Bodfish 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Charles Hitchcock, 
Woody (1896) 


Eight-inch-wide quartz vein in 
granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably aband- 
oned prospect. (Crawford 96:192). 




Little Bonanza 
claim 








Patented fraction claim of Yellow Aster 
mine. (Aubury 04:12t). 



166 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Mop 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Loco t ion 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Little Bonanza 



Little Butte 



Little Charlie 
group 



Little Jimmy 
prospect 



Little Joe mine 



Little Nugget 



Little Wande 



Lodestar 
{Lodestar Mining 
Co. ) mine 



Lone Star 
prospect 



Reported in SW^ 
sec. 35, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, adjoin- 
ing Mammoth mine 
in Keyes dist. , 
(1916) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

East side sec. 35, 
T29S, R40E, MDM, 
north side of town 
of Randsburg 



Reported in NW% 
sec. 22, T30S, 
R33E, MDM, Lora 
dist. , H mile 
northeast of 
Lor a i ne on a s ou th 
west slope facing 
Caliente Cr . 
(1894) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

Sec. 1, T30S, 
R37E, MDM, Redrock 
Cyn . 

NW^NW*, sec. 5, 
T29S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. area, 
1*5 miles west of 
Claraville, about 
h mile south of 
George Lodge 



Reported in sec. 
18, T28S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso dist 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

Reported in sec. 
36, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 



\ih sec. 6, T10N, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , on north- 
west slope of 
Soledad Mt. 



Reported in sec. 
7, T28S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; no 
confirmed, 1957 



EW*a sec. 21, NW*s 
sec. 28, T29S, 
R36E, MDM, Butter- 
bread Cyn . , 10*5 
miles northwest of 



Undetermined, 1957 
A. R. Lucy, 
Isabella (1916) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Little Butte Mng. 
& Mlg. Co. , J. W. 
Oakley, pres. , 
2249 S. Hobart, 
Los Angeles (1949) 



Undetermined , 1958 



Narrow veir in granitic rock. 



Two siliceous veins along faults 
along dioritic dike in Rand schist. 
Free fine-grained gold in silici- 
fied and iron-stained brecciated 
schist with quartz stringers. 
Little Butte vein strikes N. 70° W. 
dips 60° NE. , and extends to the 
southeast through Kenyon, Butte, 
and King Solomon mines. Another 
vein strikes N. 40° W. , dips 50" 
NE., from intersection with Little 
Butte vein near east boundary of 
property. Fine-grained sulfides 
found on 600-foot level. Value of 
ore quoted in previous reports 
range from $6 to more than $250 per 
ton in gold. High values sporadic. 



Narrow vein strikes N. 30° W 
dips steeply NE. ; in schist. 



Undetermined, 1958 
Formerly Mrs. J. S 
Bishop , (deceased) 

Gerald R. Atkins, 
P.O. Box 12, Clara- 
ville (1955) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Balch and Fletcher 
Randsburg (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Underwood and 
McNitt, Bakersfield 
(1904) 



Two sub-parallel gold-bearing quartz 
veins, 6 to 18 inches wide, strike 
N. 70° E., dip 70° SE. ; in deeply- 
weathered granitic rock. Ore 
reported to average $25 per ton in 
gold. 



in metamorphic rocks . 



(See Remarks) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Mr. Hogaastrath, 
Salem, Wisconsin 
(1904) 



Charles and Eli 
beth Larbig, 
address undeter 
mined (1957) 



Gold- and tungsten -bear ing qua 
ns in granitic rock. 



Quartz vein with pyrite in granite. 



'oorly-exposed quartz stringe 
;trikes N. 65° W. , dips 50° N 
[uartz diorite. 



Uncorrelated old name. Developed by 
140-foot tunnel. (Aubury 04:12t; Brown 
16:501, 502; Tucker 29:39; Tucker, 
Sampson 40:330; Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 
shott 49: 263t) . 



Three patented claims. Principal shaft 
inclined 60° NE. and 610 feet deep with 
about 3,500 feet of drifts on levels 
spaced at 50-foot, intervals. Shorter 
shafts and manways to surface east of 
the main shaft. Principal periods of 
productivity were between 1897 and 1902, 
and during 1905-1906. Estimated valu 
of total gold output range from $150,000 
to $400,000. Idle since 1923. (Aubury 
04:12t, 17t; Brown 16:502; Crawford 96: 
192; Hulin 25:80, 137; Tucker, Sampson 
33:274t, 280, 315; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49: 263t) . 



See Croesus group. 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably in the 
southwest part of the Amalie mine 
property. (Crawford 94:146). 



Prospect; abandoned by Bishop family. 
(Dibblee, Gay 52 : 59t) . 



Developed by 40-foot crosscut adit 
driven north to vein, with drift 350 
feet northeast on vein; connects with 
76-foot shaft, 200 feet northeast of 
portal. Also several shafts 40 to 50 
feet deep sunk 200 feet west of portal 
of crosscut adit. Two-stamp mill 
active 1933, inoperable in 1955. Pro- 
duction, if any, undetermined; long 
idle. (Tucker, Sampson 33:274t, 316; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:263t). 

Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Developed by 100-foot inclined shaft 
and 350-foot tunnel. (Aubury 04:13t). 



Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Two 40-foot inclined shafts and a 25- 
foot open cut. (Aubury 04:13t). 



See under tungsten. 



The southeastern part of this group is 
now a part of the Golden Queen group; 
the remainder is included in the Eleph- 
ant group (Julihn, Horton 37: 19, 
fig. 5; Tucker, Sampson 40:10, 11, 31, 
33) . 

Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Two inclined shafts, 40 feet and 50 feet 
deep, 100-foot vertical shaft, 30 feet 
of open cuts, and 75-foot tunnel (cross 
cut?) . Description of workings resem- 
bles that of Wildcat mine, which see. 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 

Old inclined shaft probably about 70 
feet deep. A two-stamp mill with 
gravity table and cyanide tanks is ad- 
jacent to the road in Butterbread Cyn. 
half a mile south of the mine. Long 
idle. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



167 



r .H.r>. com. 



Map 

No 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


256 


Lone Star 
(includes Even- 
ing Star and 
North Star) 
group 


NE^ sec. 18, T28S, 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. , 10 miles 
southeast of Bod- 
fish 


J. E. and Mattie 
Nloreland , Clara- 
ville (1958) 


Quartz veins in fine-grained meta- 
morphic rocks . Veins contain free 
gold, pyrite, and arsenopyrite. 
Lone Star vein strikes N. 70° E. 
and dips 55° SE . Average width is 
3 feet ; reported to average $ 25 to 
$40 in gold (Tucker, Sampson, and 
Oakeshott, 1949, p. 228). Two ore 
shoots 60 feet apart on 100 level of 
Lone Star vein; one is 70 feet long 
- other is 60 feet long. Other 
veins from few to several hundred 
feet northwest and southeast of Lone 
Star vein but less well-developed. 


Several claims (9?) on east side of 
Bright Star and Jenette-Grant claims. 
Lone Star shaft inclined SE. 100 feet 
with 200-foot drift southwest and 70- 
foot drift northeast at bottom (?). Two 
oreshoots on southwest drift stoped to 
50-foot level. Other veins developed 
by shallow shafts now mostly caved. 
Total production undetermined. Pro- 
duction in 1896-1898, 1912-1913, 1940- 
1948, and intermittently in 1930's. 
Idle since 1948. Mill used for tungsten 
ore in 1950' s. See photo in text. 
(Tucker, Sampson 40:330-331; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:228-229, 263t) . 


257 


Long -Tom mine 


NW^ sec. 26, mh 
sec. 27, T27S, 
R29E, MDM, 4% mile 
south by southeast 
of Granite Station 
on Pine Mt. Cr . 


F. C. Record, 
Granite Station 
(1956) 


Vein in granitic rock. 


See text. (Brown 16:502; Tucker 29:39: 
Tucker, Sampson 33:275, 316, 317; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:263t; 
Watts 93:238) . 




Lookou t 


Reported in sec. 3 
T29S, R39E, MDM, 
Goler dist. , El 
Paso Mts. , (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Unde ter mined , 1958; 
A.Marty, address 
undetermined (1904) 


Two quartz veins in metamorphic 
rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. Developed about 
1904 by shallow shafts and an open cut. 
No production. (Aubury 04:13t) . 




Lookout 


Reported in Goler 
dist. , El Paso 
Mts. (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined , 1958 ,- 
Alfred Heath, 
Randsburg (1896) 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Worked by dry 
placer methods in 1890' s with low daily 
yield in gold. May be listed herein 
under different name. (Crawford 96:190t, 
192} . 




Loretta 


Reported in sec. 3, 
T28S, R32E, MDM, 
Clear Cr . dist. , 
northwest of 
Havilah (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
John Hayes, Havilah 
(1904) 


Vein, one to 2 feet wide, strikes 
NE. , dips SE. ; in granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under another name. (Aubury 04: 

13t) . 




Los Angeles 
Placer Mining Co. 
property 


Reported in Red 
Rock dist. , El 
Paso Mts. (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Jeff Johns and 
others. Red Rock 
(1896) 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Worked by dry 
placer methods in 1890 ' s with low daily 
yield in gold. May be listed herein 
under different name. (Crawford 96:192, 
195t) . 




Lost Cabin mine 








See Castle Butte mine. 


258 


Lost Keys 
prospect 


SW% sec. 27, SE*i 
sec. 28, T27S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 5 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
D. J. O'Connor, M. 
L. Ruppert, Walter 
A. Grosse, address- 
es undetermined 
(1933) 


Quartz vein with free gold and 
pyrite strikes N. 60° W. , dips 80° 
NE. ; in shear zone in granodiorite . 
Vein is few inches to 3 feet thick 
and poorly exposed. North- and 
nor the a st- striking dior itic dikes 
crop out nearby and probably inter- 
sect the vein. 


Principal development work is a shaft 
105 feet deep from which 40 tons of ore 
reported (Tucker 1933, p. 317) to 
average $ 20 per ton in gold was mined 
about 1933. Idle. See Horoscope claim. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:275t, 317; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 263t) . 


259 


Lucky Boy mine 


NW^NE^ sec. 11, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, 
Rand dist. , lh 
miles south of 
Randsburg 


W. C. Wilkenson, 
Johannesburg (1957) 


Two veins in faults or shear zones 
a few tens of feet apart strike 
approximately west, dip 45° N. and 
65° S. Exposed discontinuously 
along surface for about half a mile. 
Veins range in thickness from few 
inches to 2h feet. Most ore shoots 
mined were maximum of few tens of 
feet long . Gold occurs free in 
quartz and silicified crushed 
schist in fault zones. 


Five claims. Six shafts inclined ap- 
proximately 55° to north, 3 vertical 
shafts, and open cuts. Shafts range 
from 50 to 185 feet in depth with drifts 
as long as 250 feet. Principal mining 
done 1899-1902, 1928, 1937-1941, and 
1946-1947. Most recent work is at east 
end of property in inclined shaft . Pro- 
duction is reported to be valued at 
$120,000 (Tucker 29:31). Two men work- 
ing part time in 1957. (Aubury 04:9t, 
17t; Hulin 25:25, 132; Tucker 23:171; 
29:30-31; Tucker, Sampson 33:272t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:229, 255t, 
263t) . 




Lucky Joe and 
Sullivan 


Reported at head 
of Caliente Cr . , 
4 miles northeast 
of Piute (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
W. J. Thornton, et 
al, Piute (1896) 


Large vein of quartz. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Crawford 96:192, 
199t) . 




Lucky Strike 
claim 








Claim of Big Gold mine. (Tucker 23:166). 




Lut2 claims 








See Gateway claims (Dibblee, Gay 52:59t). 


260 


Mabel S 
claim 


NE*a sec. 2, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , half a mile 
south of Randsburg 


Anna Asher , address 
undetermined (1957) 


Shear zone in quartz monzonite. 


Patented fraction. Minor production 
about 1902. Long idle. (Aubury 04:13t). 



168 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 
No 



Nome of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



ce (Hugh Mann) 
spect 



Magnolia prospect 
Magpie claim 



Maltby Place 



Mammoth 
(Sovereign) 



Margurette 
Russell 
(Marguerite 
Russell) prospec 



Mariposa claim 



Mary Ellen 
prospect 



SE^SW^ sec. 22, 
T29S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. area, 
3*5 miles south o 
Claraville 



Robert Resh, 
273 E . Alegria, 
erra Madre (1959) 



Reported in sec. 
34, T28S, R39E, 
MDM, Goler dist. , 
El Paso Mts. (1904); 
t confirmed, 1958 



determined, 1 
A. Marty, 
arlock (1904) 



MDM, 
by 



15 T25S, R29E 
4 miles north 
rthwest of 
Woody, 3/4 mile 
southeast of Isham 
Hill 



Reported approx. 
sees. 25, 26, 35, 
36, T26S, R32E, 
MDM, Keyes dist. , 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 



J. Maltby, 
Woody (1956) 



Undetermined 
Mrs. Ros: 
(1896) 



Kernville 



35. 



NYSE's of 
T26S, R32E, MDM, 
h mile southwest 
of old Keysville 



Reported 1 mile 
west of Havilah, 
Clear Cr. dist. 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Rudnik Estate Trusl 

O. Box 5481, 
Bakersfield (1957) 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 

Helmes , et al , 
Havilah (1896) 



Reported in sec. 5 
T10N, R12W, SBM, 
Mojave dist. (1904))moj 
not confirmed, 195E 



Undetermined, 
Reed & Crowe, 
ave (1904) 



Reported in sec. 
31, T30S, R34E, 
MDM, Loraine dist. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

Reported in sec. 
16, T28S, R32E, 
MDM, Clear Cr . 
dist. , 2 miles 
southwest of 
Havilah (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 



lddle 



Gulch, 
mile east of 
Randsburg 



NE*a sec. 22, T29S, 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. area, 3 
miles south of 
Claraville, just 
east of Geringer 
Grade Rd. , about 



Gallup Camp Rd. 

Reported in sec. 
33, T27S, R33E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 

Reported five mil 
southwest of 
Pandsburg (1916) ; 
net confirmed, 

1957 



Undetermined, 
C. Jones & 
Paris, Calif. 
(1904) 



Harold Wright, 
Los Angeles (1957) 



Benson Bros. , e 
al . , Randsburg , 
(1896) 



Wm. Pajanew, 

P.O. Box 2, Mojave 

(1954) 



Undetermined, 1958 



Undetermined, 1957 j 
M. Humphrey, 
dsburg (1916) 



Quartz vein strikes N. 50" E . ,. -di 
75° SE. in shear zone; in deeply- 
weathered granitic rock. 



quartzi te . 



Aur i f erous gravel in old channel . 
Gravel bed 150 to 350 feet wide and 
four to six feet thick has been 
prospected for 1,300 feet along its 
length. It is covered by a two to 
six-foot-thick mantle of soil and 
lies on granitic bed rock. 

Six inch quartz vein strikes N. , 
dips 85°E. ; in granitic rock. 



Two parallel quartz veins in grano- 
diorite; strike N.40°E., dip 70°E. 



Four-foot quartz vein strikes N. 
dips E. ; in porphyry. 



h to 2-foot-wide 
E. , dips S. ; in 



Ten inch to 24 inch quartz 
dips 40° S. 



Quartz-rich brecciated and altered 
rock about 4 feet wide strikes N. 
25° W. , dips nearly vertically; in 
deeply weathered granitic rock. 
Hematite and pyrite occur dissem- 
inated in drusy quartz and granitic 
rock, with traces of gold and 
silver . 



in of high grade 



Explored by 85-foot drift adit driven 
northeast with 30-foot winze about 25 
feet from portal. Production undeter- 
mined. Idle. (Crawford 94:145, 146; 
96:192-193; Tucker, Sampson 33:307). 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:13t). 



See under tungsten. 

Patented mining claim of King Solomon 
mine at Johannesburg. (Aubury 04:13t; 
Crawford 96:193) . 

Active intermittently since 1894. Last 
active 1941. Ore was handled by power 
shovel and trucked to nearby mill. More 
than 1,500 cubic yards have been mined 
which averaged .024 ounce per gold cubic 
yard. (Tucker, Sampson 33:275t, 317; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49 : 263t) . 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. Development consists of 60-foot 
shaft and 300-foot adit. (Crawford 94: 
146; 96:193). 



See text. (Aubury 04:13t, Brown 16:502, 
503; Crawford 94:146; 96:193; Goodyear 
88:314; Tucker 29:40, 41; Tucker, Samp- 
son 33:275t, 278, 280, 317-319, 326, 327 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:263t). 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under another name. (Crawford 96 
193) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
described herein under another name. 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:13t). 



recorded product i 
rfford 96:193) . 



(Aubury 04:13t; 



Uncorrelated old name. Last reported 
in 1896; may be listed herein under 
different name. Developed by 40-foot 
inclined shaft. (Crawford 96:193). 

Patented claim of Yellow Aster mine. 
(Crawford 96:193, 194) . 

Explored by 30-foot adit driven S. 25° 
Zone of gouged-material 50 yards east 
of above working explored by 10-foot 
adit. No known production. Idle. 



Claim of Glen O] 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 



Mng. Co. in 1904. 



Uncorrelated old name. A 50-foot shaft 
and short drift. Ore milled at Red Dog 
mill in Johannesburg. Minor production. 
May be same as Sidewinder prospect. 
(Brown 16: 503) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



169 



COLD, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Mastedon 


Reported in sec. 3, 
T28S, R32E, MDM, 
Clear Cr. dist. , 
northwest of 
Havilah (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Warrington Mining, 
Milling Co. , 
Minneapolis , Minn . 


Five-foot vein strikes N.j in 
granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. May be part of 
Warrington mine. (Aubury 04:13t). 


265 


Master Key group 


sec. 1, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 1 mile 
southeast of Rands- 
burg 


Charles Brown, San 
Bernardino, Irene 

burg, and Jean 
Smith Klatz, 

mined (1957) 


Quartz veins, 1 to 3 feet wide, 
strike NE. ; in rhyolite and quartz 

from veins reported to contain $ 50 
in gold per ton (Tucker and Sampson, 
1940 p 34) 


Five claims and fractions. Developed by 
4 shafts. Two shafts are 25 feet deep, 

in length connects the two 50-foot 
shafts. In previous reports total pro- 
duction reported to be $4,000 or $5,000 
in gold. Idle since 1942 (Tucker, 
Sampson 40: 34 ; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 
49:229, 264t) . 




Matilda 


Reported in sec. 31 
T26S, R33E, MDM 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed , 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Baker and Moore , 
Kernville (1904) 


Quartz vein in porphyritic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:13t) . 




Mattie 








Former claim of Lucky Boy mine. 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 


266 


Mayflower mine 


Center E*s sec. 6, 
T27S, R32E, MDM , 
Greenhorn dist., 
2 miles south of 
Woodward Pk. 


Evelyn Wyman (1957) 
address undeter— 
mined 


Ten-inch quartz vein strikes N. , 
dips 40° E. ; in granitic rock. 


Known as early as 1896. Known productior 

ounces of gold was mined from undeter- 
mined tonnage. Idle. (Aubury 04:13t; 
Crawford 96:193) . 




Mayflower mine 


Loraine dist. 






See Minnehaha mine in text under tungster 




Mayflower gulch 


Reported 7 miles 
northwest of 
Havilah (1896) ; 
not confirmed. 


Undetermined, 1958; 
F. F. Boettler, 
Woody (1896) 


Gold-bearing stream gravel 18 inch- 
es to 2 feet thick. 


Uncorrelated old name. Worked by ground- 
sluicing in 1896. Probably long aban- 
doned. (Crawford 96:193). 




McBrayer 
(McBryer) claim 








Former claim of Silver Queen mine.' 
(Aubury 04:13t; Tucker 23rl62; 35:465; 
Tucker, Sampson 34:316). 




McClellan 


Reported on Green 

northwest of 
Havilah (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
C . C . Stockton , 
Bakersfield (1896) 


Quartz vein in granite; 24 inches 
wide; dips 45° S. 


Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 

in 1896 by 2 shafts, 80 feet and 45 feet 
deep, and a 140-foot tunnel. Production 
undetermined. (Crawford 96:193, 199t) . 




Mc Gowan 


Reported in sec. 
12, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, Goler dist. , 
El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under different name. (Aubury 
04:18t) . 




McKeadney 
(McKidney) mine 








See Porter Group in text. (Aubury 04:13t; 
Brown 16:503; Crawford 96:193; Tucker, 
Sampson 29:41; 33:275t, 299-300; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:264t). 


267 


McKendry 
(includes Daly 
and Grubstake 
Hill claims) 
group 


SW% sec. 8, NW% 
sec. 17, T29S, 
R38E, MDM, El Paso 
Mts. , 8 miles 
north-northeast of 
Cantil 


E. S. McKendry and 
Pancho Barnes, 
P.O. Box 37, Cantil 
(1958) 


Gold-bearing stream gravels. 
Gravel s overlie lower members of 
Ricardo formation (Pliocene) which 
were probably the source of part 
of the gold and pebbles in the 
gravel. At Grubstake Hill, h mile 
north of the old Cudahy Camp, 
gravel is few tens of feet above 
floor of Last Chance Cyn. and 
several feet thick. A flat-lying 
bed of poorl y— cemented pebbly sand 
containing thin layers rich in 
black sands appears to have been 
the principal source of gold. It 
is 6 inches thick and is exposed 
for about 300 feet in north and 
east side of Grubstake Hill. Tucker 
(1929, p. 35-36) reported the pay 
gravel was from bedrock to height 
of 3 feet above and reported to 
contain from 30 cents to $2 per 
cubic yard in very fine gold. 


Fourteen 20-acre placer claims. Princi- 
pal mining done from short drifts into 
gravel near crest of Grubstake Hill. 
Drifts extend west into east side of 
Grubstake Hill and south into north side. 
Drifts range in length from 10 to 50 
feet and are space'd at intervals of 10 
to 50 feet. Minedmaterial was sorted at 
northeast tip of hill, probably with dry 
screens, and gold recovered by wet 

of 4 east-driven adits and a southeast- 
driven inclined shaft on the east slope 
of Last Chance Cyn., half a mile north oi 
Grubstake Hill. Workings are in sandy 
beds of Ricardo formation, andesite, and 
stream gravel. Estimated few hundred 
ounces of gold produced from Grubstake 
Hill, probably in 1920' s and 1930 's. 
Idle. (Dibblee, Gay 52:60t; Tucker 29: 
35-36; Tucker, Sampson 33:274t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:260t). 




Medie Lode 


Sec. 2, T30S, R40E, 
MDM, Rand dist. , 
south of Randsburg 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 

Arthur Asher , 

601 Transportation 

Bldg. , Los Angeles 

(1933) 




Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:275t). 



170 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Nome, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Mesa prospect 



Middle Butte 
(Rosamond cla 
Trent) mine 



Miles prospect 



Miller group 



Milwaukee 
prospect 



Mineral Spring 



Minnehaha (in- 
cludes Rustler 
and San Diego) 



Minnehaha mine 
Minnesota group 
Minnie E. claim 



Miranda clai 



SE^ sec. : 
R40E, MDM 



, T30S, 
Stringe: 
les 

south of Randsburg 



Mrs. T. S. Barnhar 
address undeter- 
mined (1957) 



Reported in grav 
wash below Goler 
Cyn. , Goler dist 
El Paso Mts. (1894); 
not confirmed, 1958 

Reported in sec. 
33, T29S, R40E, 
MDM, Rand dist. , 
liles west of 
Randsburg (1904) 
not confirmed, 1958 

SW^ sec. 16, T10N, 
R13W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , 9 miles 
northwest of Rosa- 
mond on the south- 
east tip of Middle 
Butte 

SE^ sec. 4, T31S, 
R36E, MDM, east 
end of Antimony 
Flat, 5 miles west 
of Cinco 



m\ sec. 16, T9N, 
R13W, SBM, Mojave 
dist., on the 
southwestern base 
of Willow Springs 
Mt. 



Reported in sees. 
5, 8, T28S, R31E, 
MDM, about one 
mile south of 
Democrat Springs 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

N*s sec. 3, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist., lh miles 
southwest of Rands 
burg, on north 
flank of Govern- 
ment Pk. 

Loraine dist. 



NE*s sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 1 3/4 miles 
southwest of (new) 
Kernville, west 
side of Lake Isa- 
bella 



Reported in sec. 
35, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; no 
confirmed, 1957 



Undetermined, 1958 
D. C. Kuffel and 
others, Randsburg 
(1896) 



ined, 1957 



Middle Butte Mine, 
Inc. , 

c/o Emory L. Morri 
Mary Johnson, 
San Francisco 
(1958) 



T. F. Miles, 172 E. 
Main St. , Ventura 
(1957) 



Mr. Masterson, c/ 
"X" Motel, 
Lancaster (1958) 



Undetermined, 
0. W. Meyers , 
Vaughn (1904) 



and J. 
(1958) 



Undetermined, 19 
Underwood and 
McNitt, Bakers- 
field (1904) 



Two extensively mined quartz 
stringers that contain gold and 
scheelite on south part of claim. 
Stringers strike approximately 
west, dip steeply to north; 
in schist. Stringers are several 
feet apart probably a few inches 
in average width. They extend 
east into Pearl (Victory) Wedge 
claim and west into Winnie mine. 
Probably about 1,000 feet long. 



2l from Goler Cyn. 



Two 3-foot-wide quartz veins 
strike N. dip E.; in schist, 
milling. 



Six to 25- foot-wide vein strikes 
N. 28 W. , dips 50° NE . ; in quart 
latite porphyry. 



Quartz vein in rhyolite and gra 
diorite contains fine-grained 
sulfides and gold. Strikes N. 
W. , dips 50° NE. 



eak 



ike east, dip 
nite and 



60° S. m quartz r 
along bedding planes of overlying 
pyroclastic sediments. Vein struc 
ture is weak, difficult to trace o 
the surface. Tenor of exposed vei 
apparently was low. 



Two to 7 foot-wide vein strikes NE. 
dips 45° SE. ; in granitic rock. 



Gold-bearing fault 
and quartz monzonit 



Quartz veins in granitic rock. 



ith gold and copper 



Dne patented claim. Principal gold 

ing in 1905-1908, 1910-1912, and 1933 
1936. Total gold output is several 
hundred ounces from ore that averaged 
oz. to 2/3 oz. per ton. Tungsten 
utput undetermined but probably few 
undred units. Developed by 10 shafts 
n south part of claim to maximum depth 
f at least 300 feet and a few thousand 
feet of horizontal workings. Stopes 
extend to surface along large part of 
the stringers. Lesser workings on north 
part of claim. Mined by several lessees 
and small mining companies. (Aubury 04: 
13t) . 

avels prospected by sinking a 367-foot 
shaft, but water encountered before 
reaching bedrock. No production. Prob- 
ably included in property of other mines 
listed herein. (Crawford 96:193). 

Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under di f ferent name . 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 



See text. (Julihn, Horton 37:4, 32, 
Tucker 35^467 , 481 ; Tucker , Sampson , 
Oakeshott 49:229-230, 264t; Walker, 
ering, Stephens 56:17). 



developed by two shallow shafts and 
several prospect pits; probably no 
jroduction. Two men working part tim 
.n 1955. 



See Summit Diggins Placer mines . 
(Tucker , Sampson 33: 322) . 

Developed by 3 shafts: 85-foot vertical 
310-foot vertical, and 250-foot inclined 
The 310-foot shaft has a 250-foot cross- 
cut north on 200 level and 250 feet of 
drifts. Inclined shaft has 250-foot 
rrosscut north on 200 level. All work- 
ngs were inaccessible in 1958. No 
ecorded production. 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. (Aubury 04:13t, 17t) . 



See text. (Aubury 04:13t; Brown 16:503, 
509; Crawford 96:196; Hulin 25:80, 137- 
138; Jenkins 42:331t; Newman 23:221; 
Tucker 20:34; 29:41-42, 47; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:275t, 276t, 291, 319; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:264t, 267t, 274t) . 



See text under tungsten. 

Gunderson group. (Brown 16:503). 

Undeveloped claim. Production, if an 
undetermined; long idle. (Aubury 04: 
13t; Brown 16:503; Tucker 24:34). 



Former clai 
96:193) . 



Df Ashford Min 



Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed under different name. One 70- 
foot inclined shaft. (Aubury 04:13t). 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



171 



GOLD, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Mohawk- Buddy 
mine 


Reported in sec. 
23, T29S, R36E, 
4DM, 11 miles 
lorth of Cantil 
(1949) r not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
W. E. Russell and 
associates , Cantil 
(1940) 


Two veins in granite; one strikes 
NE. and dips 70° NW. , the other 
strikes E. and dips 65" S. Veins 
range in width from 2 to 5 feet. 


Workings consist of a 50-foot and a 70- 
foot shaft on the NE. -trending vein and 
a 287-foot drift on the E . -trending 
vein. May be a westward extension of 
the San Antonio vein system. Idle 
since about 1940. (Tucker, Sampson 
40:35; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:264t) . 




Mojave Bonanza 
claim 








Former claim of Silver Queen mine. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:275t). 




Mojave Copper Co 


Reported in sees. 
20, 21, T29S, R38E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Mojave Copper Co., 
Bakersfield (1904) 


Copper, gold, and silver in quartz 
veins in metamorphic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
idle company. (Aubury 04:13t, 19t) . 


274 


Mojave Mining & 
Milling Co. 
(includes Dis- 
cover y , Doubl e 
Standard, Gem, 
North Star, 
Mountain Key, 
Single Standard) 
property 


W*2 sec. 5, T10N, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , 4 miles 
south of Mojave on 
the northeast slope 
of Soledad Mt. 


Mojave Mining & 
Milling Co. , Bert 
Wegman , pres . , P.O. 
Box 195, Randsburg 
(1958) 


Several fissure veins strike NE. , 
dip NW. ; in rhyolitic rocks. 
Cerargyrite and argentite occur 
in narrow discontinuous veinlets 
along fractures. 


Developed by 200-foot shaft with levels 
at 100 and 200 feet; 650-foot drift on 
100 level; and 850-foot drift on 200 
level. Also 3 drift adits including one 
over 1,000 feet long. Production less 
than 100 tons containing average of 1.1 
oz. gold and 9 oz. silver per ton. Idle 
since 1918. (Aubury 04: lOt, 13t, 14t, 
15t; Brown 16:491-492; Julihn, Horton 
37:23; Tucker 23:158; 29:31; 35:468; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:273t, 283; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:257t). 




Monarch 


Reported in T29S, 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
W. J. Thornton , 
Piute (1904) 


One-foot-wide vein strikes NE. , dips 
80° SE. ; in granite. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned. Originally developed by 60- 
foot shaft and 150-foot adit. (Craw- 
ford 96:194) . 


275 


Monarch prospect 


SW% sec. 5, T10N, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist., on northeast 
slope of Soledad 
Mt. 


Wilson Estate (?) 
address undeter- 
mined (1958) 


Two quartz veins strike N. 10° W. , 
dip 60° NE. ; in fine-grained 
rhyolite. Veins cut off by E-W 
fault at south end. Displaced 
segment not found. 


Southern extensions of Ajax, and Karma 
veins of Wegman group. Crosscut 587 
feet S.74* W. ; 294 feet from portal, 
crosscut exposes 18-foot width of Ajax 
vein; 542 feet west of portal. Karma 
vein is exposed across 45-foot width. 
Four hundred feet north of portal, short 
adits and opencuts expose 18 feet of 
Aj ax vein which assayed S5 per ton . 
(Tucker, Sampson 40:34, 35; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:230, 264t) . 


276 


Monarch Rand 
group 

Monarch Tungsten 
Gold Mining Co. 
property 


SE>4 sec. 1, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Stringer 
dist. , 2 miles 
southeast of Rands- 
burg 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Monarch Rand Min- 
ing Co. , W. O. 
Walker, pres., 222 
S. Thomas St. , 
Pomona (1949) 


Vein composed of brecciated sili- 
cified schist is 3^ feet wide along 
hanging wall of quartz-latite 
porphyry. Vein strikes N. 40° E., 
dips 60° SE., and contains pyrite, 
stibnite, gold, and silver. Also 
stringers in schist. Principal 
production was from placer material 
which contained gold and scheelite. 


Approximately 60 acres of patented land. 
Development consists of vertical shafts 
from 200 to 600 feet deep with about 50C 
feet of drifts appended at several 
levels. Deep shafts were developed in 
search for rich silver ore. Few hundrec 
ounces of gold and undetermined amount 
of scheelite were produced in 1930 1 s 
and early 1940 's from placer material. 
Idle. (Averill 46:260; Brown 16:505, 
522t; Hulin 25:82, 87, 138-139; Jenkins 
42:330t; Partridge 41:288; Tucker 29:58; 
Tucker, Sampson 41:576-577; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:271t, 274t) . 

See Monarch Rand group. (Brown 16:505; 
Partridge 41 : 288) . 




Mondora 
(Polka Dot) 


Reported in sec. 
21, T27S, R33E, 
MDM, (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein with gold, and lead and 
arsenic sulfides in metamorphic 
rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:13t, 
17t; Crawford 94:146, 96:195). 




Monitor group 


Reported in sec. 
36, T30S, R33E, 
MDM, Loraine dist. , 
3 to 4 miles south- 
east of Loraine 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
J. N. Thomson & Co. 
Kern City (1904) 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:13t). 




Monte Cristo 


Reported in sec. 
34, T28S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
A. Marty, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Quartz veins in porphyritic and 
granitic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably a long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:13t). 




Monte Cristo 
claim 








Patented claim of Yellow Aster mine. 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 




Montezuma claim 








Patented claim of Yellow Aster mine. 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 




Montezuma mine 








See Ruby mine. (Tucker, Sampson 33:324) 




Mooers claim 








Patented claim of Yellow Aster mine. 
(Crawford 96:194) . 



72 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 



GOLD, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


277 


Hoon claim 


SwJjSE^ sec. 33, 
T28S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , 
10 3/4 miles north 
northeast of 
Cantil, in gulch 

Gulch 


Mrs. Fay Moon, 
Whittier (1958) 


Gold-bearing Quaternary gravels 
form narrow mesa along west side of 
Bonanza Gulch. Bedrock is sedi- 
mentary rocks of Tertiary Goler and 
Ricardo formations . 


One 20-acre placer claim; name undeter- 
mined. Probably some production of 
placer gold. 


278 


Mooncastle 
prospect 

Moren. Sophie 
group 


stiH sec. 26 and 
Sw?a sec. 25, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, Keys- 
ville dist. , 3 
miles north-north- 
west of Bodf ish 


E. J. Lunenschoss, 
Bodfish (1957) 


Narrow gouge-filled vein strikes 
N. 40° E. , dips 70° SE.; in quartz 
diorite. 


Developed by 150-foot crosscut adit, 
short drift, and several caved workings 
of undetermined size. One man active 
part time. No recorded production. 

Group of claims which includes Winnie 
mine and probably other mines. See 
Winnie mine. 




Morning Glory 


Reported in sec. 
21, T28S, R32E, 
MDM, Clear Cr . 
dist. , 3 or 4 
miles southwest of 
Havilah, (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Morning Glory Gold 
Mining Co. , 
Pasadena (1904) 


Four veins, 1 to 4 feet wide, strike 
NW. , vertical ; in granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. Originally devel- 
oped by 200 to 300 feet of workings. 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 


279 


Morton prospect 

Mountain group 

Mountain Key 
claim 

Mountain King 
prospect 

Mountain View 
claim 


SE^s sec. 26, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, Keyes 
dist. , 3 miles 
northwest of 
Bodf ish 


C. 0. Dickerson, 
Bodfish (1957) 


Northeast-striking vein in grano- 
diorite . 


No recorfled production . Idle . 

See Orphan Anne prospect under copper. 
(Dibblee 52 : 59t) . 

Claim of Mojave Mining Milling Co. 
(Aubury 04:13t) . 

See Southern Cross group. (Aubury 04: 
13t; Brown 16: 510) . 

Claim in Elephant group. (Aubury 04: 
13t; Tucker 23:159) . 


280 


Mount Brecken- 
ridge (Iron 
Mountain Nos. 1, 
2) prospect 


NW*3 sec. 4, T29S, 
R31E, MEM, one 
mile south of 
Hoosier Flat, 4 
miles west of 
Breckenridge Mt. 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
D. Hartz, 

Bakersfield (1904) 


Hematite-rich micaceous schist from 
10 to 200 feet wide strikes NE . , 
dips 45° SE. 


Also listed under iron. Production 
undetermined. Long idle. (Aubury 04: 
lit, 19t; Brown 16:516; Tucker 21:312; 
29:56; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 
270t) . 




Mt. Henderson 
group 


Reported in sec. 
30, 31, T30S, 
R34E, MDM, Loraine 
dist. , about 2 
miles southwest of 
Loraine (1904): not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
A. J. Henderson & 
Co. , Kern City 
(1904) 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:13t). 


281 


Nadeau (Rankin) 


NE*3 sec. 11, T26S, 
R37E, MDM, south- 
west side Indian 
Wells Cyn. , 9*5 
miles northwest 
of Inyokern 


William Siebert 
and sons, 4216 
Glenalbyn Dr . , 
Los Angeles 65 
(1957) 


Poorly-defined quartz vein strikes 
NW. , dips 60° - 70° NE. ; in schist 
and quartzite. Vein is a few tens 
of feet southwest of a contact 
between granitic rocks and meta- 
sedimentary rocks. Vein contains 
free gold with pyrrhotite, pyrite, 
and arsenopyrite. Wall rocks of 
vein also contain quartz and sul- 
fides. Southeastern part of claims 
contain tactite which, farther to 
the southeast, has yielded scheelitc 
on adjoining claims of F.O.B. mine, 
which see in tungsten section. 


Three unpatented lode claims. Devel- 
oped by two drift adits, (Nadeau and 
Rankin) several open cuts and short 
adits, and several hundred feet of 
bulldozed cuts. Nadeau level contains 
about 450 feet of exploratory adits; 
Rankin level, 80 feet above Nadeau level 
contains a 40-foot drift adit, a 45-foot 
winze, and about 60 feet of drifts at 
bottom of winze. Most of gold ore 
mined was from Rankin level. Production 
undetermined; a small lot of ore from 
Rankin level averaged 1/3 oz. of gold 
per ton . (Information partly from 
unpublished report by B. M. Snyder, 1938 


282 


Nancy Hanks 
mine 


SE^ sec. 2, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 1^ miles 
south of Rands- 
burg 


Yellow Aster Mininc 
and Milling Co. , 
6331 Hollywood Blvc 
Los Angeles (1958) 


Free gold in mineralized fault 
zones in iron- stained schist . 
Principal zone strikes N. 75° E. , 
dips 50° N. , 1-7 feet wide, and 
several tens of feet long. Assays 
of 530.00 per ton in gold were 
obtained from 2-foot width of the 
vein (Hulin, 1925, p. 139). 


Patented claim. Inclined shaft 190 feet 
deep and drift adits on three levels. 
Moderate amount of near-surface stopes. 
Production information included with 
Yellow Aster mine. Long idle. 
(Crawford 96:194; Hess 10:40; Hulin 
25:139) . 




Naomi prospect 

■•Na±>cieon mine 


SE^SW^a sec. 34, 
T28S, R39E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , 15 
miles northeast 
of Cantil, half a 
mile west of 
Goler Gulch 


Earl V. Ehrhardt, 
4240 Canon Dr. „ 
La Canada (1958) 


Nor thea st- trending , iron- stained 
fractures in Paleozoic metasedi- 
mentary rocks. Also auriferous 
gravels of Tertiary Goler forma- 
tion. 


Developed by shallow inclined shaft at 
southwest end of an open cut in meta- 
sedimentary rocks. Probably no pro- 
duction. Idle. 

See Santa Ana group. (Aubury 04:13t; 
Brown 16:485; Tucker, Sampson 33:276t). 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



173 



COLD, com. 



Mop 


Name of claim, 


Location 


Owner 


Geology 


rfefnorKs ana references 


No. 


mine, or group 


( Nam e, addre ss ) 






Napoleon 


Reported in 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 




Uncorrelated old name. (Aubury 04:13t). 






Loraine dist. 


Jas. F. Ellis, 










(1904) ; not con- 


Kern City (1904) 










firmed, 1958 








284 


N.A.W. prospect 


SE^, sec. 36, 


V. R. Stonebraker 


Narrow fracture zone strikes 


Developed by 75 foot drift and a 15 foot 






T26S, R31E, MDM, 


(1957) 


N. 40° E. , dips 70° NW. ; in medium- 


winze. Older workings to the east 






Greenhorn dist. , 


(address undeter- 


grained granodiorite. Vein inter- 


(caved) developed by shaft and a 100- 


















Davis Guard Sta. 




point 50 feet from the portal. 


recorded production. Idle. 










Dike strikes nearly parallel to 












vein but dips 45° SE. 












Another fracture zone a few 












hundred feet east of portal strikes 












N. 75° E., dips 75° SE. Inter- 












section of two veins has not been 












prospected. 






He lected claim 
eg ec e 








Claim of Big Gold mine (Tucker 23 "166* 












Tucker, Sampson 33:291). 




Nellie Dent mine 


sec. 33, T25S, 


Kern Development 


Quartz veins in granodiorite and 


See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury 






R33E, MDM, Cove 


Co., C. S. Long, 


alaskite. 


04:13t; Brown 16:482, 505; Crawford 






dist. , 3% miles 


pres . , Box 1 57 , 




94:146; Prout 40:385, 390, 392; Tucker 






southwest of (new) 


Hayward. Leased to 




24:35, 36, 41; 29:42: Tucker, Sampson 






Kernville, west 


Kern Mines Inc. , 




33:275t, 281, 289; Tucker, Sampson, 






side of Lake 


Roland Toggnazzini , 




Oakeshott 49:264t). 






I sabella 


pres., 260 Calif- 












ornia St. , San 












Francisco (1955) 






285 


Nellie K. 


SWi, sec. 33, T27S, 


Mr. Wm. S. Fewell, 


Two to 4-foot-wide vein strikes 


Development consists of a 60-foot 




pr ospe ct 


R31E, MDM, about 






inclined shaft. No recorded production. 






25 miles northeast 


Bakersfield (1958) 


granitic rock. Vein is composed 








of Bakersfield, 




principally of iron-stained fault 








one mile above 




gouge containing free gold. 








Democrat Springs, 












adjacent to north 












bank of Kern River 










Nellie S and 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 


Quartz vein in porphyritic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 




Maggy B 


12, T27S/ R32E, 


Rayo Mining and 




abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:135t). 






MDM (1904) ; not 


Dev. Co. , Los 










confirmed 1957 


Angeles (1904) 








Nemitz (New 


Center of sec. 


Nellie M. Nemitz, 


Three to 5-foot-wide vein strikes 


Developed by drift adits, 90, 150, and 




Deal, Mexican) 


28, T30S, R33E, 


852 W. 73rd St. , 


N. 45° W. and dips 63° NE. ; in 


50 feet long spaced at 15 to 25-foot 




prospect 


MDM, Loraine dist., 


Los Angeles 44 


schist. Vein consists of brecciated 


intervals. No evidence of stoping and 






h mile south of 


(1958) 


schist in a post-brecciation white 


no recorded production. (Tucker, 






Loraine on the 




quartz and very sparse pyrite . An 


Sampson 33:275t) . 






northwest side of 




occurrence of graphite also present 








a tributary cyn. 




on the property. It occurs as 








to Indian Cr. 




irregular streaks in a 5 to 10- foot 












wide zone along planes of schistos— 












ity in a gray mica schist. 




287 


Nephi prospect 


Sec. 25, T26S, 


Undetermined, 1957 


Fracture zone, 8-feet wide strikes 


Workings consist of a 15 by 7 by 8 feet 






R32E, MDM, lh 




N. 40° E., dips 75° SE. ; in grano- 


deep open cut along vein and a 10-foot 






miles northwest 




diorite. 1/8 to 1 inch seams of 


drift N. 40° E. into the vein outcrop- 






of new Isabella 




iron-stained clayey gouge occur on 


ping. Fifteen feet below this and 30 






















fractured quartz diorite lies 


cut-adit driven N. 30° W. on a joint in 










between. 


granodiorite . 










Pronounced N. 55° W. , vertical 












jointing intersects vein. 






Nevada Placer 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958; 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 




Mining Co. 


12, T29S, R39E, 


Thomas W. Duke, 




idle company. Property probably 




property 


MDM, Goler dist. , 


address undetermin- 




listed herein under different name. 




El Paso Mts. 


ed (1904) 




(Aubury 04:18t) . 






(1904) ; not con- 












firmed, 1958 








288 


New Deal mine 


NE^SW^r sec. 3, 


Stewart D. Fraser 


Well-defined fault zone in quartz 


Three claims, all of which have been 






T30S, R40E, MDM, 


and C. D. Wise, 


monzonite. Fault strikes N. 10° W. , 


assigned new names in recent years. 






Rand dist. , 1 3/4 


Randsburg (1957) ; 


and dips 35° NE. into west side of 


Developed by 400-foot inclined shaft 






miles southwest of 












Randsburg, on west 


Osborn, W. H. 


face for few hundred feet; crosses 


ings on several levels, a shorter 






flank of Govern- 


Manuel, H. I. 


inclusion of schist north of main 


inclined shaft north of main shaft, and 






ment Pk. , Rand Mts 


Faust, Los Angeles 


inclined shaft. Southward from a 


south-driven drift near south end of 










point a few tens of feet south of 


exposed part of fault zone. History of 










main incline, a fault separates 


development of mine undetermined. 










quartz monzonite on east from schist 


Probably moderately small output in 










on west. In places rhyolite forms 


1930" s. Idle. See photo in text. 










hanging-wall of fault. Well- 












defined hanging-wall with an average 












of 2-foot-thick zone of partly- 












crushed material in footwall. 






New Discovery 


Reported in sec. 3, 


Undetermined, 1958; 


Four foot vein strikes NE., dips SW.; 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 






T28S, R32E, MDM, 


John Hayes, 


in granitic rock. 


herein under another name. (Aubury 04: 






Clear Cr. dist. , 


Havilah (1904) 




14t) . 






near Havilah 












(1904) ; not con- 












firmed, 1958 









174 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Mop 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



New Eldorado 



New Mex group 



Nobhill (Bar- 
lindo) prospect 



Noble prospect 



Norden mine 



Norman Placer 



Northern View 
prospect 



North Extensio 
Sumner (North 
Sumner, North 
Sumner Gold 
Mines Inc.) 



Noil 
(Norn 
Gold !■ 
Inc.) 



Repor ted in sec . 
26, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. , (1904) ; n 
confirmed, 1957 

Approx. sec. 1 , 
T30S, R37E, MDM, 
2 miles northwes 
of Gypsite s. 
of Southern Paci 
ic R.R. , southea 
flank of El Paso 



ng 



Red 



Repor ted 
Rock dist. , El 
Paso Mts. (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 

Reported in sec. 
3, T28S, R32E, 
MDM, Clear Cr. 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 

Sec. 25, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, l*j 
miles northwest of 
new Isabella 



Approx. center 
east h sec. 4, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, 
Rand dist. , 2 
miles southwest 
of Randsburg , on 
northwest slope 
of Rand Mts. 



North end of town 
of Johannesburg, 
Rand dist. ; not 
confirmed, 1957 



Center Eb sec. 20 
T27S, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacher dist. , 
4 miles south of 
Ridgecrest 

NE^ sec. 28, T25S 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , lb miles 
southwest of 
(new) Kernville, 
west side of Lake 
Isabella 



Reported in sec. 
6, T10N, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Undetermined, 1957 
Underwood and 
McNitt, Bakers- 
field (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Formerly Mrs. J. S 
Bishop ( deceased) 



Undetermined, 1958 

Hartley and 

Hawthorn, 

Red Rock (1896) 



Undetermined, 1958 
G. E. Thede, R. 
Travis, Havilah 
(1904) 



Wilbur R. Barclay, 
12010 S. Western, 
Los Angeles (1958) 



Glenn Tramill, 
Johannesburg (1957) 



Undetermined , 1957 
Charles Norman, 
Randsburg, and 
G. J. Holohan, 
Los Angeles (1933) 



Marion C. Miller 
address undeter- 
mined (1957) 



Kern Development 
Co. , C. S. Long, 
pres. , Box 157, 
Hayward. Leased 
to Kern Mines, Inc 
Roland Toggnazzini 
pres. , 260 Calif- 
ornia St. , San 
Francisco (1955) 

Not determined, 
1958; Mojave 
Mining & Milling 
Co., Mojave (1904) 



ith gold and copper" 



Quartz vein 3 feet wide strikes N. 
45° W. , dips 70° SW. ; in granitic 
rocks. Vein contains galena, 
chalcopyrite, pyrite, and traces 
of gold and silver. 



Placer gold in alluvium. 



One to 4 foot vei 
E. , dip 80° SW. ; 



strikes N. 40° 
n granitic rock. 



One to 4-foot-wide quartz vein in 
quartz diorite strikes N. 40° E., 
dips 80° E. , in a fracture zone 
which is as much as 6 feet wide. 
Quartz contains sparsely distribute, 
arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite, both 
of which are largely altered to 
limonite. 

Well-defined vertical fault zone 
1 to 3 feet wide strikes N. 30° W. ; 
in schist. Exposed approx. paral- 
lel to stream course for about 200 
feet along strike; north end termi- 
nated against cross fault. Brown 
carbonate rock containing green 
mar iposi te is common in the area . 



Auriferous gravel on schist bedrock 
Gravel cemented in places with 
caliche and described as being as 
much as 74 feet thick. Five to 6 
feet of gravel adjacent to bedrock 
was mined before 1933 and reported 
to yield about $2.00 per cu. yd. 
from pay channel 12 to 15 feet wide 



Iron-stained 
zone in quar 



north- trending shear 
monzonite . 



Quartz veins in shear zone in 
granodiroite and alaskite, an 
Cretaceous metamorphic rocks. 



One to 5 foot-wide quartz vein 
strikes NW. , dips NE. ; in porphyr- 
itic rock. 



Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Two inclined shafts, one 60 feet deep, 
one 200 feet deep, and an 80-foot drift 
adit. (Aubury 04:14t). 

Formerly 3 claims; abandoned by Bishop 
family. Probably listed herein under 
different name. Developed before 1929 
by 60-foot shaft and 40-foot drift adit 
(Tucker 29:42; Tucker, Sampson 33:275t) 



Uncorrelated old name. Worked by dry 
placer methods in 1890" s with low daily 
yield of gold. May be listed herein 
under different name. (Crawrord 96:3 94 
195t) . 

Uncorrelated old name: Probably listed 
herein under another name. (Aubury 04; 
14t) . 



Development is limited to a 15-foot 
shaft with connecting 10- foot crosscut 
adit and several discovery shafts. 
Currently under geologic examination 
by consultant (1958) . 



Older name undetermined. Developed by 
4 shafts of undetermined depth spaced 
from 10 to 30 feet apart and at least 
one connecting drift at about the 30- 
foot level. Probably other drifts on 
lower level s . Tramill reports presence 
of moderately rich streaks of ore . 
Probably some production; undetermined. 
Idle. 

Former name of Huel sdonk placer mine ; 
listed herein under Rand Gold Dredging 
Assoc. (Hulin 25:145-147; Tucker 29:43 
Tucker, Sampson 33:275t, 319-320; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:264t). 

Uncorrelated name. One claim. Devel- 
oped by shaft to bedrock and 2 drifts; 
one was driven 50 feet to southeast, the 
other was driven 40 feet to northwest. 
May be the shaft which is about h mile 
west of Operator-Divide ' mine , on south- 
west side of shallow stream channel. 
Probably long idle . (Tucker , Sampson 
33:320; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 
264t) . 

Three, shallow vertical shafts; a 
prospect; idle. 



See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury 
04:14t; Brown 16:488; Newman 22:146- 
147; Prout 40:389, 390, 392, 393; 
Tucker 24:35, 36, 39-40; 29:42, 46; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:275t, 276t, 289, 
320-3 21; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 
49: 264t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably old 
claim name of Mojave Mining & Milling 
Co. (Aubury 04:14t) . 



Claim at Big Gold mine, which see. 
Tucker 23:166; Tucker, Sampson 33:291). 



See North Extension Sumner. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



175 



GOLD, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


L ocation 


Owner 
(Name, address J 


Geology 


Rem arks and references 




Nugget Flat 


Sees. 33 and 34, 


Undetermined, 1958 r 


Placer gold in gravels as much as 


Formerly part of the Chamberlain group. 




group 


T28S, R39E, MDM, 


P . C . Chamberlain , 


70 feet thick in valley in upper 


Present name undetermined. Probably few 






in Nugget Flat, 


Los Angeles (1949) 


part of Goler Cyn. Nuggets re- 


hundred ounces of gold produced in 1890 ' 






upper part of 




covered from area in 1890 1 s were 


and smaller amounts in 1930 ' s and 1940 1 s 






Goler Cyn., El 




valued at from $10 to $50 each 


Idle since 1940's. (Dibblee, Gay 52: 






Paso Mts. 




(Tucker, Sampson and Oakeshott, 


61t; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:217). 










1949, p. 217). Bedrock is lower 












member of Goler formation . 






Nymph and Last 








See Last Chance mine (Tucker 33:275t). 




Chance claims 










292 


Nyra prospect 


Center Sh sec. 36, 


Ray Bedford, 


Quartz stringer (?) in granitic 


Developed by 10-foot shaft. One verti- 






T26S, R31E, MDM, 


Bakers field (1957) 


rock. No surface expression. 


cal diamond drill hole to intersect 






Greenhorn dist. , 






vei n - negative results . No recorded 












production . 






Davis Guard Sta. 










Occidental mine 








See Amalie mine under silver in text . 












(Crawford 94:146) . 




K gr oup 








See Stringer placer mines under tungsten 












in text. 




K Placer 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined , 1958 




Un cor related old name . Probably 






5, T28S, R31E, 






abandoned. Formerly ground sluicing 






MDM (1904) ; not 






operation. (Aubury 04:18t). 






confirmed, 1958 








293 


Old Baldy pros- 


NW^a sec. 1, T30S, 


Chilerene Edmonds 


Iron-stained schist along north 


Vertical shaft of undetermined depth. 




pect 


R40E , MDM, Rand 


and Margery Doremus 


side of rhyolite dike which strikes 


Probably no production. (Tucker, 






dist. , lh miles 


addresses undeter- 


N. 75° E. 


Sampson 33:275t) . 






southeast of 


mined, 1957 










Randsburg 










Old Bodfish 








Old name. See Porter group. (Crawford 




claim 








94:146) . 




Old Cowboy mine 








See Gold Peak and Cowboy mines in text 












under silver. 




Old Gar lock 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined , 1958 




Uncorrelated old name. May be part of 






16 , T29S , R39E , 






Austin group. (Dibblee, Gay 52:59t) . 






MDM, northwest of 












Garlock, El Paso 












Mts. (1952) ; not 












confirmed, 1958 








294 


Old Grandma 


SW^ sec. 3, T28S, 


E. G. Johnson, 




No recorded production. Comprises 6 




group 


R32E, MDM, Clear 


Bodfish (1957) 




unpatented claims . 






Cr. dist., one 












mile west-north- 












west of Havilah, 












on south flank of 












O'Brien Hill 










Old Keyes 








See Keyes mine . 




Old Look Out 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined , 1958 


Placer gold in alluvium . 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 






12 , T29S, R39E, 






herein under different name. (Aubury 






MDM, Goler dist. , 






04:18t) . 






El Paso Mts. 












(1904) ; not con- 












firmed, 1958 










Old Mojave 








See Wells Fargo. (Aubury 04:16). 




Olivette 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Three veins 2 to 4 feet-wide strike 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably old 






6, T10N, R12W, 


Bedbury Bros . & 


NW. , dip E. Has granitic hanging 


claim name of Mojave Mining & Milling 






SBM, Mojave dist. , 


Gurner , Mojave 


wall , porphyritic footwall . Said 


Co. or Wegman group. (Aubury 04:14t) . 






(1904) ; not con- 


(1904) 


to be extension of Karma vein. 








firmed, 1958 










Olympic group 








See Summit Diggings Placer mines. 












(Tucker, Sampson 33:322) . 




Olympus mine 








Or igi nal name of Yel low As ter mine . 










Included Big Horse, Burcham, Burcham 












No. 2, California, Mariposa, Mooers, 












Nancy Hanks , Olympus , Rand , Singleton , 












Tenne s see , and Tr i lby claims . Al 1 s til i 












claims of Yell ow Aster mine except 












California. (Crawford 96:187, 193, 194, 












195, 196, 197) . 


295 


Opal prospecc 


West of center of 


Lloyd E. McManus, 


Gold-bearing quartz stringers 


Explored by 125-foot adit along vein 






south boundary 


Postmaster , Clara- 


strike N. 65° E. through deeply 


(caved and inaccessible in 1954) ; 






sec. 32, T28S, 


ville (1954) 


weathered granitic rock. 


50-foot crosscut started, heading 






R34E , MDM, Piute 






S. 70° W. , to join adit; 20— foot shaft 






Mts. area, one 






(caved in 1954) 100 yards west of adit 






mile northwest of 






portal. No production. Idle. 






Claraville, about 












h mile west of 












ma in road 










Operator mine 








See Operator Divide mine. (Tucker, 












Sampson 33: 275t) . 



76 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Operator Divide 
(Operator, Oper- 
ator Consolida- 
ted, Phoenix, 
Valverde) mine 



Ophir clai 



Oppor tunity 
prospect 



Oro Fino mine 



Oro Fxno plac 



Orphan Boy clain 
Orphan Girl mine 



Osses claim 



R40E, 



■c. 25, T29S, 
MDM, Rand 

half a mile 
of Johannes- 



SZh sec. 25, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, 2 miles 
north-northeast of 
Bodf ish 



Reported in sec. 
12, T27S, R32E, 
MDM, Clear Cr . 
dist. , northeast 
of Havilah (1904) ; 



not c 
1958 



ed, 



Reported in sec. 

T27S, R33E, MDM, 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 



NW^ st 
R40E, 



C 12, T30S, 
MDM, String- 



southeast of 
Randsburg 



Repor ted in vici 
nity of Bodfish 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Reported in sec 
6, T29S, R30E, 
MDM, near mouth of 
Kern Cyn. (1904 
not confirmed, 
1958 



Bodfish Cr. (18 
not confirmed, 

1957 



Operator Consolid- 
ated Mining Co. , 
A. B. Meikeljohn, 
sec. , 6331 Holly- 
wood Blvd. , Los 
Angeles (1958) ; 
Carl H. Dressel- 
haus, lessee (1958; 



George N. Ross, 
Keyeville (1957) 



Undetermined , 1958 : 
D. A. Coggswell, 
Vaughn (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957 
O. A. Phillips and 
D. C . Spearman , 
Randsburg (1929) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Moore & Cross, 
Vaughn (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958 
W. R. Clarke, 
Bakersfield (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957 



Quartz stringers and veins in five 
oxidized shear zones in schist ; 
strike N. 45° W. , dip 20° ME. 
Veins have well-developed hanging 
walls, poorly defined footwalls. 
Free milling finely disseminated 
gold occurs in lenses and shoots. 
Maximum width about 7 feet; average 
2-3 feet. Veins poorly exposed 
on surface; exposed in trenches 
and open cuts for several tens of 
feet. 



A 3-inch to 
3-foot fauli 
dips 60° - 70° s: 
The vein consist 



foot-wide vein in a 
one strikes N. 45° E 
SE. ; in granodiorit' 
nly of clayey 



ith free gold; 



ry little 



Three vei 
strike E. 
rocks. 



s, 3 to 4 feet wide, 
dip N. ; in granitic 



vein in metamorphic rocks 



Two gold-bearing quartz veins in 
schist. Orphan Girl vein strikes 
N. 50° W. and dips 35° NE. ; steep- 
ens to 65° NE. at 200-foot level of 
mine. Length of ore shoot is about 
100 feet. Intersected by east- 
striking, 80° S. -dipping Sunshine 
vein (see Sunshine mine) 200 feet 
northwest of shaft on Orphan Girl 



Seven foot vein strikes NE . 
SE.; in metamorphic rocks. 



Quartz in granitic rocks. 



dips 



See Operator Divide mine. (Tucker, 
Sampson 40:35) . 

Eleven claims. Principal activity 1896- 
1899, 1902-1905, 1909-1913, 1932-1934, 
1937-1939, and 1940-1942. Production 
before 1925 was $600,000 from ore which 
averaged about 0.8 oz. per ton in gold 
(Hulin, 1925, p. 140). Workings consis 
of a main inclined shaft with 2,000 feet 
of horizontal workings to a depth of 300 
feet plus several other shafts to lesser 
depths. Lessee mines in easternmost 
workings each summer. (Aubury 04:14t, 
17t; Brown 16:507; Hess 10:40; Hulin 
25:80, 81, 140; Tucker 29:43-44; Tucker 
Sampson 33:275t, 280, 321; 40:11, 35; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:265t). 

See Porter group. (Aubury 04:14t; 
Brown 16:506; Crawford 94:146; 96:194; 
Tucker 29:44; Tucker, Sampson 33:275t, 
299-300; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:265t) . 

Development consists of an 80-foot 
inclined shaft, a 40-foot drift on the 
28-foot level, a 50-foot drift on the 
48-foot level, a 30-foot drift adit, an 
a 40-foo*. drift adit. The shaft is now 
caved. Shipped less than 100 tons which 
averaged a little over one ounce of gold 
per ton. (Tucker, Sampson 33:321-322). 

See Ferris mine. 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:14t). 



Uncorrelated old name ; probably 1 ong 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:14t) . 



See Rand group. (Aubury 04:14t; Brown 
16:506; Crawford 96:194). 

See Summit Diggins Placer mines . 
(Hulin 25:147-148; Tucker 29:44; Tucker 
Sampson 33:275t, 322; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:265t). 

See Gold Coin group. (Aubury 04:14t). 

May be same as Rizz. No. 2 claim. Dis- 
covered in 1896 and mined mostly in 
1905-1906, 1911, 1928-1929, and 1934- 
1935. Principal output was in 1911. 
Total output is few hundred ounces of 
gold from ore that averaged about 0.4 
oz. gold per ton. Orphan Girl vein is 
developed by a 370-foot inclined shaft 
with drifts totaling 50^ feet on 3 
levels. Long idle. (Au -.ry 04:14t; 
Tucker 29:44; Tucker, Sampson 33:275t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:265t). 

Claim of San Antonio mine. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33: 2?5t) . 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:14t). 



Claim of Standard group. (Tucker 23: 
160) . 



Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:14t). 



Uncorrelated old name. Prospect under 
development in 1888. May be listed 
herein und-?r different name. (Goodyea 
88:316) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



COLD, com. 



Mop 


. . . -_ 
iVOfDB Or CIQim t 


Location 


n 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


No. 


mine, or group 


(Name, address) 






Pasadena 


Reported in sees. 


Undetermined, 1958 


Vein strikes NE. , dips SE . ; in 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 






3, 10, T28S, R32E, 




granitic rock. 


herein under another name . (Aubury 






MDM, (1904) ; not 






04:14t) . 






confirmed, 1958 








298 


Pasadena mine 


SW^NEij sec. 8, 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Placer gold in sandy gravels of 


Prospected and mined along west edge of 






T29S, R38E, MDM, 


R. A. Roberts, 


Quaternary terrace deposit along 


terrace deposits by trenching and dr i f t- 






El Paso Mts . , 8*5 


(Pasadena Mine 


east side of Last Chance Cyn. 


ing. Trench is about 400 feet long 






miles north-north- 


Products Co. , ) , 


Gold appears to be mostly in lower 


and from 10 to 30 feet wide-; drifts and 






east of Cantil, on 


1107 E. Colorado 


few feet on western edge of terrace 


prospect holes dug into east wall of 






east side of Last 


St. , Pasadena 1 


as indicated by expl oration . 


trench. Probably several tens of ounces 






Chance Cyn. 


(1952) 


Lateral distribution of gold and 


of gold recovered. Long idle. (Dibblee 










proportion of gold undetermined. 


Gay 52:61t) . 










Bedrock is lower members of Plio- 












cene Ricardo formation . 






Patsy claim 


Stringer district 






See Stringer district placer mines 












under tungsten in text. (Averill 46: 












260) . 




Patterson 


Reported in sec . 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 


Mineralized dike in granitic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 






7, T28S, R40E, 


W. E . Patterson, 




listed herein under different name. 






MDM, El Paso dist. 


Garlock (1904) 




One 100-foot tunnel. (Aubury 04:14t). 






(1904) ; not con- 










firmed, 1957 








299 


Pay Day prospect 


SW^ sec. 28, T29S, 


W. B. and Lola 


Quartz stringer strikes N. 45° E. , 


Devel oped by sha f t about 100 feet deep . 






R36E, MDM, in 


Fraser , 5007 N. 


vertical ; in quartz monzonite . 


A pr ospect ; idle. 






Butterbread Cyn. , 


Landis , Baldwin 










9h miles northwest 


Park (1957) 










of Cinco 










Paymaster claim 








Probably old name of claim of Yellow 












Aster mine. (Aubury 04:l4t) . 




Pay Roll 


Reported in 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 


Two 1 to 2— foot-wide veins strike 


Uncorrelated old name. Developed by 






vicinity of 


A. L Conners, 


NE. and E . , dip 45° SE. and S. ; in 


short adits and shallow shafts . Prob- 






Democrat Springs 


Bakersf ield (1929) 


granitic rock . 


ably abandoned. (Tucker 29:44). 






on ridge south of 










Kern R. (1929) ; 












not confirmed. 












1958 










Pearl claim 








Claim of Zenda mine. (Aubury 04:14t). 


300 


Pearl Wedge 


NE% sec. 11, T30S, 


Glenn Tramill , 


Goid-and scheelite-bearing string- 


A small fraction of a claim between 




(Victory Wedge) 


R40E, MDM, 


Johannesburg (1957) 


ers 8 inches to 2 feet wide; in 


Merced and Santa Ana claims. Three 




mine 


Stringer dist. , 2 




schist. Stringers dip NW. and 


shafts to depths of 250 feet and prob- 






miles south of 




strike NE. onto adjoining claims. 


ably a few hundred feet of drifts on 






Randsburg 




See also Merced mine. 


several levels. Total output of few 












hundred ounces of gold in 1909-1910 












and 1936-1937. Tungsten output undeter- 












mined . (Aubury 04 : 14 t ; Tucker 29:44; 












Tucker, Sampson 33:275t; Tucker, Sampsor 












Oakeshott 49:265t) . 




Penimore mine 








See Pinmore mine. (Hess 10:40). 




Pennsylvania 








See High Grade mine. (Aubury 04:14t; 




mine 








Tucker 29:45; Tucker, Sampson 33:275t, 












322, 323; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 












49:265t) . 


301 


Pestle group 


NW part of sec . 4 , 


S. M. Mingus, 


Several fractures and fault zones 


Appr ox . 8 claims. Developed by explora- 






T30S, R40E, MDM, 


P.O. Box 94, 


in schist. Some contain gold, 


tion shafts and drifts. Probably no 






Rand dist. , 2h 


Randsburg (1958) ; 


others contain minor amounts of 


production . Part-time devel opment work 






miles we s t — s ou th— 


Leased to Frank 


mangani f erous material. Gold con- 


being conducted by one man in 1957. 






west of Randsburg 


Dawson , Los Angel es 


tent by assay from material in 








northwest slope 




northwest part of claims is $5 per 








of Rand Mts. 




ton (S. M. Mingus, personal communi- 












cation, 1958) . 






Philadelphia 








Fraction claim at southeast end of 




Wedge claim 








Butte mine. (Aubury 04:14t). 




Phoenix mine 








See Operator Divide mine. (Brown 16: 












507) . 




Pickwick mine 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Small production before 1916 . Developed 






3, T27S, R33E, 






by several thousand feet of workings on 






MDM, (1904) ; not 






3 adits. Probably long abandoned. 






confirmed , 1957 






(Brown 16:506) . 




Pine Tree 


Reported in sees. 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 


Vein strikes NE. , dips SE. ; in 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 






3, 10, T28S, R32E, 


John Hayes , 


granitic rock. 


herein under another name. (Aubury 






MDM, Clear Cr . 


Havilah (1904) 




04:14t) . 






dist. , west of 












Havilah (1904) ; 












not confirmed , 












1958 










Pine Tree 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 






2, T27S, R33E, 






abandoned prospect (Aubury 04 : 14t) . 






MDM (1904) ; not 












confirmed, 1957 









178 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remorks and references 



Pine Tree 
(American , 
Vi ctoria) 



re (Croesu; 
ore) mine 



non Hill 

prospect 



Piute clai 



Placer Gold Co 
property 



Pleasant View 



(Pinyon tunnel 
site) prospect 



ridge 
Mts. 



r. sec. 3 and 
r. sec. 4, 

R15W, SBM, 
es south of 
hapi , on 
slope of 
n Tehachap: 



Carl H. Claussen- 
ius, 1248 S. Ridge 
ley Dr . , Los 
Angeles 19 (1958) 



SE^ sec. 25, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , half a mile 
north of Johannes- 
burg 



W% Sec. 6, T9N, 
R17W, SBM (proj.) 
south side of 
Canyon del Gato- 
Montes, 15 miles 
northeast of 
Gorman, southeast 
flank of Tehachapi 
Mts. 

Reported in sec. 
12, T27S, R32E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 



Reported in sec 
13, T28S, R34E, 
MDM, Piute Mts. 
(1916) ; not con 
firmed, 1958 



tringer dist. , 
bout 2 miles 
outheast of 
nndsburg 



Reported in sec . 
9, T27S, R32E, 
MDM (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 

Reported in sec. 
17, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

SE% sec. 25, T28S 
R35E, MDM, near 
crest on south 
slope of Pinyon 



Mt., 15 



iles 



rthwest of Ci 



Reported in sees 
20 and 29, T27S, 
R33E, MDM, ; 
not confirmed , 

1957 



Stewart Fraser, 
Randsburg (1957) 



Tejon Ranch Co. , 
P.O. Box 1560, 
Bakersfield (1958) 



Undetermined, 1957 



Undetermined, 1958 
Piute Consolidated 
Mining Co. , (1949) 



Undetermined, ] 
Max Helmes, 
Havilah (1896) 



Undetermined, 19 
G. D. Vetter, 
Garlock (1904) 



James S. Mclntyre 
and John Hows on , 
addresses unde ter 
mined (1957) 



Undetermined , 1957 



ntair 



; i-Mi- 



gold in quartz vein; 
tic rocks. Veins a] 
e sulfides. Veins strike 
to northeast and dip 20° to 
40° S. or SE. Maximum width is 
about 3 feet; length probably few 
hundred feet. Veins offset at 
several places by cross- faults. 
Quartz in veins is white to pale 
pink and is nearly everywhere 
broken into fragments about \ inch 
in average size and partly re- 
cemented. Hanging wall and foot- 
wall of veins also brecciated in 
most outcrops. Scheelite occurs 
locally in the quartz veins. 



Quartz-bearing iron-stained shear 
zones in schist. Veins strike N. 
25° E. , dip 25° SE. and are ex- 
posed for several hundred feet 
west side of a moderately-low 
Grade of ore ranged from half an 
oz. of gold per ton to about 1 o 
per ton. 



11. 



Auriferous gossan formed from th 
alteration of massive pyrite 
bodies in limestone at granite- 
limestone contact. Some materia 
reported to contain $20 per ton 
gold (Wiese, 1950, p. 47). 



Quartz vein, 2 feet wide, i 
itic rocks, strikes ME. and 
45° SE. Free milling gold 
pay shoot 150 feet long. 



Three parallel quartz veins strike 
N. , dip S. ; in granitic rock. 
Widest vein is 18 inches. 



Quartz veins containing sulfides 
in granite. 



Iron- stained quartz 
approximately west: 



Principal operation was before 1910 by 
which time 5 adits from 80 to 800 (?) 
feet long and several thousand feet of 
dr i f ts and s topes were devel oped . Prin- 
cipal adits were driven SW. and S . and 
drifts extended along vein from them. 
Older lower adit portals covered by 
dumps of upper adits . Production 
reported to be $250,000 in gold from 
1876 to 1907 (Brown, 1916, p. 506). 
Minor production of gold in 1935 and 
tungsten in 1942-1943. Tungsten mined 
from open cut several tens of feet west 
of main workings. All of the adits are 
caved at portals and inaccessible. 
(Aubury 04:8t, 14t, 16t, 17t; Brown 16: 
485t, 506; Crawford 96:194-195; Jenkins 
42:332t Tucker 29:45; Tucker, Sampson 
33:275t, 280; 41:577-578; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:265t). 

Few thousand ounces of gold recovered 
1897-1899, 1902-1903, and 1932-1938. 
Developed by 2 inclined shafts to 300 
feet and 300-foot crosscut adit. Hori- 
zontal workings probably exceed 2,000 
feet on several levels. Long idle. 
(Aubury 04:14t, 17t; Brown 16:507; 
Crawford 96:195; Hess 10:40; Hulin 25: 
144; Tuqker, Sampson 33:275t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:265t). 

Gossan bodies on south edge of limestone 
on Pinon Hill were explored by Pinon 
Hill Mining Co. in 1941. No production 
Idle. (Wiese 50:47) . 



Uncorrelated old name may be same as 
Pioneer tunnel of Big Blue group. 
(Aubury 04:14t; Crawford 96:195, 199t) 



See Tropico mine. (Tucker, Sampson 
3 3 : 27 5 t ; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 
49:265t) . 

Uncorrelated old name. May be an 
erroneous 1 oca t ion . Workings consisted 
of 300-foot crosscut adit with short 
drifts 150 feet from portal. In 1913, 
owner recovered $2,500 in gold from 
80 tons of ore. (Brown 16:506-507; 
Tucker 29:45 Tucker, Sampson 33:275t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:265t). 



red placer gold anc 



A company that i 
scheelite from alluvial material in 
vicinity of Baltic mine. Dry placer 
method of recovery utilized 1898-1913, 
sluicing methods used about 1916. Pro- 
duction probably attributed to claims 
from which material was removed. Long 
idle. (Boalich, Castello 18:13t; Browi 
16:507, 522t; Partridge 41 : 289t) . 

See King Solomon mine. (Tucker 33:274t) 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. May be in T. 28 S. (Aubury 
04:14t; Crawford 96:195). 



Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under di f f erent name . (Aubury 
04:14t) . 



Exploratory crosscut adit extends 150 
feet N. 15° W. and shallow winze sunk 
on quartz vein at face. Several older 
(mostly caved) exploration holes on 
surface a few hundred feet west and 
northwest of portal of crosscut adit. 
A prospect; idle. 

Uncorrelated old name. Production of 
$8,000 in gold from pockets in veins 
before 1916. (Aubury 04:14t; Brown 
16:507; Tucker, Sampson 33:275t; Tucker 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:265t). 



1 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



COLD, com 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
( Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Polka Dot 








See Mondora. 




Pomona Mill and 
Mining Co. 
property 


Reported about 3 
miles north of 
Goler ; El Paso 
Mts. (1894) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Pomona Mill and 
Mining Co. , Los 
Angeles (1894) 


Gold-bearing clays and sandstones: 
also coal bed about 14 inches thick 
which dips gently north. Prospects 
of coal also reported one mile or 
more north of this locality. 


May be in vicinity of Apache copper 
mine or same as Colorado Camp group. 
Property abandoned by 1896. (Crawford 
94:147, 457; 96:195) . 




Populist 


Reported in sec. 7 
T28S, R33E, MDM, 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
R. D. Farmer , 
Havilah (1904) 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:14t) . 


306 


Porter prospect 


NE^ sec. 31, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, Green- 
horn dist. , 2h 
miles east of 
Davis Guard Sta. 


Porter (1957) 
[address undeter- 
mined) 


Veins in granitic rock . 


No recorded production. Idle. 


307 


Porter (Ederl 
group , McKeadney 
McKidney, Old 
Bodfish, Ophir, 
Venus) group 


NE^a sec. 9, T28S, 
R32E, MD M, 1*3 
miles west by 
southwest of 
Havilah and 1 mile 
s ou th- s ou t hwe s t of 
O'Brien Hill 


H. V. Porter, 
Rt. 1, Box 84 
Caliente (1957) 


Quartz veins in quartz diorite. 


See text. (Aubury 04:13t, 14t; Brown 
16: 503, 506; Crawford 94:146; 96:193, 
194; Tucker, Sampson 29:41, 44; 33:275t, 
299-300; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:257t, 264t, 265t) . 




Portuguese 


Undetermined 
(1957) 


Undetermined, 1957 


Gold in quartz. 


Probably situated along an old stage 
route near a tributary to Walker Basin 
Cr. in the northeast part of T. 30 S. , 
R. 31 E., M.D.M. Long idle. Pro- 
duction undetermined. (Crawford 96:195, 
199t) . 


308 


Poso mine 


SW^ sec. 30, T27S, 
R30E, MDM, on 
Poso Cr. 1*5 miles 
southwest of Pine 
Mt. 


Bill Fritz, Mission 
Hotel , Bakersfield, 
Mr . Longway , 616 
18th St. , Bakers- 
field, J. H. 
Steppe , Granite 
Station 


Quartz veins in granitic rock. 


See text. (Tucker 29:45; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:275t, 323; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:266t). 




President 
prospect 


Reported in sec. 
4, T27S, R32E, 
MDM, about 3 miles 
northwest of 
Bodfish, not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 : 
H. V. Porter, 
Box 8, Rt. 1, 
Caliente (1950) 


Vein strikes NE. , dips 40° E. ; in 
granodiorite . Ore shoot 60 feet 
long and averaged 14 inches in 
width. Vein has been traced 1,500 
feet. 


Developed by a 465-foctadit and 150 feet 
of drifts. No recorded production. 
Long idle. (Brown 16:507, 508; Tucker 
29:46; Tucker, Sampson 33:275t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:266t). 


309 


Pride of Mojave 
(includes Four 
Star ( mine 

Princeton 


NW^3 sec. 33, TUN, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , 3 miles 
south of Mojave, 
at base of north- 
east slope of 
Standard Hill 


Undetermined, 1958; 
C. C. Calkins, W.W. 
Kaye, Alfred 
Siemon , Mo j a ve 
(1940) 


Several calcite veins strike about 
N. 20° W. , dip 60°-65° NE, ; mostly 
in quartz monzonite. Quartz- 
latite porphyry forms one wall in 
some parts of vein. Lenticular 
discontinuous streaks of quartz 
within the calcite contain free 
gold and cerargyrite with iron , 
lead , and copper sul fides and 
carbonates. Calcite is stained by 
manganese and iron oxides. 


First operated about 1934. Produced 
about 4,500 tons between 1939 and 1941 
which averaged about 0.15 oz. of gold 
and 0.5 oz. of silver per ton: over 
9,000 lbs. of lead and 1,800 lbs. of 
copper were recovered as by-products . 
Developed by Pride of Mojave shaft and 
Four Star shaft which are 265-foot in- 
clined and 240-foot vertical shafts, 
respectively. Levels at 70, 135 and 
230 feet in Pride of Mojave shaft. 
Horizontal workings total over 4,000 
feet. Fifty-ton mill built about 1939; 
additional equipment to handle tungsten 
installed 1941. Mill now dismantled. 
(Eric 48:255t; Julihn, Horton 37:31,32; 
Tucker, Sampson 35:474-475, 481-482; 
40:35-36) . 

Uncorrelated old name; may be part of 
Commonwealth mine (Aubury 04:14t). 


310 


Prize prospect 

Producer 
prospect 


SW% sec. 28, T27S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 5 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 


W. C. Barnes , 
address undeter- 
mined (1957) 


One-foot-wide, iron-stained shear 
zone along east side of a vertical, 
north-striking dioritic dike in 
quartz monzonite. 


Developed by a 60- to 80-foot vertical 
shaft. A prospect; idle. 

See Ellston prospect. (Aubury 04:14t, 
17t; Brown 16:493) . 




Prospector 
(Wilhelmina) 


Reported in sec. 
26, T26S, R32E, 
MDM, Keyes dist. , 
not confirmed , 
1957 


Undetermined , 1957 ; 
Conley & Lee (1904) 


Two eight-inch-wide quartz veins 
strike NE., dip E., in granitic 
rock. 


Probably obsolete name. Developed by a 
45-foot inclined shaft, a 170-foot and 
a 250-foot drift. (Aubury 04:14t) . 




Prosperity 
prospect 








See under tungsten . 


311 


Punkie (Vestry) 
prospect 


Center of south 
boundary sec. 32, 
T28S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. area, 
one mile north- 
west of Clara- 
ville, about 1/8 
mile west of main 
rd. 


Bill Miller, 

8621 Evergreen St. 

South Gate (1954) 


Gold-bearing quartz seams in zone 
about 1 foot wide strike N. 50° E. , 
dip 50° S. , through deeply 
weathered granitic rock. 


Explored by means of 40-foot adit 
driven along vein. A few dollars 
reported recovered from exploration 
work, 1930-1931. Idle. 



so 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 



Map Name of claii 
No mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Putnam group 
( Sparkplug) 



Pyramid (Tip Top) 



Queen Esther 



Queen of Sheba 



Queen of the 
Desert 



Quien Sabe (?) 
prospect 



Rademacher 
(Barron, Rada 
macher) mine 



Rainbow prospect 



South edge of sec 
2 and NE*a sec. 11 
T29S, R39E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , 1 
mile northwest of 
mouth of Goler 
Cyn. , 15 miles 
northeast of 
Can til 



John Janney, Pioche 
Nevada, trustee 
(1958) 



Auriferous gravels at base of Ter- 
tiary Goler formation and in 
Quaternary gravels derived from 
them. Fine to coarse flakes and 
nuggets of gold occur in basal beds 
of Goler formation resting on 
Paleozoic bedrock and in Quaternary 
gravels and Recent stream gravels 
down si ope from them . 



Eh sec. 6, T10N, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , 5 miles 
southwest of 
Mojave, in a 
narrow north- 
trending canyon oi 
north slope of 
Soledad Mt. 

Reported 2\ miles 
southeast of 
Havilah (1933) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 

Reported in vici- 
nity of Red Rock 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



NW^a sec. 9, T10N, Undetermined, 1958 
R13W, SBM William S. Allen, 

Pasadena (1937 



P. J. Osdick (?) 
Red Mountain 



Harvey Mudd Estate 
Pacific Mutual Bldg. 
Los Angeles ; 
G. H. Lateau estate, 

(address undet. ) 
Mary Boyle estate 

(address undet.) 



Undetermined, 1958 
J. L. Stubblef ield, 
Havilah (1933) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Underwood and 
McNitt, Bakers field 
(1904) 



Reported in Golei 
dist. , El Paso 
Mts. (1896) r not 
confirmed, 1958 



sec. 29, T27S, 
R 40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 5 
miles south-south' 
west of Ridgecrest 



mh sec. 10, T30S 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , about 2 
miles southwest o: 
Randsburg 



Repor ted in sec . 
32, TUN, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist 
3 miles south of 
Mojave on Standard 
.Hill (1904) f no 
confirmed, 1958 



others , Randsburg 
(1896) 



V. C. Osmont, 
address undeter 
ed (1957) 



P. J. Osdick, 
Adolph Bulla, 
Red Mountain (1957 



Undetermined, 1958 
C. C. Calkins, K.A 
Calkins, Mojave 
(1904) 



inch to 
dips 80 



rhyolitic volca 



-foot-wide vein strike: 
NW. ; in granitic rock 



Includes 5 lode claims and one 160-acre 
placer claim. Formerly part of Janney 
and Goler Cyn. Placer groups. Principal 
source of gold was from Sparkplug claim 
on south edge of sec. 2. Basal beds of 
Goler formation mined in exposure on 
north side of small cyn. where exposure 
of conglomerate is 1,000 feet long, and 
10 to 20 feet thick with no overburden. 
Mined along width of 250 to 400 feet. 
Undetermined production of gold in 1890 
and 1930's. Some small scale placer 
mining in recent years. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:306-307). 

Uncorrelated name. Reported in several 
localities within few miles of Johannes 
burg. May be in San Bernardino County. 
(Aubury 04:14t; Brown 16:508; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:275t: Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 
shott 49:266t) . 

See text under Golden Queen mine. 
(Aubury 04:14t; Brown 16:508; Julihn 
and Horton 37:4, 19; Newman 23:307; 
Tucker 23:162; 29:46; Tucker, Sampson 
33:275t, 279, 280, 283; 35:465, 466, 
468, 475, 482; Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 
shott 49: 266t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. Originally devel 
oped by 200-foot drift adit. (Tucker 
Sampson 33:323) . 



gold, and lead 
n granitic and m 



n quartz 
itamorphi 



Uncorrelated old 



May be listed 
name . (Aubury 



Two quartz veins 100 feet apart 
strike N. 40° W. , nearly vertical 
Veins are 2 to 4 feet wide in quart2 
latite porphyry. 

Placer gold in alluvium. 



Free gold in poorly-exposed sili- 
ceous, iron- and copper-stained 
shear zones in foliated granodiorite 
gneiss. Shear zones, mostly only 
a few inches thick at sur face , 
strike N. 30° E. , dip 80° NW. 
Copper stains are sparsely dissem- 
inated along folia in granodiorite 
gneiss mostly in quar tzose or fine- 
grained schistose layers inter - 
stratified with gneiss. Foliation 
strikes N. , dips steeply east. 

Gold, scheelite, and manganese- 
bearing minerals in brecciated 
schist along footwall of fault that 
strikes N. 10° W. and dips 40° NE. 
Gold and scheelite occur with 
brecciated quartz stringers in a 
4-foot-thick zone of brecciated 
schist . Manganese oxides occur as 
rich pockets a few inches in maxi- 
mum width in footwall of fault. 
Total length of fault is several 
hundred feet. Lenses as much as 
3 feet by 10 feet composed of mari- 
posite and dolomite occur along 
hanging wall of fault. 



Sevej 



al north-striking veins, dip 
porphyritic and granitic 



Developed by 20-foot and 70-foot shafts 
and crosscut adit driven S. 5° E. 520 
feet then 135 feet southwest. 



Uncorrelated old name. Worked by dry 
washing methods in 1890 ' s with low 
daily yield of gold. Probably listed 
herein under different name. (Crawford 
96:190t, 195) . 

Two patented claims. Developed by 3 
shafts, several shallow prospect shafts 
and at least 1,500 feet of drifts. 
Deepest shaft is 250 feet deep and is 
near base of west side of hill. Two 
other shafts only a few feet deep are 
about 1,000 feet northeast of deep 
shaft. Idle. (Aubury 04:14t). 



Developed by several inclined shafts a 
adits a few tens of feet in maximum 
length along a strike distance of 50 
feet. Shallow prospect pits have been 
excavated along the fault a few hundre 
feet from the shafts. Probably small 
production of scheelite . Idle . (Brow 
16: 508) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably forme 
name of claim at what is now Pride of 
Mojave mine. (Aubury 04:15t). 



Patented claim of Yellow Aster m 
Many of the underground workings 
this claim. (Aubury 04:18t; Cra 
96:195) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Rand Gold Dredg 
ing Assoc. 
(Includes Norden) 
property 



Rand (Clay Bank, 
Confidence, Oro 
Fino, Rand, 
Relief, St. 
Charles) group 



Rand Placers 



Rattlesnake 



Rattlesnake 
group 



Rayo prospect 
Red Bird mine 



Red Cross 



Sees. 22, 23, 24, 
T29S, R40E, MDM, 
about 2 miles 
northwest of 
Johannesburg 



Frank P. Adams, 
2610 Russ Bldg. , 
235 Montgomery St. 
San Francisco 
(1958) 



SW*s sec. 3, T28S, 
R32E, MDM, Clear 
Cr . dist. , 1 mile 
northwest of 
Havilah, east sid 
of O'Brien Hill 

Approx. NW% sec. 
12, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, southeast 
flank of El Paso 
Mt. , mouth of 
Reed and Benson 
Gulches, 14 3/4 
miles northeast 
of Cantil 



Reported in sec. 
11, T29S, R39E, 
Goler dist. , El 
Paso Mts. (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 

Reported in Rand 
dist. , about 1 
mile south of 
Johannesburg 
(1910) 

Approx. sec. 32, 
T29S, R38E, MDM, 
2 miles north of 
Gypsite siding of 
Southern Pacific 
R. R. , southeast 
slope of El Paso 
Mts. 

Reported in sec. 
28, T29S, R34E, 
MDM, Piute Mts. 
(1916) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



SEh sec. 1, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, 1 3/4 
miles southeast 
of Randsburg, 
Stringer dist. , 
adj oins south 
boundary of Balti 



Reported in sec. 
11, T27S, R32E, 
MDM, west of 
Bodfish (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1958 



J. L. Bennett, 
P. O. Box 67, 
Bodfish (1957) 



Yellow Aster Mining 
and Milling Co. , 
6331 Hollywood 
Blvd. , Los Angeles 
(1958) 



Undetermined, 1958 
J. W. Short, Rands 
burg (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Formerly Mrs. J. S 
Bishop (deceased) 



Undetermined, 1958 
A. R. Budlong , 
Piute (1916) 



Grace Landes, 
13061 Berrydale St 
Garden Grove (1958 



Undetermined, ] 
A. McDonald, 
Ramonda (1904) 



Gold- and scheelite-bearmg Recent 
gravels in valley alluvium north 
of Rand Mts. Recoverable gold and 
scheel ite occurs in an estimated 
5,000,000 cubic yards of gravel as 
much as 35 feet thick beneath 10 
feet of overburden (Tucker, Sampson 
and Oakeshott, 1949, p. 231). 
Gravel was explored by pits and 
drill holes about 1942. 



eins in quartz diorite . 



Placer gold deposits in Quaternary 
terrace and stream deposits. Gold, 
apparently derived from auriferous 
gravels of lower member of Goler 
formation, occurs in Quaternary 
terrace deposits down slope from 
the Goler formation and terrace 
gravels. Gravels cover a ^-mile 
wide strip along flank of mountains 
and occur in bottom of small stream 
channels. They range in thickness 
from few feet to several tens of 
feet. Gold occurs near base of 
gravels and in "false bedrock" com- 
posed of cemented layers in gravel . 
Gold is mostly small particles and 
flakes but nuggets valued at few 
hundred dollars have been found. 



Placer 



gold in alii: 



Several parallel quartz veins in 
granite strike northwest and dip 
40°-60°. Veins are from 1 to 2 fe 
wide and contain cerrusite, galena 
copper oxides, and traces of gold 
and silver. 



Quartz vein in granite is 18 inches 
wide, strikes N. , and dips 30° E. 
Locally high grade, free milling 
ore . 



Gold- and scheelite-bearing 
stringers in schist. Principal 
stringer strikes approximately 
west, dip undetermined but probably 
dips steeply to south or vertical. 
Stringer is 500 feet long between 
two shafts. Small exposed stringer 
are approximately parallel to 
principal one. Locally-derived 
alluvium contains scheelite and 
gold. 



Three to 5-foot-wide vertical vei 
strikes NE.; in granitic rock. 



Placer claims of several owners leased 
about 1942. Present holdings undeter- 
mined (1958) . Small output of gold by 
several operators since discovery in 
1890 's. Most recent production was in 
1948 when Foley Brothers of St. Paul, 
Minnesota operated a 3h cubic yard 
bucket line dredge and a Monighan and 
Bodinson washing plant on an artificial 
pond . Production undetermined . Dredge 
was moved about 4 miles to the Black- 
hawk mine south of Red Mountain in San 
Bernardino County in 1957. Idle since 
1948. (Averill 46:260; Tucker, Sampson 
43:122; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 
49:231, 266t) . 

See text. (Aubury 04:9t, 14t; Brown 
16:508; Crawford 94:143, 146; 96:188, 
194; Goodyear 88:31, 316, 317, 331; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:275t, 276t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:266t). 



Company owns 7 claims in this area. 
Have been source of considerable amount 
of placer gold as well as water for use 
in mills. Most of gold produced in 
1890 's and 1930 ' s from shallow but mod- 
erately large excavations to bedrock. 
Gold has been recovered by large number 
of operators, most of whom were indivi- 
duals operating with portable dry 
washers. Intermittent small-scale 
operations as recent as 1958. (Dibblee 
Gay 52:61t; Tucker, Sampson 33:275t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49 : 275t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under different name. (Aubury 
04:18t; Crawford 96; 190t, 195). 



Uncorrelated old name p 
herein under different 
nity of Wade H. group. 



-obably listed 
lame. In vici- 
(Hess 10:40) . 



Formerly 2 claims; abandoned by Bishop 
family. Developed by shallow shafts 
and open cuts; deepest shaft is 40 feel 
(Dibblee, Gay 52:59t; Tucker 29:59; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:266t, 
271t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under different name. A small 
producer before 1916. Developed by 
380-foot tunnel with 250 feet of drifts 
(Aubury 04:15t; Brown 16:508-509). 

See under antimony. (Aubury 04:14t). 

Two claims. Property is bounded on all 
sides by claims which have been sources 
of gold and scheelite. Developed by 
135-foot vertical shaft at east end of 
claim and 500-foot inclined shaft 500 
feet to west; both on main stringer. 
Shafts are connected by drift at 
135-foot level. Small amount of 
scheel ite has been recovered from 
placer material and sorted material 
from dump at vertical shaft. Several 
tens of ounces of gold was produced in 
1930's. Idle since about 1940. 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. May have been part of 
Bonnie Brae property. (Aubury 04:15t). 



182 California Division of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address} 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Red Hill mine 



321 Red Strike 
prospect 



Reform prospect 



Regina claim 



Relief clai 
Republic 



Revenue cla 



Reward prospect 



Reyi:«srt cla 



SE^ sec. 21, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 1 1/3 miles 
southwest of 
(new) Kernville, 
west side Lake 
Isabella 

Center, west 
border sec. 34, 
T29S, R36E, MDM, 
between Hof fman 
cyn. and Butter- 
bread cyn . , 84 
miles northwest 
of Cinco 

SW*a sec. 26, T27S 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 5 
miles south- south' 
west of Ridgecrest 



Sees. 1, 12, T28S 
R33E, MDM, south 
fork of Erskine 
Cr. , Piute Mts. ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 



Two and S. 
southeast 
Randsburg 



Ad j a cent corners 
sees. 4, 5, 8, 
T29S, R34E, MDM, 
Piute Mts. area, 
about 3/4 mile 
southwest of 
Claraville, in 
headwa ter s canyon 
of Kelso Cr. tri- 
butary that flows 
by Claraville 



SW^s sec. 34, T27S 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
macher dist. , 5*5 
miles south of 
Ridgecrest 



Kern Devel opment 
Co. , C. S. Long, 
pres. , P. 0. Box 
157, Hayward (1949) 



n 0. Young, 
(1957) 



and Mrs 
Risley, 
un deter 



0. Liebel, 
Nevada , 



address 
lined (1957 



Mrs. Nora 
Coulston , 
(1949) 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 
P.O. Fifield, 
Randsburg (1896) 



J. B. Inman, P.O. 
Box 17, Claraville 
(1954) 



George C. Petts, 
P.O. Box 247, 
Randsburg (1957) 



Mesozoic granodi or i te and alaski te , 
and pre-Cretaceous metamorphic 
rocks . 



North-striking vertical quartz vein 
in quartz diorite. Vein is heavily 
iron-stained, from 4 to 10 inches 
wide, and exposed discon tinuously 
along the surface for about 200 fee 
Vein is parallel to a rhyolite dike 
that is only a few feet to the east 



Quartz veins, 4 inches to 3 feet ir 
width, strike approximately N. 15 c 
W. , dip an average of 30° SW. ; 
occur in granitic rocks and along 
the contacts of rhyolitic and 
dioritic dikes. Vein system crops 
out discontinuously for about a 
mile along strike. Extends into 
Haunita claim, which see. Princi- 
pal ore shoot pitches N. 50° W. in 
4 to 6-inch-wide quartz vein near 
southeastern end of vein system. 
Locally contains coarse, free gold. 



Two- foot-wide quartz vei 
N. 30° E. , dips 60° SE.; 
Vein contains ruby silve 



strikes 
n granite. 



Quartz vein in schist (?) . 



Eight to 20-inch-wide gold- and 
silver- bear ing quartz s tr ingers 
strike N. 35°-40° E. in deeply 
weathered , somewhat sheared 
granitic rock. Ore occurs as 
"kidneys " and in irregular , discon- 
tinuous masses which average S23 



Iron-stained quartz vein, with free 
gold, in quartz monzonite. Vein 
strikes N. 35° W. , dips 65° NE. 



See Big Blue group in text. (Brown 1 
509 ; Tucker 29 : 46 ; Tucker , Sampson 
33:275t, 320; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:266t) . 



Two claims. An old prospect developed 
by an east-driven crosscut adit, prob- 
ably about 200 feet long, to intersect 
quartz vein. A 100-foot vertical raise 
was extended to the surface. Surface 
cuts have been bulldozed across and 
along vein in recent years. Idle; 
probably no production. 

Three patented claims. Principal shaft 
is 180 feet deep on a 30° incline. P 
drift adit extends 75 feet north on 170 
foot level. Vein system has been pre 
pected elsewhere by numerous shallow 
excavations. See also Haunita mine. 
(Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:231-2j 
266t) . 



Lower drift adit on vein 200 feet and 
150-foot drift adit 50 feet above. 
Average value of ore reported to be S3 
per ton in gold and 25 oz . silver . 
Huntington mill on property in 1933. 
Long idle, (Tucker, Sampson 33:275t, 
323; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:266t). 

Former claim of Queen Esther group, nc 
Sailor Girl claim. (Tucker 23:162; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:282; 35s pi. 7). 

Claim of Queen Esther mine (see Golden 
Queen mine in text). (Tucker 23:162; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:282; 35:pl.7). 

See Rand group. (Goodyear 88:317). 

Uncorrelated old name. Last known in 
1896, presumably known by different 
name now. On same vein as Hawkeye 
mine. (Crawford 96:195). 

See Rochefort mine. (Crawford 96:195) 



One patented claim. Developed and 
worked through more than 700 feet of 
adits and several winzes, all caved c 
flooded in 1954. Largest adit driven 
S. 35° W. for 380 feet.; 100-foot drift 
driven S. 40° W. from same portal. One 
hundred feet above, an adit was driven 
100 feet southwest from a point 100 
feet west of the main adit portal; an- 
other was driven 100 feet southwest 
from a point 150 feet farther west. 
First active 1930-1932; main product- 
ivity 1937 to 1939, inactive since 1944. 
Production undetermined. 

Claim of Standard group. (Aubury 04: 
15t; Tucker 23:160) . 

From a 65-foot inclined shaft drift 
adits have been extended 50 feet south- 
east, and 25 to 30 feet northwest on 
the 35- foot level. Minor production. 
Idle. 

Claim of Queen Esther mine (see Golden 
Queen mine in text). (Aubury 04:15t; 
Tucker 23:162; Tucker, Sampson 33:282; 
35:pl.7) . 

Claim of Wegman group. (Aubury 04:15t; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:282; 35s.pl. 7). 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



183 



Map Name of claim, 
f4o. mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address J 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Ricardo placer 
(Includes Deep 
Channel, Ricardo 
Ricardo Deep 
Channel No. 1, 
and Tufa Quarry 
claims) mines 



Riches & Wealth 



Rip Rap 

Riveredge place] 



Rizz No. 2 



Roche fort 
(Resurrection, 
Rotchfort) mine 



Rocket clai 



Rock Pile 
prospect 



Rocky Pt. clain 



Rose mine 



Rose H. claim 



Rotchford 



Reported in sec. ; 
T30S, R37E, and 
sec. 35, T29S, 
R37E, MDM, El Pasc 
Mta. , half a mile 
to l*s miles north 
of site of 
Redrock 



Repo 



ted in NWjj 
19, T27S, 
R33E, MDM, 2 miles 
west of Isabell; 
on a ridge nort' 
of French Gulch 
(1929) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 



Reported in sec. 
19, T27S, R32E, 
MDM, about 8 miles 
southwest of 
Bodfish on the 
Kern R. between 
Greenhorn and 
Stovepipe Cks. 
(1949) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

NW% sec. 12, T30S 
R40E, MDM, 
Stringer dist. , 
lh miles south of 
Randsburg 

SW% sec. 9, T28S, 
R32E, MDM, Clear 
Cr. dist. , 1 mile 
west of Havilah, 
2 miles southwest 
of Lightner Pk. 



SW^ of SW^ of 
sec. 16, T29S, 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. area, 2h 
miles south of 
Claraville, about 
H mile by dirt 
road northwest 
of Gallup Camp 



Reported in sec. 
6, T10N, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

Reported in sec. 
31, T26S, R32E, 
MDM, Greenhorn 
Mts. about 2H 
miles east of 
Davis Guard Sta. 
(1954) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

SW*s sec. 2, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 1% miles 
south of Rands- 
burg 



Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Several patented 
claims owned by 
Mrs. Nora B. Hazen 
estate. Bakers- 
field (1951) ; also 
other owners in 
general area 



Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Ernest Griffith, 
Bakersfield (1933) 



Undetermined, 1958 
P. W. Wilson, P.O. 
Box 8, Kern Canyon 
Rt. , Bakersfield 
(1949) 



W. C. Wilkenson, 
Johanne sburg , anc 
Ameco Rizzardini, 
Randsburg (1957) 



Miles, 
adena (1957) 



John Rogers (1954) 
address undeter- 



Undetermined, 1958; 
A. M. Hunter, 
Mojave (1904) 



Laury, Jack, and 
Laury M. , Rose , 
(1957) address 
undetermined 



Miss Rose Maginnes 
Randsburg (1957) 



Fine to coarse placer gold occurs 
in stream gravels and remnants of 
fanglomerates. The gold is, in 
part, derived from reworked gravels 
and conglomerates of the Ricardo 
and Goler formations, now exposed 
upstream from the present concen- 
trations . Local concentrations 
of gold in the stream gravels and 
fanglomerates, largely worked in 
the 1890 's, yielded some large 
nuggets of gold . Operators in 
1930 's estimated the deposits 
averaged 35* per yard in gold 
(Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 324). 



Two narrow parallel veins strike NE. 
dip 45° NW. : in granitic rock. 
Gravel in gulch also worked in 
placer operation. 



Very fine free gold in Recent 
gravels of the Kern River. 
Concentrates said to consist o 
large amounts of black sand. 



Stringer in iron-stained schist 
strikes N. 60° W. , dips 40° NE. 



Vein is 1 to 7 feet wide, strikes 
NE. , dips 65° SE. ; in granitic 
rock. Appears to belong to the 
same vein system as the Porter and 
Rand groups to the northeast. 



Quartz stringer zone, 2 to 3 feet 
wide strikes E. , dips 60° S. ; in 
granitic rock, converges with simi- 
lar vein zone that strikes N. 45° 
E. , dips 50° SE. near easternmost 
exposure . 



Two 1 to 3 
strike NE. 
rock. 



foot quartz veins, 
dip NW.;in porphyri 



Three-foot vein strikes NE. 
60° E. in granitic rock. 



Shear zone in schist. 



Several patented claims consisting of 
2,000 acres in one group and other 
unpatented claims. This general area 
has yielded several thousand ounces of 
gold: mostly from small operations in 
the 1890 's and 1930' s when the gold was 
recovered by dry concentrating methods. 
Deeply-buried gold in cyn. bottom is 
too wet to be recovered by dry concen- 
trating and water is not abundant 
enough to support large slucing or 
hydraulicking operation. Idle since 
1930's. (Crawford 94:456-458; 96:195; 
Dibblee, Gay 52:61t; Tucker 29:46; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 323-324; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:267t). 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned . Workings consist of a 60- 
foot shaft, two shallow shafts, and 
240 feet of drifts. Thirty yards of 
gravel reportedly yielded $50 in gold. 
(Tucker 29 : 46-4 7 ; Tucker , Sampson 
33:276t; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:267t) . 

See Skinner. 

Uncorrelated name . Probably abandoned . 
Originally comprised 8 claims along 
3,000 feet of river bank. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:324; Tucker, Sampson. Oake- 
shott 49:267t) . 



Formerly Golden Eagle claim. May be 
same as Orphan Girl claim, which see. 
Developed by inclined shaft to undeter- 
mined depth. Production undetermined . 
Long idle. 

Main activity prior to 1900. Workings 
consist of 220-foot shaft, 350 feet of 
drifts, 200-foot tunnel and 40-foot 
winze, but are now mostly caved. Idle. 
(Aubury 04:14t; Crawford 94:144, 147; 
96:195) . 

Former claim of Ashford Mines. 
(Crawford 96:195) . 

Exposed for about 100 yards along 
strike by series of 5 shallow shafts 
(reported as deep as 50 feet, but 
largely caved in 1954) . Trench 3 feet 
deep, 150 feet long exposes NE. -trend- 
ing vein. Production undetermined; 
long idle. 



Former claim in Echo group; now Santa 
Ana claim of Golden Queen mine. (Tuck- 
er 28:158; Tucker, Sampson 33:282, 
35:pl.7) . 



Uncorrelated old name, 
described herein under 
(Aubury 04:15t) . 



Probably 
mother name. 



Development consists of 140-foot shaft, 
700 feet of drifts, and a 230-foot 
crosscut adit. Probably significant 
production prior to 1890 but no record- 
ed production since. (Aubury 04:15t; 
Brown 16:509; Tucker, Sampson 33:276t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:267t). 



Fractional clai 
claim. Shallou 



south of Nancy Hanks 
vertical shaft. 



See Rochefort (Aubury 04:14t; Crawford 
94:144, 147 ; 96:195) . 



184 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map Name of claim, 
No mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address} 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Rough & Ready 



Ruby (Blue Bell, 
Curly Jim, Monte 
zuma) mine 



Rustler and 

San Diego claims 



Sailor Boy cla 



San Antoni 



Sandstone 



Reported appro> 
mh T27S, R32E, 
MDM, Greenhorn 
Mts . , northwest 
Havilah (1896) not 
confirmed, 1957 

Approx. T25S, 
R29E, MDM, 0-896) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 

SW^s sec. 9, T29S, 
R31E, MDM, 2*a 
miles south of 
Hoosier Flat, 5% 
miles southwest 
of Breckenridge 
Mt. 



Reported in sec. 
23, T29S, R40E, 
MDM, Rand dist. 



Reported in sec. 
12, T27S, R32E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 

Center sec. 6, 
T10N, R12W, SBM, 
Mojave dist. , 5 
miles southwest oi 
Mojave, on north 
slope of Soledad 
Mt. due south of 
Golden Queen 
tailings . 

NW*S sec. 23, T29S 
R36E, MDM, about 
2 miles east of 
Butterbread Cyn. 
10 miles north- 
west of Cinco 



Reported approx. 
T25S, R29E, MDM, 
4 miles southeast 
of White River on 
Blue Mt. (1916) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 

Reported in sec. 
11, T29S, R39E, 
MDM, Goler dist. , 
El Paso Mts. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

NE^s sec. 11, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, String 
er dist. , 2 miles 
south of Rands- 
burg 



Undetermined, 19f 
Charles Lamont, 
Kernville (1896) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Richard Roberts, 
White River (1896) 



Undetermined, 1954 
George Thatcher, 
Bakersfield (1949) 



Undetermined, 1957 



Undetermined, 1957 
Herman Fusell, 
Havilah (1904) 



Moore and Townsend 
(address undet.) 



Undetermined, 1957 
J. Martino, 
Bakersfield, and 



Undetermined, 1957 
Henry Moore , 
White River (1916) 



Undetermined, 1958 
J. W. Short, Rands 
burg (1904) 



George Carr, 
Bakersfield (1957) 



Quartz vein 



ight inch quartz 
ips 70° N. ; in mi 



n strikes 
schist. 



Three gold-bearing quartz veins 
strike about N. 30° E. , dip 65° SE. 
Veins lie athwart contact between 
Mesozoic quartz diorite, and pre- 
Cretaceous schist. Veins range 
from 2 to 8 feet wide, and contain 
free gold , pyr ite , ar senopyr i te , 
and chalcopyri te . Ore occurs as 
pods or lenses with maximum 
dimension of 15 feet along strike, 
25 feet high, and 2h feet wide. 



Two quartz veins, 1 to 
strike NW. , Dip NE. ; ir 
Free milling. 



5 feet w 
schist. 



Quartz vein in granite. 



An extension of the Queen Esther 
vein which strikes N. 40° W. , dips 
50° NE. ; ranges in width from 3 to 
20 feet and extends several thou- 
sand feet al ong s tr ike . 



Quartz vein, average width about 
12 inches, in crushed quartz monzo- 
nite; strikes N. 80° E. , vertical. 
Exposed nearly continuously along 
surface for 900 feet. 



E. , dips 75° N. 



one strikes N. 75' 
in granitic rock. 



Two groups of gold- and scheelite- 
bearing stringers about 1,000 feet 
apart; in schist. Southern string- 
ers are northeast continuation of 
stringers on Merced and Pearl Wedge 
claims. Northern group consists of 
several NE.- and E. -trending 
stringers 10 to 20 feet apart and 
dipping steeply N. or S. Average 
width of vein material is about 2 
feet. Veins are offset in several 
places and some veins converge. 
Exposed on surface for 1,000 to 
1,500 feet. 



Uncorrelated old name. Development con- 
sists of several hundreds of feet of 
workings. (Crawford 96:195). 



Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. Formerly described in Tulare 
County. Developed by 90-foot shaft. 
(Crawford 96:471) . 

Discovered about 1870. Recorded pro- 
duction exceeds 500 oz . gold. Last 
operated in 1938. Developed principally 
by 100-foot vertical shaft with 275-foot 
crosscut east at bottom connecting to 
120-foot drift southwest and 100-foot 
drift northeast. Ten feet northeast of 
the crosscut is a 120-foot winze sunk 
at 45° incline to southeast; at 30 feet 
northeast is a stope 15 feet long, 25 
feet high, and 2h feet wide. At 85 feet 
southwest of crosscut is a 40-foot n 
to stoped area. About 130 feet soutl 
1st shaft is an older shaft sunk 90 feet 
on the vein, and which connects with thi 
drift southwest on the 100 level. Work 
ings of undetermined magnitude append 
this shaft. (Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 
3 24-326; fucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 
267t) . 



perty 



Uncorrelated old name; may be 
listed herein under different name. 
Twelve shafts 20 feet to 150 feet deep 
and 600 feet of drifts. (Aubury 04:15t 

See Glen Olive 



(Aubury 04:15t) . 



Patented claims of Minnehaha mine. See 
Minnehaha mine in text. (Brown 16:509; 
Crawford 96:196; Tucker 29:47; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:276t; Tucker, Sampson, Oak- 
shott 49:267t) . 

Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:15t) . 



of Golden Queen 



Principal shaft is about 165 feet deep. 
Developed by 6 other shafts 50 to 100 
feet deep and numerous shallow trenches 
and open cuts. Some drifts from shafts 
Discovered about 1887; small production 
1908-1910, 1935, 1937. Idle. (Tucker 
29:47; Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 326; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:267t). 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 
doned. Formerly described in Tulare 
County. Developed by three shallow 
shafts. (Crawford 94:147; 96:196). 



Uncorrelated name of claims worked in 
1890's and early 1900*s. Dry placer 
methods of recovery resulted in obtain- 
ing low daily yield of gold. Probably 
listed herein under different name. 
(Aubury 04:18t; Crawford 96:190t, 196). 

Napoleon, Santa Ana, and Yacca Tree 
patented claims. Total output of 
several thousand ounces of gold in 1897 
1902 valued at $400,000 (Brown, 1916, 
p. 510) and 1905-1918, and few hundred 
ounces at intermittent intervals be- 
tween 1926-1942. Most of gold obtained 
from Napoleon claim which is credited 
with an output of $100,000 (Hulin, 1925 
p. 144). Very little gold credited to 
Yucca Tree claim. Minor amount of lead 
obtained from concentrates shipped in 
1937 (Goodwin, 1957, p. 532). Tungsten 
output undetermined. Developed by 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



185 



COLD, com. 



Map 


Name of claim, 
mine or group 


Location 


Owner 
( Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Santa Ana group 
(continued) 








about 20 shafts from 50 to about 3 50 
feet deep and an undetermined amount of 
drifts. Long segments of the stringers 

level. (Aubury 04:13t, 15t, 16t; 
Boalich, Castello 18:13t; Brown 16:485; 
509-510, 522t; Hulin 25:144; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:276t; Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 
shott 49:267t) . 




Santa Junta 


Reported in Long 
Tom gulch, 27 
miles northeast of 
Bakersfield (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Bakersfield (1896) 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably long- 




Sarah Jane 


Reported in center 
sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2% miles 
southwest "of (new) 
Kernville (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958? 
J. E. Thede, 
Havilah (1904) 


Veins, six inches to 2 feet wide, 
strike N. 34° W. , dip 80° HE. 


Oncorrelated old name. Probably part 
of Big Blue group. Reported to adjoin 
Lady Belle claim. (Aubury 04:15t). 




Sargert prospect 








See Donnie prospect. 


334 


Sedan 


SW-jNW^g sec. 34, 
T28S, R38E, MDM, 
El Paso Mts. , 111* 
miles north-north- 
east of Cantil , in 
Bonanza Gulch 


Ridgecrest (1958) 


and stream gravels. Bedrock is 
sedimentary rocks in part, auri- 
ferous, of the Goler formation 
(Paleocene) and the Ricardo form- 
ation (Pliocene) . Principal 
source of gold is probably at base 
of terrace gravels on edges of 
present stream channels. 


some production of gold when most of 
Bonanza Gulch was being worked by small- 
scale dry washing methods in 1890 ' s and 
1930's. 

Uncorrelated old name; probably same 
as Palmer (Aubury 04:15t) . 




Setting Sun 


Reported in sec. 11 
T27S, R32E, MDM, 

(1904) ; not con- 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
T. A. Turner , Los 
Angeles (1904) 


Two and one-half foot vein strikes 
E., dips N. ; in granitic rock. 


Jncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:15t). 




Shafer and 
Whitney View 


Reported in sec. 
27, T28S, R34E, 
MDM, Piute Mts. 
(19 33) ■ not con— 
firmed ', 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Herman Gorman, 
Piute (1933) 


Quartz vein, 2 feet wide, strikes 
NE. , dips 70° SE. ; in granite 


Jncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned prospect. Developed by 150- 
foot adit driven southwest. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:327) . 












Claim in Gwynne mine. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:307-308). 




Sherman mine 








See Bull Run (Goodyear 88:321). 




Shipsey mine 


Aong Basin Cr. 
(north of Caliente) 
1893; not confirmed 
1958 


Undetermined 




Jnconfirmed output of S3, 000 in gold 
during 1891 (Watts 93:238). 




Shipsey mine 








See King Solomon mine in Randsburg dist. 
(Tucker 21:310) . 


335 


Shoestring pros- 


SW cor. sec. 35, 
T30S , R32E , MDM, 
in Devil Canyon, 
11 miles east- 
southeast of 
Caliente 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Henry G. Hubbard, 
Eagle Rock (1938) 


Contact between schist and quartz 


Prospect. Long idle. 






12^ T27S, R32E, 
MDM Ke ye s dist 
(1916) not con- 
firmed, 1957 


George W. King, 
Isabella (1914) 


dips 60° E. Ore shoot was 80 feet 
width. 


Jncorrelated old name . May be lis ted 
herein under other name. Development 
consists of 430— foot adit and 600 feet 
of drifts. No recorded production. 
(Aubury 04:15t; Brown 16:510; Crawford 
96:196) . 




Side Hill wedge 


Reported in sec . 
12, T29S, R39E, 

El Paso Mts. (1904); 
not confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under different name. (Aubury 




Side Issue 








See Ferris mine. 




Side Issue 


Reported in sec . 
25, T27S, R33E, 
MDM, in Erskine Cr. 
7 miles southeast 
of Bodfish (1894) ; 
not confirmed, 1955 


Undetermined, 1955 ; 
Stebbins and Porter, 
Havilah (1894) 




Prospect on southeast side of Iconoclast 
mine. (Crawford 94:147). 


336 


Sidewinder 
prospect 


Center, W*s sec. 28, 
T29S, R36E, MDM, 
Butterbread Cyn. , 
10 miles northwest 
of Cinco 


Charles and Eliza- 
beth Larbig, 
address undeter- 
mined (1957) 


Quartz stringers in quartz diorite. 


Shallow pits, trenches, and shaft. A 
prospect; idle. 



186 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Map 

No. 



Side Winder 



Sidney (White) 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Sidewinder 
(Double Thirtee 
prospect 



era Vista 
prospect 



lver Bar 
Mining and P 

tion Co. 
property 



Silver Boy clai 



Silver King 



Silverton pros- 
pect 



Silver Prince 
prospect 

Silver Queen 
(Sol den Queen, 
yer , Mc- 



^■cerayer, 
feryer) min 



Single St j 



ff»k sec. 18, T30S 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 5 miles 
southwest of Rands- 
burg on northwest 
flank of Rand Mts 



Reported in sec. 2, 
T29S, R39E, MDM, 
Goler dist. , El 
Paso Mts. (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 1958 

NE^SE^ sec. 17, 
T30S, R40E, MDM, 
Rand dist. , Ah 

es southwest c 
Randsburg, on 
southeast edge oi 
d Mts. 



NE% sec 
R34E, MDM 



22, 



T29S, 
Piute 
Mts. area, 3 miles 
south of Claraville 
100 yards west of 
Geringer Grade Rd. , 
\ mile south of 
junction with road 
to Gallup Camp 

N^SE^ sec. 4, T28S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 

cher dist. , 6% 

les south of 
Ridgecrest 



Reported in vicin- 
ity of Gar lock 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

NE^a sec. 22, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
ist. , 4 miles 
outh-southwest of 
Randsburg, on south 
:dge of Rand Mts 



SE^g sec. 6, T10N, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
ist. , southeast 
f Golden Queen 
ailings on Soledad 
Mt. 

Reported in sec. 6, 
T10N, R12W, SBM, 
Mojave dist. , 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Louise Wilsey 
(1958) (address 
undetermined) 



Undetermined, 1958 
J. E. Patterson, 
Randsburg (1904) 



Clara M. Foglesong 
trustee for Clara 
M. Foglesong trust 
Mineral County, 
Nevada (1957) 



Kimber , 
, Box 223, 
sfield (1954) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Silver Bar Mining 
and Reduction Co. , 
(1923) 



Undetermined, 1958 
B. H. Lawson, 
Bakersfield (1904) 



Caroline Johnson, 
address undeter- 
mined (1957) 



Geo. Holmes and 
Townsend Estate, 
Yuma, Ariz. (1958) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Thomson & Boyle, 
Los Angeles 



Geology 



Zone of iron-stained crushed schist 
6 inches to 1 foot wide, along 
fault that strikes N. 75° E., dips 
70° S. Lateral extent of zone is 
about 100 feet. Ore contains 
coarse-crystalline pale brown cal- 
cite with fine, free-milling gold. 
Scheelite stringers as much as 2 
inches wide and 10 feet long have 
been exposed in pits on ridge a few 
hundred feet^west of cabin at main 
workings . 

Placer gold in ^ 1 luvium. 



Veins along faults in schist strike 
N. 60°-80° E. and dip moderately to 
steeply S. Average width of vein 
material is about 3 feet. An ore 
shoot mined on the 100-foot level of 
the Sidney vein was 260 feet long 
from 2 to 6 feet wide, and about 75 
feet in vertical extent. Veins are 
composed of brecciated schist with 
quartz, free gold, pyrite, and 
probably arsenopyrite. Principal 
vein is about 600 feet long. Ore 
ranged in value from $10 to $200 in 
gold per ton. Average value of ore 
mined before 1933 was $27 per ton. 
Scheelite has been found in parts 
of the veins. 



Quartz stringers strike south, dip 
nearly vertically; in deeply- weather 
ed granitic rock. Selected samples 
carry $75 to $80 per ton in gold. 



Three- to 6-i: 
strikes N. 50 
granod. 
heavily 



ntai 



per 



or i te . 
iron-s 
betwe 
(Newma 



Gold, lead, 
ate veins i 



h-wide quartz vein 
W. , dips 55° NE. ; in 
Poorly exposed and 
ained. Quartz 
n $1 and $32 in gold 
, 1923, p. 148) . 



in carbon- 
rocks . 



Shear zone in schist strikes N. 70° 
E. and dips 75° SE. Gouge material 
assayed $6 per ton in gold and 2 
oz. silver (Hulin, 1925, p. 143). 



rhyolitic volcanic 



rhyolitic vole 



Remarks and references 



Ten claims. Inclined shaft a few tens 
of feet deep and minor amount of drifts 
on gold-bearing vein. Scheelite-bear- 
ing stringers exposed is a few shallow 
pits . Few ounces of gold recovered 
during early part of 1958 by lessees. 
Idle. 



Uncorrelated old name . 
herein under different 
04:18t) . 



May be listed 
lame. (Aubury 



Eleven claims. Developed by inclined 
shaft on Sidney vein and shafts on two 
other veins. Sidney shaft is 275 feet 
deep on incline of 65° to 70° with 
levels at 70, 150, 200, and 250 feet; 
contains about 2,400 feet of drifts, 
mostly to west on the 3 lower levels to 
maximum distance of 525 feet. Drifts 
extend maximum of 125 feet to east. 
About 1,000 feet of horizontal workings 
on two other veins. Total output is 
reported to be about $250,000, mined 
mostly during the interval 1900-1910. 
Small output was made intermittently 
1921-1936, and 1939-1941. Idle since 
1941. (Brown 16:510; Hulin 25:72, 81; 
Tucker 29:51; Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 
280, 333-334; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:267t, 269t) . 

Explored by 100-foot adit driven S. 10° 
W. (inaccessible in 1954) , 85-foot adit 
driven S. 40° E., and 25-foot shaft 
(largely caved in 1954) . No known 
production, idle. 



Developed by a 300-foot inclined shaft 
with 750 feet of drifts on the 50, 100 
150, 200, and 300-foot levels, and two 
shallow shafts spaced on the vein at 
20 feet and 30 feet north of main 
incline. Vein has been mined at surface 
between shafts . Long idle. Name of 
owner in 1957 not determined but prob- 
ably not Silver Bar Mining and Reduction 
Co. (Newman 23:147-148). 



Uncorrelated old name; 
claim of Queen Esther 
16:510) . 

Uncorrelated old name, 
herein under different 
04:15t) . 



may be Tip Top 
roup. (Brown 



May be liste 
name . ( Aubur 



Several claims; some are patented, 
veloped by 160-foot inclined shaft 
40 foot crosscut on 100-foot level, 
recorded production. Long idle. 
(Hulin 25:143) . 



See Cactus Queei 
48:256t; Julihn 



mine in text. (Eric 
Horton 37:35, 36) . 



See Golden Queen mine in text. (Aubury 
04:13t; Julihn, Horton 37: 6, 14, 15; 
Tucker 23:162; Tucker, Sampson 34:316, 
317; 35:465, 466, 475-479; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49 : 220-223) . 



Uncorrelated old name, 
part of Queen Esther mi 
04:15t) . 



Probably now 
ie . (Aubury 



Claim of Mojave Mining & Milling Co 
(Aubury 04:15t) . 



Patented claim of the Yellc 
(Aubury 04:15t) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



187 



GOLD, com. 



Mop 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


L oca t ion 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 






Singleton claim 








Patented claim of the Yellow Aster mine. 
Main shaft and many of underground 
workings on this claim. (Aubury 04:15t; 
Crawford 96:194, 196). 




Sixteen to One 
(Double Standard) 


Vicinity of 
Johannesburg 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Griffith Barris 
Johannesburg (1904) 


Two quartz veins in granite. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. Two 
40-foot inclined shafts and 80 feet of 
drifts. (Aubury 04:15t). 




Skinner (Rip Rap) 


Reported in T29S, 
R33E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. , east of 
Walker Basin 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Hugh Mann, Piute 
(1896) 


Three-foot-wide vein composed of 

rock. Pyrite present in small 
proportion. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 

ed by a 100-foot shaft with 50 feet of 
drifts and a 70-foot adit with a 40-foot 
winze. (Crawford 94:147; 96:196). 




Skukum 


Sec. 33, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , west of 
Randsburg (1904) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Wm. Bonchard and 

Hansen, Rands- 

gurg, (1904) 


Quartz veins in metamorphic and 
granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
1 is ted herein under di f f erent name . 
One 110-foot inclined shaft, 50 feet of 
open cuts, 80-foot tunnel and 150 feet 
of drifts. (Aubury 04:15t). 


34 3 


Sky Line mine 


Center sec. 8, 
T31S, R36E, MDM, 

to Pine Tree Cyn., 
near south edge of 
Antimony Flat, 6 
miles west of 
Cinco 


Undetermined, 1955 ; 
Edward Pyle , 4601 
East 52d Dr. , Los 
Angeles (1949) 


Quartz vein, 2 to 8 feet wide, with 
auriferous pyrite and other sul- 
fides strikes N. 85° W. , dips 70° 
-75° NE. ; in granodiorite. Total 
length of vein more than 1,000 feet 
another vein about 1,200 feet to 
north. 


Three shafts; east shaft 250 feet deep 
with levels at 75, 140, and 250 feet; 
we s t sha ft (1,000 feet to west) 200 feet 
deep with levels at 100 and 200 feet; 
north shaft (1,200 feet to north) 100 
feet deep. Extent of workings on levels 
not determined . Ore concentrated in mill 
{now removed) south of mine. Principal 
mining in 1937-1938; ore averaged 0.44 

ably less P fhan $25,000. P Idle since 
1940. (Tucker 38:12; Tucker, Sampson 
40:36; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:232, 
267t) . 




Slate Walls 


nity of Devils 
Cyn. , 6 miles 
east of Caliente; 
not confirmed, 
1958 


Undetermined 1958 ; 
Orin Barr , Visalia 
(1896) 




abandoned prospect. Originally developed 
by 60-foot shaft and 20-foot drift. 
(Crawford 96:196) . 


344 


Smith (Dorothy 
Bennett) prospect 


Center sec. 9, 
T25S, R32E, MDM, 
2 miles northeast 
of Greenhorn 
Summit on Cow Cr. 


Ulah E. Smith, Sr. , 
Rt. 1, Box 140, 
Santa Monica (1954) 


Four-inch-wide quartz vein in grano- 
diorite. 


Development limited to a 10-foot inclin- 
ed shaft and discovery shaft. One small 
shipment. 


345 


Snowbird mine 

Soledad claim 
Soledad Extension 


NEH sec. 26, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 1 mile 
north of Rands- 
burg 


0. Zane Brown, 
Johannesburg (1957) 


Two gold-bearing fault zones of 
brecciated schist. East fault 
strikes N. 25° W. and dips 60° NE. 
and is a few hundred feet long. 
Fault few hundred feet to west 
strikes N. 30° W. , dips 60° NE . 
and is poorly exposed. Schist is 
iron-stained for several tens of 
feet on each side of the faults. 


Three claims. East fault zone developed 
by 2 inclined shafts 500 feet apart 
north and south, a south-driven drift 
adit about 100 feet north of the south 
inclined shaft, and a vertical shaft 
about 100 feet east of the south in- 
clined shaft. Two inclined shafts of 
undetermined depth and 55 feet apart on 
western fault zone. Probably some pro- 
duction but not recorded under present 
mine name. Previous name undetermined. 
Idle. 

Formerly in Echo group and Elephant- 
Eagle group; now part of Golden Queen 
mine. (Aubury 04:15t; Julihn, Horton 37: 
7, fig. 5, 19, 20; Tucker 23:158; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:282; 35: pi. 7).. 

Formerly in Echo and Elephant-Eagle 
groups; now part of Golden Queen mine. 
(Julihn, Horton 37:4, 7, fig. 5, 23; 
Tucker 23 : 158 ; Tucker , Sampson 35 : 468 , 
469, 482; 40:11, 31) . 




Soledad Produc- 
ers and Leard 


Reported in sec. 
34, T28S, R28E, 
MDM, 1 mile north- 
east of Oil City, 
along Kern R. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Reed Crude Oil Co. , 
Los Angeles (1904) 


Placer deposit. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:18t) . 




Sophie Moren 
mine 








See Winnie mine. 


346 


Southern Cross 
( Includes 
Havilah, Mountain 
King, Uncle Sam 
mines) group 


SW*s sec. 3, WH 
sec. 10, T28S, 
R32E, MDM, Clear 
Cr. dist. , 1 mile 
west of Havilah, 
just south of 
O'Brien Hill 


T. L. Porter and 
E. Porterfield, 
Bakersfield (1957) 


Series of 4 quartz veins in grani- 
tic rock strike generally NE. , dip 
40°-70° SE. Vein system can be 
traced along strike for 2,000 feet. 


Development consists of 2,000 feet of 
drifts, crosscuts, opencuts; all largely 
caved. Idle. (Aubury 04:13t, 15t; 
Brown 16:510, Tucker 29:47; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:276t, 331, 333; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:267t). 



88 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GOLD. com. 



Map 


Name of claim, 


Location 


Owner 


ideology 


Re arks a d references 


No 


mine, or group 


(Name, address) 






Southern Golden 




















See Ferris mine. 


347 


South Rand 


SW^NW^s sec. 15, 


Grace Landes, 


Two quartz veins about 80 feet 


Eighty acres of patented land and 6 un- 




prospect 


T30S, R40E, MDM, 


13061 Berrydale St. 


apart in schist; strike approximate- 


patented claims. Developed by 110-foot 




Rand dist. , 4h 


Garden Grove, and 


ly east, dip 45°-75" S. South vein 


vertical shafts and two 70-foot shafts 






miles sou thwe s t o i 


Lloyd Slettebak, 


is steepest and is most extensively 


on western part of south vein, a 30- 






Randsburg, on 


17241 Stagg St. , 


explored. Trace along surface is 


foot vertical shaft about 50 feet to 






southeast slope oj 


Van Nuys (1958) 


about 300 feet long; width ranges 


east of main shaft, and an east-driven 






Rand Mts. 




from 1 to 2 feet. Locally, the 


50-foot drift adit about 200 feet 










veins are along walls of rhyolite 


farther east. Other short drifts and 










dikes . 


shallow pits on both veins. Production 












undetermined; probably small. Long 












idle. (Hulin 25:143; Tucker 23:169- 












170) . 




Sovere ign 


Clear Cr. dist. 






See Mammoth . 




Sparkplug ; 








Former claims of Goler Cyn. Placer 




Sparkplug No. 2 








deposits; now part of Putnam group. 




claims 








(Tucker, Sampson 33:306-307). 




Speedy 


Reported approx. 


Undetermined, 1957 


Twenty-inch vein in granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 






NW^a T27S, R32E, 


Fred Tibbetts, 




doned. (Crawford 96:196) . 






MDM, (1896) ; not 


Isabella (1896) 










confirmed, 1957 










S okane 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein in granitic and meta- 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 






33, T29S, R40E, 


Wm . Bouchard and 


morphic rock. 


listed herein under different name. 






MDM, Rand dist. , 


Hansen , Randsburg 


One 30-foot shaft and 50-foot tunnel. 






west of Randsburg 


(1904) 




(Aubury #04:15t) . 






(1904) ; not con- 












firmed , 1957 










Standard 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 






25, T26S, R32E, 


Thomas Kearney, 




abandoned prospect (Aubury 04:15t). 






MDM (1904) ; not 


Isabella (1904) 










confirmed, 1957 










Standard group 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 


Three 1-6 foot veins strike NE . , 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 






3, T28S, R32E, 


John Hayes , Havil a? 


dip S. ; in granitic rock. 


abandoned. (Aubury 04:15t). 






MDM, Clear Creek 


(1904) 










dist. (1904) ; not 












confirmed, 1958 








348 


Standard group 


Most of the NE^ 


Standard Hill Mines 


Several nor thwes t — s tr iking ve ins , 


See text. (Aubury 04:10t, 16t ( 17t; 




(Exposed Treasure 


of sec. 32, TUN, 


Co., Earl Blicken- 


dip east; in rhyol itic porphyry and 


Brown 16:493, 504-505; DeKalb 07:310- 




Standard) 


R12W, Mojave dist. 


staf f , pres. , P.O. 


quartz monzonite. 


319; Eric 48:255t; Haley 22:42; Julihn, 






on Standard Hill, 


Box 392, Mojave 




Horton 37:4, 25-27; Newman 23:221, 307; 






3 miles south of 


(1958) 




23b:97-98; Trask, Wilson, Simons 43: 






Moj ave 






123t; Trask, et. al , 50:84; Tucker 23: 












157, 160-161; 29:33-34; Tucker, Sampson 












33:273t, 279, 284, 301-302; 34:11; 












35:465, 468-469, 474; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:218, 219, 258t) . 




Stanford group 








See Gold Coin group (Aubury 04 : 1 5t ; 












Boalich, Castello 18:14t; Brown 16:510- 












511; Hess 10:45; Jenkins 42:331t; Tuckei 












29:47; Tucker, Sampson 33 : 276t; Tucker , 












Sampson, Oakeshott 49:267t). 




Stardust claim 








Placer claim of Jewell group; now known 












as Big Dipper claim (Dibblee , Gay 52 : 












61t) . 


349 


Stardust No. 1 


E^SW^ sec. 32, 


Dean P. Middleton, 


Well developed shear zone about 5 


Explored in inclined shaft of undeter- 




prospect 


T27S, R40E, MDM, 


Sr., address unde- 


feet wide in quartz monzonite; 


mined depth and small prospect pits. 






Rademacher dist. , 


termined (1957) 


strikes N. 50° E. , dips 65° NW. 


A prospect, idle. 






6 miles south of 




Along footwall of shear zone is 8- 








Ridgecrest 




inch-wide layer of brecciated 












quartz monzonite which is moderate- 












ly stained with copper , iron , and 












manganese oxides. 






Starlight claim 








Formerly claim in Echo and Lodestar 












Mining Co. groups; now part of Golden 












Queen mine . (Aubury 04 : 1 5t ; Jul ihn , 












Horton 37:7, 20-21, fig. 5) . 


350 


Star Lode pros- 


NE*a sec. 15, 


B. M. Powell, 


A 12-inch-wide white quartz vein 


Developed by short, inclined shaft and 




pect 


T28S, R40E, MDM, 


address undeter- 


about 400 feet long; strikes N. 20° 


several crosscut trenches. A prospect; 






Rademacher dist., 


mined (1957) 


E., dips 35° NW. ; in quartz monzo- 


idle. 






8*5 miles south of 




nite. 








Ridgecrest, 2 












miles northwest 












of Searles 










St. Charles mine 


















196, 198; 9 Goodyear 88:316! Tucker, 










Sampson 33:276t; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:268t). 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



Map Name of claim, 
No. mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Still Lower 
No. 2 



St. Lawrence 
Rand (Isabella) 



St. Louis 



Stringer district 
placer mines 



it prospect 



Summit Diggings 



Summit Diggings 
Placer (Miller , 
Olympic, Oro 
Fino, Summit 
Gold Placers) 



Summit prospect 

Sumner (Big Blue 
Sumner ; Sumner 
and Big Blue) 
mine 



Sunbeam prospect 



s^ne^ sec. 22, 

T27S, R40E, MDH, 
Rademacher dist. , 
3*5 miles south- 
southeast of 
Ridgecrest 



Reported in T27S, 
R32E, MDM, not con- 
med, 1957 



Reported in sec. 

T29S, R39E, 
MDM, Goler dist. 
El Paso Mts. (1904> 
not confirmed, 1958 



Anton Flink, Gen. 
Del . , Ridgecrest 
(1957) 



R35E, 



4, T29S, 
33, 



T28S, R35E, 
16 miles sou 
of Weldon, c 
side of road 
de on nc 
of Kelsc 



Reported in sec. 

1, T28S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) r not 
confirmed, 1957 



NE% sec. 25, T28S, 
R35E, MDM, north 
slope of Pinyon Mt., 
16 miles southeast 
of Weldon 



Sees. 1, 12, T29S, 
R40E, and sec. 6, 
T29S, R41E, MDM, 
4 3/4 miles north- 
east of Randsburg, 
on south edge of 
Summit Range 



NW% sec. 28, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 2 miles 
southwest of (new) 
Kernville, west 
side of Lake 
Isabella 



Reported in Goler 
mining district 
(1933) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 

NE^ sec. 26, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. ; lh miles 
northwest of 
Johannesburg, on 
east side of 
paved road 



Undetermined, 1957 
Mrs. Gus Miller, 
et al, Havilah 
(1933) 

Undetermined, 1958 



Karl Struss and 
Ethel Struss, 1343 
N. Orange Grove 
Ave., Los Angeles 
46 (1956) 



Undetermined, 1957 
E. J. Holloway, 
Randsburg (1904) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Charles Mills, 
address undeter- 
mined (1937) 



holdings 



Kern Development 
Co. , C. S. Long, 
pres. , P.O. Box 
157, Hayward. 
Leased to Kern 



i n 



Inc. , 



Roland Toggnazzini 
pres. , 260 Calif- 
ornia St. , San 
Francisco (1955) 



Undetermined, 
Sarah Slocum, 
Garlock (1933) 



1958; 



Frank R. and Myra 
S. Meadows, 801 
McCarthy Court, 
El Segundo (1957) 



Quartz veins, as much as 4 feet wic 
but an average width of 2 feet; in 
quartz monzonite; strike N. 60° E. 
and dip 65° SE. Ore shoots occur 
mostly at or near intersections of 



quartz veins 
dioritic dike 
W. Largest o 
100 feet long 
and yielded o 
half an ounce 



th rhyolitic and 
which trend N. 30° 

shoot mined was 
nd 20 inches wide 

reported to contain 
if gold per ton 
(Tucker and Sampson, 1933, p. 327). 
Free gold occurs with copper and 
iron sul fides in quartz . 



Placer gold 



Gold- and sulf ide-bearing quartz 
vein in granodiorite . 



Quartz vein in granite. 



Poorly exposed quartz stringers 
quartz monzonite. 



Older alluvium and reworked older 
alluvium. Principal source of 
gold is reworked alluvium which is 
2 to 10 feet thick and contains 
from 35C to 51-00 of gold per cu. 
yd. 



in shear zone 
and alaskite . 



Describe 
schist, 
dips 70° 



Iron-stained shear zones a few 
inches wide in schist. Shear zones 
are irregular and of short lateral 
extent. 



Four unpatented claims. Developed by 3 
shafts; an 80-foot shaft and a 110-fo 
shaft (both caved) ; and a 200-foot shaft 
filled below a depth of 80 feet. The 
50-foot level of the 200-foot shaft 
extends 150 feet to the southwest and is 
the area from which nearly all of the 
ore has been mined. Production undeter- 
mined but probably not large. Idle 
since about 1933. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:276t, 327; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:232, 267t) . 



Uncorrelated old name. May be listed 
herein under other name. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:276t) . 



Uncorrelated old name, 
herein under different 
04: 18t) . 



Probably listed 
name . ( Aubury 



See text (Aubury 04:15t; Tucker 29:47- 
48; Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 279, 280, 
327-328; 40:37; Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 
shott 49:233, 268t) . 



See under silver. 



Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. A 
50-foot inclined shaft and a 15-foot 
drift adit. (Aubury 04:15t). 



See text under tungsten 

Four short prospect adits. Long idle 



See Summit Diggings Placer mines. 
(Hulin 25:147-148; Tucker 29:44, 47-48; 
Tucker, Sampson 33:279). 

Most extensive holdings were in sees. 1 
and 12 in Kern County but main diggings 
are in San Bernardino County in sees, 
and 36. Gold was discovered in 1893 
and was mined for short periods in 
1890' s and in 1930' s. Intermittent 
periods of mining at other times. Most 
of gold recovered by dry concentrate 
in small machines. (Haley 23:156, 158- 
159; Hulin 25:147-148; Tucker 29:44, 
48-49; Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 279, 
322, 328; Tucker Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 
265t, 268t) . 

See Doble mine (Brown 16:511). 

See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury" 04: 
15tr Brown 16:482, 487-488, 509, 511; 
Crawford 94:147; Goodyear 88:313, 314, 
315, 321; Newman 23:146-147; Prout 40: 
382, 385, 390, 392, 394; Tucker 24:35, 
36, 40; 29:27-28, 49; Tucker, Sampson 
33:276t, 278, 280, 289-291; 34:313; 
40:28; 40b:323, 324, 329; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:268t). 



Uncorrelated old name. Development con ■ 
sisted of a 600-foot west-driven drift 
adit. (Tucker, Sampson 33:328-329). 



Five claims. Numerous shallow inclined 
shafts, short drift, and crosscut adits 
and trenches. No recorded production. 
Long idle. 



190 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 



GOLD. com. 



Map 


Name of claim, 


Location 


Owner 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


No 


mine, or group 


(Name, address) 








ftpprox sec 36 


B i s h op & D own i n g 


Vein in granitic rock. 


No recorded production. Idle. 




pect 


r26S, R31E, MDM, 


(1957) (address 










Sreenhorn dist. , 1 


undetermined) 










nile east of Davis 












Guard Sta . , not 












confirmed, 1957 










Sunnyside pros— 




A . E . Condy , 


Two to 4— foot— wide quartz- filled 


Developed by 60- to 80-foot shaft. A 




□ect 


sec. 11, T28S, R40E, 


248 Spencer, 


shear zone strikes N. 10° W., dips 


prospect; long idle. 




MDM, Rademacher 


Glendale (1949) 


70° NE. ; in quartz monzonite. 








dist. , lh miles 












s ou th , s ou the a s t 












of Ridgecrest 








357 


Sunrise (Jennie 


Sec. 10, T28S, 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 


Series of parallel quartz veins 


Mined mostly before 1900; produced over 




Lind, New World) 


R32E, MDM, Clear 


Mrs. Hallah Miller, 


strike NE. , dip 85° SE. ; in granit- 


$10,000 in gold and silver from undeter- 




group 


Cr . dist. , one mile 


Havilah (1949) 


ic rock. Veins range in width from 


mined tonnage. Comprises 3 patented 






west of Havilah 




1 to 3 feet. 


claims. (Aubury 04:14t; Crawford 96: 












196; Tucker, Sampson 33:329; Tucker, 












Sampson, Oakeshott 49:233, 234, 268t) . 


358 


Sunrise mine 


SE^s sec. 35 T28S, 


George Blatt, P.O. 


Angular to sub-angular particles of 


Placer claim. Mined in the 1930's with 






R40E, MDM, Summit 


Box 213, Johannes- 


gold which range in size from very 


power equipment; output undetermined. 






dist. , 5 miles 


burg; lives on 


fine particles to h inch in length. 


Owner mines gold-bearing gravels from 






northeast of Rands- 


property (1958) 


Average value of gold-bearing 


small pits and trenches and recovers 






burg, Summit Range 




gravels in channels is about $1.00 


gold in dry-concentrator or in small 










per cu. yd.; ranges from less than 


sluice when water is available. Dry 










50C to $5.00 per cu. yd. Gold is 


concentrator can handle about 2 cu. yds. 










commonly coated with clayey mater- 


per man day. 










ial. Gravel is moderately— to poor- 












ly cemented with caliche. Best 












values in gold are near base of 












gravels, on false bedrock in 












gravels, (caliche-rich layers) and 












in channels of present streams that 












contain reworked gravels. Probably 












few thousand cu. yds. of low grade 












unworked remnants of gravel. 












Maximum thickness of gravel is 












about 20 feet. Bedrock is composed 












of Tertiary sedimentary and volcan- 












ic rocks. 






Sunrise mine 








See High Grade group. (Brown 16:492; 












Tucker 29:45; Tucker, Sampson 33:273). 




Sunset 


Reported in sec 


Undetermined 1958 1 


Eight inch to 2- foot— wide vein 


Uncor r el a ted ol d name . Probably 






10, T27S, R32E, 


C. E. Pierrel, 


strikes NW. , dips 40° SW. ; in 


abandoned . Workings consisted of 2 30 - 






MDM, about 2 miles 


Bodfish (1916) 


granitic rock. 


foot drift adit. (Brown 16:511; Tucker, 






west of Bodfish 






Sampson 33:276t; Tucker, Sampson, 






(1916) ; not con- 






Oakeshott 49: 268t) . 






firmed, 1958 










Sunset 


Repor ted appr ox . 


Undetermined, 1957 , 


Seven to 18-inch-wide vein strikes 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably aban- 






T25S , R29E , MDM, 


M. Mitchell, 


N. 70° E. , dips 55° N. ; in meta- 








3 miles southwest 


Ducor (1916) 


morphic rocks. 


County. Developed by 17 5- foot adit, 






of White River 






short adits, shallow shafts. (Crawford 






(1916) ; not con- 






94:298; 96:197, 471; Franke 30:442; 






firmed 






Laizure 23:527; Tucker 19:915). 


359 


Sunset Placer 


SW^ sec. 33, T27S, 


Mr. Wm. S. Fewell, 


Four to 8-foot thickness of aurif- 


Formerly ground sluicing operation. 






R31E, MDM about 




erous Recent river gravel. Con- 








25 miles northeast 


(1958) 


tains traces of scheelite. 


since 1939 (Tucker 29:49). 






of Bakersfield on 




Granitic bedrock. 








the Kern R. , one 












mile above Demo- 












crat Springs 








360 


Sunshine mine 


NE cor. sec. U, 


T. A. Atkinson 


Gold-bearing vein in schist. 


See text. (Aubury 04:15t; Boalich, 






T30S, R40E, MDM, 


estate, A. P. 




Castello 18:12t, 13t; Brown 16:512, 522t 






Stringer dist. , 


Barnhart, agent 




Hulin 25:81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 144; 






1 3/4 miles south- 


Bakersfield (1957) 




Partridge 41:290; Tucker 29:49; Tucker, 












Sampson 33:276t, 280t, 286, 329; Tucker, 






burg 






Sampson, Oakeshott 49:268t). 


161 


Sunshine claim 


SE'sNW's sec. 34, 


Harris Lane, 


Fine to coarse gold in Quaternary 


One 60-acre placer claim. Developed by 






T28S, R38E, MDM, 


Shirley Lane, 


terrace gravels and in Recent talus 


many small excavations to bedrock. 






El Paso Mts. , in 


C. E. Mulford, 


and stream gravels. Bedrock is 


Production undetermined. Most of the 








San Fernando (1958) 










north of Last 




part, of the Goler formation 


sources of placer gold since the 1890 's, 






Chance Cyn. 




(Paleocene) . Gold occurs at base 


Principal production was in the 1890 ;s 








of gravels, which, in most places, 


and 1930's. Small quantities of gold 










is beneath several feet of barren 


are recovered annually by small-scale 










gravels. Extent and grade of 


dry washing methods. 










deposi ts undetermined. 








Reported in sees. 


Undetermined, 1957; 


Gold and sulfides in quartz vein in 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 






7, 18, T28S, R34E, 


J. B. Ferris, 


granite . 


listed herein under different name. 






Piute Mts. (1904) ; 


Caliente (1904) 


(Aubury 04:16t; Crawford 96:197). 






not confirmed. 












1957 








362 


Sur j 


Central south 


Ed and Anna George, 


Quartz veins, 8 in. to 2 feet wide 


Explored by shallow shafts and 2 adits 




pect 


border sec. 31 , 


Bodfish (1953) 


strike N. 40° E. , dip to 70° SE. ; 


100 feet long, all inaccessible in 1955 






T28S, R34E, MDM, 


James G. Cooney, 


in deeply-weathered granitic rock. 


because of extensive caving. Long idle. 






Piute Mts. area. 


et al , Law Bldg. , 




Production, if any, undetermined. 






1 3/4 miles north- 


139 No. Broadway, 




(Tucker, Sampson 33:276t ( 329; Tucker, 






east of Claraville, 


Los Angeles 12 




Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 234, 268t) . 






just west of 


(1954) 










George Lodge 









1962] 



Kern— Gold 



191 



COLD. cont. 



Mop 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Surprise 


Reported in sec. 31 
T10N, R13W, SBM, 
(1904) not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
McKell & Gerner, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Two 3-foot veins strike N. , verti- 
cal, in porphyry. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
abandoned. (Aubury 04:16t). 




Tam O'Shanter 


Reported in sec. 
13, T30S, R40E, 
MDM, Stringer dist., 
south of Randsburg 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Larick and Rankin, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Numerous quartz stringers in schist 
Free milling. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Two incline shafts 65 feet deep, 20- 
foot open cut, 150 feet of drifts. 
(Aubury 04:16t) . 




Tennessee claim 








Patented claim of the Yellow Aster mine. 
(Crawford 96:194, 197). 




Terre Marie 


SW*j sec. 36, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, 
Johannesburg 


Undetermined, 1957; 
Mr. Benson, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Four quartz veins, 2 feet wide, in 
schist; strike N. dip E. ; free 
milling. 


Developed by 50-foot inclined shaft and 
350 feet of drifts. See Grannis Land 
Co. (Aubury 04:16t). 




Three Chimneys 


Reported 4 miles 
south of Isabella 
(old site) (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Eight-inch-wide quartz vein in 
granite . 


Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name. Developed 
by 400-foot tunnel and several short 
winzes by 1896. (Crawford 96:197). 




Tiger 


Reported in sec. 
29, T27S, R33E, 
MDM, southeast of 
Bodfish (1904) ; 
not confirmed , 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Gold-bearing quartz vein with 
galena and sulfides, in granite 


Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name. (Aubury 
04:16t) . 




Tip Top 


Reported in sec. 
14, T27S, R32W, 
MDM, Clear Cr. 
dist. , about 4^ 
miles north of 
Havilah (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
John Hayes, Havilah 
(1904) 


Vein strikes NE. , dips vertically; 
in granitic rock. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Aubury 04:16t; 
Crawford 96:197) . 




Tip Top 


Reported in sec. 
14, T30S, R3 3E, 
(?) , MDM, Loraine 
dist. (1896) ; not 
confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
J. B. Ferris, 
Caliente (1896) 


Two-f oot-wide, steeply-dipping 
quartz vein. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 
abandoned prospect. (Crawford 96:197). 




Tip Top claim 








Claim of Queen Esther mine (see Golden 
Queen mine in text). (Tucker 23:162; 
Tucker 33:282; 35:fig. 7). 




Tom Cat claim 








Patented claim of the Yellow Aster mine. 
(Aubury 04:16t) . 




Tom Lane mine 








Former name of part of Big Blue group. 
(Watts 93:238) . 




Top of the World 
mine 








See under antimony. (Jenkins 42:330t; 
Tucker, Sampson 43:61-62; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:275t). 




Topsy 


Reported in sec. 
36, T29S, R40E, 
MDM, vie. 
Johannesburg 
(1933) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 




Uncorrelated old name ; probably long 
abandoned claim. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:276t) . 




Trent mine 








See Middle Butte mine (Julihn, Horton 
37:4, 32, 33; Tucker, Sampson 35:467, 
468) . 




Trestle mine 








See French mine. 




Trilby claim 








Patented claim of the Yellow Aster mine, 
(Aubury 04:18t; Crawford 96:194, 197). 




Trio 


Reported in vicin- 
ity of Mojave dist. 


Undetermined, 1958 




Uncorrelated old name. May be des- 
cribed herein under another name. 
(Tucker 20: 34) . 


363 


Tropico (Big 
Three, Big Tree, 
Fair view, Hamil- 
ton, Lida, 
Piute) mine 


sec. 11, Nh 
sec. 14, NE% sec. 
15, SE*5 sec. 10, 
T9N, R13W, SBM, 
Mojave dist., on 
Tropico Hill, 4 
miles northwest of 
Rosamond 


Cliff G. Burton, 
Rosamond (1958) 


Four east- trending veins dip south 
in rhyolite. 


See text. (Aubury 04:8t, lOt, lit, 12t 
Brown 16:512; Eric 48:256t; Haley 22:46; 
Tucker 21:310; 23:155; 29:39, 50, 51; 
35:482-484; Tucker, Sampson 33:275t,276t 
279, 280, 330-332; 34:317; 40:37, 38; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:234, 235, 
269t) . 




Turner 


Reported in sees. 
5, 6, T10N, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist., 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Trepanier & Eckley, 
(1904) 


Six-foot-wide quartz vein, strikes 
generally north, dips east; in 
quartz monzonite and rhyolitic 
rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably 
described herein under another name . 
(Aubury 04:16t) . 



192 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GOLD, com. 



Map 


Name of claim, 


Locot on 


Owner 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


No 


mine, or group 




(Name, address) 






Twin Brothers 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 






12, T29S, R39E, 






herein under different name. (Aubury 






MDM, Goler dist. , 






04:18t) . 






El Paso Mts. 












(1904) ; not con- 












firmed, 1958 










Two to One claim 


Reported to be 


Undetermined ; 


Free gold in coarse stream gravels 


Described as an "old" placer mine in 






about 3 miles 


probably on a 


composed mostly of granitic debris. 


1888. Reported to have yielded an 






southeast of the 


private ranch 




average of $6 to $8 in gold per man per 






railroad station 






day by dry recovery methods. (Goodyear 






at Tehachapi 






88 : 311) . 






(1888) , Probably 












approximately sec. 












6, TUN, R14W, SBM 










Uncle Sam claim 








See Southern Cross group. (Tucker, 












Sampson 33:331-333; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49:235-236, 269t) . 




Union 


Re orted in vici- 


Undetermined , 1 958 


Six inch to 5 foot vein strikes N. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 






nity of Big Blue 




53° W. 


herein under another name . Originally 






group. Cove dist. , 






developed by 317-foot inclined shaft. 






1888; not con- 






(Goodyear 88:321) . 






firmed, 1958 










Upper Sageland 


Reported in sec. 


Undetermined, 1958 




Developed by 175-foot shaft and 250 




prospec 


19 T28S R35E 






feet of drifts in 1937 . Yielded few 




MDM, Sageland dist. 


Mining Co. , Mojave 




tens of ounces of gold and silver and 






14 miles south- 


(1937) 




few pounds of copper in 1937. Idle 






southeast of Weldoi 






since 1937. (Eric 48:256t). 






(1948) ; not con- 












firmed, 1958 










Up to Date 


Reported in sec . 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz veins in schist. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 




10, T30S, R40E, 


C. C. Bowles 




abandoned claim. Developed in 1904 by 






MDM, southwest of 


Randsburg (1904) 




10-foot vertical shaft, 10-foot and 






Randsburg (1904) ; 






15-foot inclined shafts, and 50-foot 












open cut. (Aubury 04.16t 






1957 










Urbana claim 


NE^ sec. 28, T25S, 


Kern Development 


Quar tz ve ins in granodi or i te . 


See Big Blue group in text. (Aubury 






R33E, MDM, Cove 


Co. , C. S. Long, 




04: 16t; Brown 16:512-513; Crawford 






dist. , 2 1/3 miles 


pres. P.O. Box 




94:147; Newman 23:147; Prout 40:393, 






southwest of (new) 


157, Hayward. 




416-417; Tucker 24:39; 29:51; Tucker, 






Kernville, west 


Leased to Kern 




Sampson 33:276t ( 320-321; Tucker, Samp- 






side of Lake Isa- 


Mines, Inc. , 




son, Oakeshott 49:269t). 






bella 


Roland Toggnazzini, 












pres. , 260 Calif- 












ornia St. , San 












Francisco (1955) 








Valley claim 








Former claim of Whitmore mine. (Tucker 












23:162) . 


364 


Valley View mine 


SW*j sec. 3, SEh 


A. L. Brown and 


Gold irregularly distributed in 


Fifteen unpatented lode claims and 5 






sec. 4, T28S, R33E, 


Arthur Brown, 


quartz veins in biotite quartz 


patented lode claims. A 385-foot drift 






MDM, Piute Mts. , 


4703 Westdale Ave., 


diorite. Several parallel veins 


adit driven northeast, on No. 1 vein, 






on north side of 


Los Angeles 41 


from 3 to 6 feet wide strike N. 


and 90- foot northeast- driven drift adit 






Clear Cr. , h mile 


(1958) 


50° E. and dip 40° NW. Two veins 


on No. 2 vein (24 feet west of No. 1 






south of Bodfish- 




developed by underground workings. 


vein) . A 90-foot shaft sunk on No. 1 






Claraville road, 




Owners report some scheelite and 


vein at 200 feet north of No. 1 portal. 






6 miles southeast 




antimony in veins; gold ore assays 


Some mining in 1907-1912 when ore was 






of Bodfish 




$20 to $40 per ton. 


trammed to mill in Clear Creek below 












mine. Production undetermined but 












reported by Tucker to be at least 












$28 000 (1 949 p 236) (Tucker , 












Sampson, Oakeshott 49:236, 269t) . 




Valverde 








See Operator Divide mine. (Brown 16: 












507) . 




Venus 








See Porter group . (Tucker , Sampson 












33:299-300) . 




Veraci ty 


Reported 1 mile 


Undetermined, 1958 


Quartz vein in granite strikes 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably long 






east of Claraville 


Barton and Patter- 


N. 67° E. , and dips 65° SE. About 


abandoned prospect. Idle in 1896. 






(1896) ; not con- 


son, Weldon (1896) 


2 feet wide with free gold and 


(Crawford 94:147-148; 96:197). 






firmed, 1958 




sulfides. 






Vera Queen 


NE cor . NWij sec. 


A. De Mayo , P.O. 


Quartz vein, 1 to 3h feet wide, 


One claim (part of the ground formerly 




( Indian Wells 


22, T27S, R40E, 


Box 14, 


strikes N. 80° E. , dips 55° S. ; 


held in Indian Wells Valley group) . 




Valley) group 


MDM , Rademacher 


Ridgecrest (1957) 




Developed by a 200— to 300— foot drift 






dist. , 3 miles 




free gold, iron and manganese 


adit driven east from west base of hill, 






south of Ridge- 




oxides, pyrite, and chalcopyrite. 


35-foot and 50-foot shafts east of 






crest 




Vein is exposed on surface for 


portal of drift, several shallow 










about 400 feet and crosses two 


trenches, and a 500-foot crosscut adit 










large north-trending rhyolite 


driven south from the north. base of 










dikes. 


the hill. South-driven crosscut adit 












was not extended to the vein. Proposed 












intersection is east of end of east- 












driven drift adit. Probably minor 












production. Long idle. (Tucker, Samp- 












son 33:274t, 310; Tucker, Sampson, 












Oakeshott 49: 261t) . 




Vestry prospect 








See Punkie prospect. 



962] 



Kern— Gold 



193 



GOLD, com. 



Map 
No 


Name of c/o/m, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 












Former claim of Yellow Dog group. 
(Tucker 23:162) . 




Victoria mine 








See Pine Tree mine (Aubury 04:16t). 




Victory claim 








Claim of Standard group. (Tucker 23: 
164) . 




Victory No. 2 








Placer claim of Super Mold Corp. of 
California. See Stringer District 
mines under tungsten in text. (Averill 
46:260) . 




Victory Wedge 








See Pearl Wedge mine. 




viola 


Reported in. sec. 
21, T28S, R32E, 
MDM, (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 




Uncorrelated old name. (Aubury 04:16t). 




Virginia prospect 


Sec. 25, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, Keyes 
dist. , Xh miles 
northwest of new 
I sabel 1 a 


Undetermined, 1957 


Vein (?) in quartz diorite which is 
mantled by alluvium. No surface 
expression . 


Shallow surface cuts. No recorded 
production . Idle . 




Voss Consolidated 
Placer mines 








See Klondike group (Dibblee, Gay 52:61t; 
Tucker 29:51; Tucker, Sampson 33:276t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:269t). 




Vulcan claim 








Claim of Red Wing mine. 




Vulture 


Reported in sec. 
36, T30S, R36E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
C. C. Calkins and 
L . E . Potter , Los 
Angeles (1904) 


Gold, silver, lead, and copper sulf- 
ides in veins in limestone and 
dior i te . 


Uncorrelated old name ; probably long 
abandoned prospect; not found. (Aubury 
04 :16t) . 


366 


Wade H. No. 2 
claim 

Wagman & Mc- 
Farland mine 


NE^s sec. 1, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , 3/4 mile 
south of Johannes - 
burg , ad j acent to 
paved road 


Frank W. Royer , 
Red Mountain (1957) 


Shear zone strikes N. 65° W. , dips 
80° S.; in kaolinized quartz mon- 
zonite and rhyolite. 


Part of patented group, see also W. H. 
No. 1 mine . Two shafts of undetermined 
depth. Probably no production. 

See Yellow Dog mine (Newman 23:220). 




Walker 


Reported on Kern 
River, 4 miles 
south of Isabella 
(old site) (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Gold-bearing gravel 4 feet deep. 


Uncorrelated old name. Worked by grounc 
sluicing in 1896. Water was taken from 

Production undetermined. (Crawford 96: 
197) . 




Wall Street 
prospect 


Reported in sec. 
35, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Underwood and Mc- 
Nitt, Bakersfield 
(1904) 


Quartz vein with copper and gold 
in granite. 


Developed by 100-foot shaft. May be 
Bellflower mine. (Aubury 04:16t; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:269t). 




Wall Street group 








See Doble mine (Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 
333) . 


367 


Warrington 
(Little Angel) 
mine 

Wasp 


NE*s sec. 9, T28S, 
R32E, MDM, Clear 
Cr. dist., 1 3/4 
miles west of 
Ha vi 1 ah 1 mile 
southeast of 
O'Brien Spring 


George and Charles 
Fluhart, Kernville 
(1957) 


Narrow high-grade quartz vein, in 
quartz diorite / striking generally 
N. 40° E . , and dipping 70° SE. 
Free gold associated with pyrite 


One of the earlier mines in the district 
yielded an undetermined amount of gold, 
mainly from free milling ore. Workings 
consist of two shafts several hundred 
feet deep and several thousands of feet 
of horizontal workings, all of which are 
largely caved. A 20-ton cyanide plant 
once was operated, parts of which still 
remain on the property. Idle. 
(Aubury 04:16t, 17t; Crawford 94:148; 
96:197; Tucker, Sampson 33:333; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:269t; Watts 93: 
238) . 

Former claim of Ashford Mines. (Crawford 
96:197) . 




Water (Portu- 
guese, Wood and 
Water) 


Reported on Kern 
River, 4 miles 
south of Isabella 
(old site) (1896) ; 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Gold-bearing vein in granite is 
from 6 inches to 2 feet wide. 


Uncorrelated old name. Developed in 
1896, by 100-foot shaft and 100 -fodt 
drift at bottom. Ore extracted in 1896 
from cut on surface 15 feet deep and 
200 feet long. May be listed herein 
under different name. (Aubury 04:16t; 
Crawford 96:197) . 


368 


Waterhole (David 
King and Tango) 
prospect 


Stik sec. 3, T29S, 
R34E, MDM, Piute 
Mts. area, 1 1/8 
mile southeast of 
Claraville, on 
west side of 
Kelso Cr. tribu- 
tary 


Louis Perrant, P.O. 
Box 4, Claraville 
(1955) 


Gold-bearing quartz vein, 6 to 18 
inches wide, strikes N. 55° E. , 
dips 60° SE. ; in weathered granitic 
rock. Pyrite and galena present. 
Kelso Cr. tributary adjacent to 
mine contains placer gold deposits . 


Developed by several shafts 50 to 60 
feet deep, and adits driven southwest 
reported to be 50 and 130 feet long, 
but inaccessible in 1955. Placer 
deposit formerly worked by small-scale 
placer methods. Production, if any, 
undetermined, idle in 1955. (Tucker, 
Sampson 33:273t, 297; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:256t). 



194 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



r.oi.n. com 



Map 
No 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




rfater Right 


Reported in sec. 
12, T29S, R39E, 
MDM Goler dist. , 
El Paso Mts. (1904) 
not confirmed, 195E 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
V. C. Brodarson, 
Randsburg (1904) 


Placer gold in alluvium. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under different name. (Aubury 
04:18t) . 




Watkins group 


Reported in sec. 
35 , T28S , R39E , 
MDM, El Paso Mts. , 
9 miles northwest 
of Randsburg (1949) 
not confirmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
W. P. Watkins, 
Randsburg (1949) 


Gravels, 12 to 20 feet deep, in 
Slate Gulch, an east-draining 
tributary to Goler Cyn. Bedrock 
is sandstone of the Goler form- 
ation. 


Four 160-acre placer claims in 1949. 
Probably no production. Idle since 
1949 . (Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 
49:236, 269t) . 




Webb claim 








Patented claim of Long Tom mine (Tucker, 
Sampson 33 : 316) . 




Hedge claim 








Patented claim of Standard group. 
(Aubury 04:16t; Tucker 23:160; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:276t; Tucker, Sampson, Oake- 
shott 49: 269t) . 


369 


Wegman (Eureka, 
Grace group, 
Karma) group 


NE sec. 6, T10N, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , Ah miles 
southwest of Mojave 
on the northeast 
slope of Soledad 
Mt. 


Bert Wegman, P.O. 
Box 195, Randsburg 
(1958) 


Five sub-parallel quartz veins 
strike about N. 20° W. , dip steeply 
NE. ; in rhyolitic volcanic rocks. 


See text. (Aubury 04:8t, lOt; Brown 
16:497, 499; Julihn, Horton 37:4,22; 
Tucker 23:161; 29:37; 35:465, 468, 4b9, 
479-480; Tucker, Sampson 33:272t. 274t, 
279, 280, 282, 263, 311; 40:11, 30, 34, 
35; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:218, 
227, 257t) . 




Wells Fargo 
(Old Mojave) 


Reported in sec. 
36, T29S, R40E, and 
sec. 1, T30S, R40E, 
MDM, 1 mile south- 
east of Randsburg 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957; 
J. S. Warner, 
Johannesburg (1904) 


Quartz veins in granitic rocks. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different names. 
(Aubury 04:16t) . 




West End mine 








See Big Gold mine. (Tucker, Sampson 
33:291-292) . 


370 


Western (Hematite) 
prospect 


E^NE^ sec. 8, T10N, 
R13W, SBM 


William Harwood, 
address undeter- 
mined) (1955) 


Vein in rhyolitic volcanic rock 
strikes NW. , dips SW. 


Developed by 50-foot adit driven S. 45° 
W. with 20-foot inclined winze at 25 
feet; shallow inclined shaft 60-foot 
northwest of adit; 50-foot vertical 
shaft 100 feet southeast of adit, 
directly in front of portal of a second 
adit driven 20 feet southwest. 
(Julihn, Horton, 1937, p. 36) . 




Whipperwill 


Sec. 35, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, Rand 
dist. , Randsburg 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Frank Wycoff 
Randsburg (1933) 




Uncorrelated old name. Probably Whip- 
oor-will claim of Yellow Aster mine. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:276t). 




White mine 


Rand dist. 






See Sidney mine. (Tucker 29:51; Tucker, 
Sampson 33 : 276t , 333-334 ; Tucker, Samp- 
son, Oakeshott 49:269t). 




White Pine 


Reported on Bodfisr 
Cr. 9 miles north- 
east of Havilah 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Two-foot-wide vein between lime- 
stone and granite. 


Uncorrelated old name. Developed by 
100-foot tunnel before 1896. May be 
listed herein under different name. 
(Aubury 04:16t; Crawford 94:148; 
96:199-198, 199) . 


371 


White Star pros- 
pect 


East cors. sec. 18 , 
19, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. , 4 miles 
southwest of 
Ridgecrest 


Undetermined, 1957; 
P. Erdman, 
Inyokern (1949) 


Quartz vein in granitic rock. 


A 60-foot inclined shaft. Idle. 
(Tucker, Sampson 33:276t, 334; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:269t). 




White Star 


Reported in sec. 
11, T27S, R32E, 
MDM, Pioneer dist. , 
about one mile west 
of Bodfish (1929) ; 
not confirmed, 195E 


Undetermined, 1958 \ 
E. A. Braden, 
Bodfish (1929) 


Ten inch vein in granitic rock. 
Ore shoot was 40 feet in length, 
10 inches wide, a few tens of feet 
in height. 


Developed by a 320-foot adit and 500 
feet of drifts; 1000 ounces of gold 
recovered 1897-1910; no recorded pro- 
duction since. Probably now abandoned. 
(Brown 16:513; Tucker 29:51; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:276t; Tucker, Sampson, and 
Oakshott 49:269t) . 


.'72 


Whitmore mine 


Middle sec. 32, 
TllN, R12W, SBM, 
Mojave dist. , 3 
miles southwest of 
Mojave, on the 
flat southwest of 
Standard Hill 


Whitmore Mine , 
Inc. , Earl Oakley, 
pres. , 408 S. 
Spring St. , 
Los Angeles (1958) 


Several parallel quartz-calci te 
veins in rhyolitic and granitic 
rock; strikes N. 30° W. , dips 
60°-80° E. 


See text. (Gardner 54:55-56; Julihn, 
Horton 37:27-29; Tucker 23:157, 162, 
163; 29:52; 35:469, 484-485; Tucker, 
Sampson 33:277t, 284, 334, 335; 40:11, 
38; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:236, 
269t) . 


373 


W. H. No. 1 mine 

i 


Approx . center sec. 
1, T30S, R40E, 
WDM , Rand dist. 
l\ miles southeast 
of Randsburg 


Frank W. Royer , 
Red Mountain (1957) 


Quartz-bearing, nearly vertical, 
shear zone in schist. Strikes 
N. 20° W.; about 400 feet long on 
sur face . Gold i s fine-grained and 
free milling. Vein strikes into 
K.C.N. No. 1 claim to south. 


Shaft at least 150 feet deep and few 
hundred feet of drift adits. Few 
hundred ounces of gold produced 1938— 
1939 from ore that contained nearly 
1 oz. gold per ton. 



1962] 



Kern— Gold 



195 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Wildcat mine 



Wilhelmina 
Williams 



Will Jean pros- 
pect 



Willow placer 



nie (Moren 
Sophie, Sophie 
en) mine 



Yellow Aster 
(Olympus) min 



Yellow Bank 



Yellow Bank 
(Ruby-Reedley) 



Yellow Boy min 



SW% sec. 8, T28S, 
R40E, MDM, Rade- 
cher dist. , 8 
les south-south- 
east of Ridqecrest 



dips 



Reported approx. Undetermined, 1957; 
NE^j T27S, R31E, Mr. Ben Williams 

MDM, in Fremont Cr., Woody (1896) 
(1896) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

SE^a sec. 26, T26S, Undetermined, 1957 
R32E, MDM, 3 miles 
north of Bodfish 



Reported in NW^ 

;ec. 27, T25S, 
R33E, MDM, Cove 
dist. , 1 3/4 miles 

outh 'of (new) 
Kernville, now 
below the highwater 
level of Lake 
Isabella r not con 
firmed, 1958 

SW cor. sec. 25, 
T29S, R40E, MDM, 
Rand dist. , 3/4 
mile northwest of 
Randsburg 



NE% sec. 11, T30S, 
R40E, MDM, String- 
er dist. , 2 miles 
south of Randsburg 



Center, NW^ sec. 
2, T30S, R40E, 
MDM, Rand dist. , 
southwest edge of 
Randsburg 



Reported in sec. 
33, T29S, R40E, 
MDM, Rand dist. , 
west of Randsburg 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

Reported in sec. 
7, T28S, R39E, 
MDM, El Paso dist. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1957 

W^ NE^g sec. 19, 
T28S, R34E, north 
end of French 
Meadows, Piute 
Mts. , 11 miles 
southeast of Bod- 
fish 



U. S. Army Corps 
of Engineers (1959) 



Stephen Reiss, 
Santa Barbara 
(1957) 



Jack Leeder and 
LeRoy Petterson, 
addresses undeter- 
mined (1957) 



Yellow Aster Min- 
ing and Milling 
Co. , 6331 Holly- 
wood Blvd. , Los 
Angeles (1958) 



Undetermined, 1957 
Bouchard and 
Thomson, Randsburg 
(1904) 



Undetermined, 1957; 
Roberts , Jeffords , 
and Mathews , 
Randsburg (1904) 



Undetermined, 1958; 
formerly part of 
Jenette-Grant mine 
(1940) 



Fault zone strikes N. 40° 
65° NW. ; in quartz diorite 
is from 2 to 8 feet wide, consists 
of parallel shears, and contains 
free qold, oxides of iron, manga- 
nese, and copper, and thin lenses oi 
quartz. Fault zone is well-exposed 
and about 900 feet lonq: only part 
of the northern 400 feet of the 
zone has been mined. 



Recent qravels of Fremont Cr. 



Vein in granitic rock. 



Auriferous river qravel on schis 
and qranodiorite bedrock. Pay 
zone said to be 6 feet thick. 



Quartz stringers and iron-stained 
crushed schist along steep, north- 
east-dipping shear zones in schist 
Free milling ore. Veins indistinc 
on surface except where exposed in 
cuts. 



Several parallel, approximately 
west-trending quartz strinqers in 
schist. Western extension of 
stringers on Merced claim. Strinq- 
ers contain both qold and scheelite. 



Free qold in schist and quartz 
monzonite. Several types of v 



Quartz veins in metamorphic 
granitic rock. 



Quartz in granite. 



Fault zone has been mined and explored 
from an inclined shaft of undetermined 
depth near the crest of a hill, and 
from a vertical shaft about 100 feet 
deep, 400 feet downslope to the north- 
east. Shorter incl ined winzes and near 
surface s topes have been driven between 
the shafts. Several tens of tons of 
material have been treated in a mill 
which has been removed. Probably small 
production. May be same as London mine 
(1904) . Long idle. 

See Prospector. (Aubury 94:14t). 

Uncorrelated old name. Probably abar- 
doned. Worked by ground sluicing. 
(Crawford 96:198) . 



No recorded producti 



A ground sluicing 
1914. Long idle. 



Several claims (1 patented) . Developed 
by inclined shaft to undetermined depth 
below 225 feet. Few thousand feet of 
drifts on 4 levels to 200 foot level. 
Total production of few thousand ounces 
of gold in 1899, 1911-1915, 1926-1928, 
and 1931-1937. Idle since 1941. (Brown 
16:513; Tucker 29:51-52; Tucker 1 , Samp- 
son 33:310, 335; 34:315; Tucker, Samp- 
son, Oakeshott 49:236-237, 270t) . 

Winnie mine is eastern part of Sophie_ 
Moren qroup of claims ; adj oins west 
boundary of Merced claim. Total output 
from mine is several hundred ounces of 
qold and an undetermined amount of 
tunqsten. Principal mining periods of 
gold were intermittent intervals betweei 
1899-1909 and in the 1930' s. Developed 
by shafts from 50 to 250 feet deep and 
probably a few hundred feet of drifts. 
Idle. (Aubury 04:16t; Boalich, Castel- 
lo 18:13t; Brown 16:513, 522t; Hulln 25 
72, 84; Partridge 41:291; Tucker 29:52) 

See text. (Aubury 04:8t,.9t, lOt, 12t, 
13t, 15t, 16t, 17t, 185; Brown 16:483, 
485, 514; Cooper 36:1-21; Crawford 96: 
187, 188, 193, 194, 195,196, 197; Eric 
48:257t; Frolli 40:1-46; Haley 22:46; 
Hess 10:31, 33-39; Hulin 25:65;72, 80, 
81, 82, 84, 86, 87, 88-91, 108, 121- 
125; Jenkins 42:330t; Newman 23:105, 
147, 539; Partridge 41:291; Tucker 
20:34; 21:310; 29:52-54; Tucker, Samp- 
son 33:272t, 277t, 279, 280, 335-338; 
34:317; 40:11, 38-43; Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:237, 270t, 276t) . 

Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed "herein under different name. 
One 50-foot inclined shaft and 40 feet 
of open cuts. (Aubury 04:16t). 



Uncorrelated old name; may be property 
listed herein under different name. 
Developed by 4 shallow shafts, 150 feet 
of drift adits. (Aubury 04:16t). 



An old workings of which little is 
known . Shaft is caved and dumps 
and tailings are overgrown. Part of 
tailings reworked by Jenette-Grant 
Mining Co. in 1940. (Tucker, Sampso 
40b: 328 ; Tucker , Sampson, Oakeshott 
49:270t) . 



196 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GOLD. Qor.1. 



Maf- 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 

(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


380 


¥ellow Dog mine 

Yellow Dog 
Extension claim 


W^s sec. 32 , TUN, 
R12W, SBM, Mojave 
dist. , 3 miles 
southwest of Mojave 
on the east side oi 
a small hill west 
of Standard Hill 


Yellow Dog Mining 
Co., Bert Wegman, 
pres. , P.O. Box 
195, Randsburg 
(1958) 


Two to 15-foot-wide quartz-calcite 
vein strikes N. 20° W. dips 60° NE. 
in rhyolitic porphyry and granitic 
rock. 


See text. (Eric 48:257t; Julihn, Hortor 
37:29-30; Newman 23:307, 308, 539; 
23b:98; Tucker 63:157, 163, 164, 29:54, 
55; 35:465, 469, 485; Tucker, Sampson 
33:277t, 279, 284, 338, 339; Tucker, 
Sampson , Oakeshott 49 : 237-238, 270 t). 

Part of Standard group and Pride of 
Mojave (?) . May be misnamed from Yellov 
Rover Extension. (Tucker 23:164; 29:55, 
56; Tucker Sampson 33:277t; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:270t). 




Yellow Jacket 


Reported in sec. 
20, T27S, R33E, 
MDM (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 




Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name. Probably 
in Randsburg area. (Aubury 04:16t). 




Yellow Rover mine 








See Standard group. (Aubury 04:16t; 
Julihn, Horton 37:4, 27; Tucker 23:160). 


381 


Yellow Treasure 


Center sec. 26, 
T27S, R40E, MDM, 
Rademacher dist. , 
4 3/4 miles south 
of Ridgecrest 


A. De Mayo, P.O. 
Box 14, Ridgecrest 
(1957) 


Shear zone, several tens of feet 
wide and about a mile long, strikes 
N. 40° W. , dips 75° NE. ; in quartz 
monzonite. Within the shear zone 
are quartz veins from 3 to 6 feet 
wide and several tens of feet long 
which contain free gold, chalco- 
pyrite, bornite, iron oxides and 
minor amounts of argentiferous 
galena. Ore zones are lenticular, 
discontinuous , and of variable 
grade. Some copper and gold along 
walls of rhyolitic dikes in the 
shear zone. Locally, ore zones are 
thin and closely spaced. 


Three unpatented claims. Developed at 
southeast end of shear zone by 145-foot 
inclined shaft and a 450-foot drift to 
the southeast on the 140-foot level. 
Two short winzes and two short cross- 
cuts also on 140- foot level. Shallow 
shafts and open cuts have been excava- 
ted farther northwest along the shear 
zone. Small amounts of gold and copper 
were produced from the main shaft area 
in the early 1930 ' s early 1940 ' s , and 
late 1940's. In 1957, copper -bearing 
lenses at the northwest end of the sheai 
zone were being exposed in open cuts. 
(Eric 48:257t; Tucker, Sampson 33:339; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:270t). 




Young America 


Reported on Kern R. 
4 miles south of 
Isabella (old 
townsite) (1896) 
not confirmed, 
1957 


Undetermined, 1957 


Quartz vein in granite. 


Uncorrelated old name; may be listed 
herein under different name. Probably 
some production before 1896 as was 
described then as having many old 
workings (Crawford 96:198). 




Yucca Tree claim 








Patented claim of Santa Ana group. 
(Aubury 04:16t) . 




Yukon 


Reported in sec. 
6, T10N, R12W, 
SBM, Mojave dist. 
(1904) ; not con- 
firmed, 1958 


Undetermined, 1958 


Two to 4-foot quartz vein strikes 
NW. , dips SW. in rhyolitic por- 
phyry. 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably now 
part of Golden Queen mine . (Echo 
group?) (Aubury 04:16t). 


382 


Yukon prospect 
Zada mine 


Sec. 31, T26S, 
R32E, MDM, Green- 
horn dist. , 2h 
miles east of 
Davis Guard Sta. 


Charles Ray (1957) 
(address undeter- 
mined) 


Veins in granitic rock . 


No recorded production . Idle . 

See Gold Peak mine under silver. 
(Aubury 04:16t; Brown 16:495, 496). 


38 3 


Zenda mine 
Zig Zag 


SW^ sec. 29, T30S, 
R33E, MDM, Loraine 
dist. , on high 
ridge between Big 
Last Chance Cyn. 
and Studhorse Cyn. 


Undetermined, 1958; 
Zenda Gold Mining 
Co. , I. W. Hellman 
Bldg. , Los Angeles 
(1949) 


Vein, 30 to 50 feet wide, strikes 
N. 30° E., dips 40° NW. Quartz 
diorite footwall and rhyolite 
porphyry hanging wall. 


See text. (Aubury 04:16t, 17t; Brown 
16:515; Tucker 20:34; 23:156; 24:41-42; 
29:56; Tucker, Sampson 33:277t, 339; 
Tucker, Sampson and Oakeshott 49:270t). 

See Columbia. (Aubury 04:9t). 




Undetermined 
prospect 


NW^NW^a sec. 9, 
T10N, R13W, SBM 
(projected) 


Undetermined 


Three to 6-foot-wide quartz vein 
strikes due east, dips 75° N. ; in 
rhyolitic volcanic rock. Strongly 
kaolinized material in vein and 
wall rock. 


Developed by 2 east-driven adits at 
about a 100-foot vertical interval. 



1962] 



Kern— Graphite, Gypsum 



197 



GRAPHITE 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Uew Deal prospect 
Smuggler prospect 


Undetermined 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 
G. F. Franklin, 
Porterville (1918) 


Graphitic schist. 
Undetermined 


See under gold. 

Unconfirmed occurrence last reported in 
1918 (Boalich, Castello 18b:16t). 



Graphite 

Although graphite has been reported at several locali- 
ties in Kern County, none had been mined by 1959 be- 
cause the amount was small. At a locality in the Loraine 
district, 11 miles east of Loraine, irregular masses of 
graphite are in a 5- to 10-foot-wide zone in mica schist. 
An unconfirmed deposit of graphite was reported near 
Fort Tejon (Browne, 1869, p. 254). Boalich and Castello 
(1918, p. 16) list the Smugglers graphite mine in Kern 
County, but do not name the location of it. Graphite 
commonly is found as widely disseminated flakes and 
grains in coarsely crystalline carbonate rocks in the Sierra 
Nevada and Tehachapi Mountains. 

Gypsum 

By William E. Ver Planck 

Several hundred thousand tons of gypsum are used 
each year in the San Joaquin Valley for conditioning 
alkali soils, and much of it is obtained from deposits in 
Kern (fig. 66) and neighboring counties that are within 
150 miles of the farms. Gypsum for agricultural purposes 
need not be of high grade because most of the impurities 
likely to be present act as harmless diluents. 



Producers of agricultural gypsum must comply with 
the provisions of the Agricultural Code of California, 
which requires, among other things, that the producer 
be registered with the State Bureau of Chemistry. Al- 
though the law does not specify the minimum gypsum 
content of agricultural gypsum, the Bureau of Chemistry 
makes frequent inspections to determine if the material 
offered for sale conforms with the registrant's own guar- 
antee. The names of registrants together with the partial 
analyses of samples are published in Fertilizing Materials, 
a pamphlet that is issued yearly by the Bureau of Chem- 
istry. The list of registrants includes not only producers 
but also dealers and importers. Registrants that the writer 
believes have mined gypsum at some time during the 
period 1946-58 are included in the tabulation of gypsum 
deposits accompanying this report. 

By far the largest part of the gypsum mined in Kern 
County is gypsite, which is an earthy form of gypsum 
consisting of gypsum crystals mixed with silt or clay; 
but since 1955 rock gypsum also has been mined. In 1958, 
most of the material mined in Kern County contained 60 
to 70 percent gypsum. Small tonnages of gypsite were 



Figure 66. Distribution of gypsum and iron deposits in Kern County. 



-gypsum 



gypsum 



BAKERSFIELD 



gypsum^ 



198 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



mined in Kern County as early as 1890, but the output 
did not approach 100,000 tons a year until 1940. 

Most of the known gypsite deposits in the county are 
in the San Joaquin Valley area, especially in the Lost 
Hills, the foothills of the Temblor Range near Belridge, 
the Telephone Hills near McKittrick, and old Kern Lake 
near Connor. Koehn Lake, 20 miles northeast of Mojave 
in the Mojave Desert, also has deposits. Gypsite forms in 
regions of little rain and fast evaporation. Small gypsum 
crystals form at or near the surface to which calcium 
sulfate-bearing ground water is drawn by capillary 
action. Two types of gypsite deposits have been recog- 
nized; those that form caps on the outcrops of upturned 
gypsiferous beds, and those in alluvium. 

Deposits that have formed on gypsiferous outcrops are 
probably more numerous but smaller than the other type. 
Many of the Tertiary formations around the periphery 
of the San Joaquin Valley contain gypsum in the form of 
crystals and fragments of selenite, as veinlets of satin 
spar, as part of the cement of sandstone, or as thin layers 
of gypsum interbedded with shale. The overlying gypsite 
bodies, which generally grade downward into the source 
material, closely parallel the present surface. Many indi- 
vidual bodies crop out over several acres and attain maxi- 
mum thicknesses of 3 or 4 feet. Deposits of this type are 
in the Temblor foothills, in the Telephone Hills, in the 
Sunset oil district southeast of Maricopa, and on Round 
Mountain northeast of Bakersfleld. 

Some of the gypsite deposits found in alluvium are 
efflorescent accumulation derived from ground water, 
but flowing surface waters may have been a factor in the 
formation of others. The deposits at old Kern Lake and 
Koehn Lake are irregular lenses that lie in sharp contact 
with lake-type beds, and they are thought to have 
formed on moist ground along the lake margins (Hess, 
1920, p. 71-73). In the Telephone Hills, two of the de- 
posits, which are buried in the beds of dry washes, may 
have formed from an accumulation of gypsum-bearing 
ground water; or the gypsite may have been washed 
down slope from other deposits on the surrounding hill- 
sides. The deposits in the Lost Hills are flat-lying lenses 
similar in some respects to those at Kern Lake and 
Koehn Lake, but a" considerable body of evidence sug- 
at most of the gypsite was transported in granu- 
lar form to the area by water and laid down as a sedi- 
mentary deposit. 

deposits of rock gypsum are known in Kern 
County, one near Bitterwater Creek in the northwest 
corner of the county, the other in Cuddy Canyon west 
of Lebec. In both places gypsum forms lenticular beds 
associated with Tertiary nonmarine sediments in or near 
the San Andreas fault zone. The one near Bitterwater 
Creek is sociated with the Plio-Pleistocene Paso Robles 
formation, Cuddy Canyon is probably Miocene in 

age. 

Although th> total production of gypsite in Kern 
County is great, i individual deposits are small and 
have been exhausted after a year or two of intensive 



mining. Seldom have more than half a dozen operators 
been active at one time, yet the records contain the names 
of more than 50 producers. Most of them have been 
small unincorporated enterprises; many have failed be- 
cause of inadequate financing or inability to produce 
gypsite of the quality guaranteed; others have gone out 
of business after exhausting their deposits; and only a 
few have been able to systematically develop reserves 
to replace deposits that they have mined out. The prin- 
cipal producer is H. M. Holloway Incorporated, which 
has been continually active in the Lost Hills since 1934. 

Because the gypsite deposits in Kern County are un- 
consolidated and lie close to the surface, they can be 
mined comparatively cheaply with earth-moving equip- 
ment. Most of the operators use small- to medium-sized 
carryall scrapers to excavate the gypsite and place it 
either in stock piles or trucks. Ordinarily, the gypsite is 
picked up by scrapers without difficulty; but a few de- 
posits are so hard that two tractors are required for each 
scraper. Much gypsite is sent directly to the farms with- 
out processing; but commonly it is screened if it contains 
roots or stones. A few operators have installed hammer 
mills to crush lumpy gypsite, Comparatively little work is 
required to prepare the deposits for mining. Overburden 
in maximum ratio of 1 to 1 is removed with bulldozers 
or scrapers. If much grass is present, plowing may be 
necessary first. Access roads must be built" and truck- 
loading chutes prepared. The larger operators have field 
offices where outgoing trucks are weighed and billed. 
Some have facilities for wetting down the loaded trucks 
to prevent loss of the fine, powdery gypsite on the 
public highways. 

Belridge Area 

The gypsite deposits mined in the foothills of the 
Temblor Range, west of the Belridge oil fields, are 
reached from State Highway 33 via 7th Standard Road 
or Lokern Road. Gypsite workings are largest and most 
numerous near Gould Hill, but they extend north to 
Carneros Canyon and south to Salt Creek. The gypsite 
has developed on the outcrops of gypsiferous members 
of the Miocene Maricopa shale and the Plio-Pleistocene 
McKittrick formation, which, in general, strike paral- 
lel to the trend of the Temblor Range and dip eastward 
toward the San Joaquin Valley (English, 1921, pi. 1). 
In March 1958, the Temblor Gypsum Company, which 
commenced operations in 1956, was the only active 
producer in the Belridge area. Others that have reported 
production from the Belridge area include the Valley 
Agricultural Gypsum Company (1939-43); the Western 
Gypsum Company (1950-53); and Belridge Gypsum 
Mines (1956-57). 

Temblor Gypsum Company Deposits. Location: Sees. 
1, 11, 14, T. 29 S., R. 21 E., M.D.M., 12 miles northwest 
of McKittrick. Ownership: Temblor Gypsum Company, 
Carrisa Plains Star Route, Box 80, Santa Margarita 
(1958). 



1962] 



Kern— Gypsum 



199 



Early in 1958, the Temblor Gypsum Company was 
preparing to ship gypsite from a deposit on the north 
slope of Gould Hill. The deposit is about 300 yards in 
diameter, and has an average thickness of 4 feet. An 
access road had been built, a truck-loading chute was 
under construction near the downslope margin of the 
deposit, and the stripping of a few inches of grass and 
soil had been completed. Because the gypsite is mod- 
erately hard, the carryall scraper used for mining was 
excavating only a few inches at each pass. The scraper 
was covering the whole deposit with circular traverses, 
gradually lowering the whole surface. Bedrock had not 
been reached. The gypsite was being stored in a stock- 
pile from which a bullddozer, by means of a loading 
chute, could transfer it to trucks. The product is agri- 
cultural gypsum guaranteed to contain 65 percent 
CaS0 4 .2H 2 0. 

The Temblor Gypsum Company has worked other 
gypsite deposits in the Belridge area. One, practically 
exhausted before 1958, is in sec. 11, T. 29 S., R. 20 E., 
M.D.M., on the south-facing slope of a creek that enters 
the head of Temblor Valley. Gypsite that may originally 
have been as much as 3 feet thick was mined from an 
area of 75 to 100 acres. Some low-grade, stony gypsite at 
the base of the deposit remains. The underlying rock 
on which the gypsite formed is gypsiferous shale and 
sandstone with small and sparsely distributed lenses of 
limestone. Locally, at least, the bedrock strikes N. 80° 
W. and dips steeply northeast. The gypsite forms east- 
trending bands, several hundred yards long and as much 
as 100 yards wide, that are separated by bands in which 
no gypsite is found. Thus it seems likely that the gypsite 
formed only on the outcrops of certain favorable beds. 
Gypsite also has been mined from a north-facing slope 
in Sec. 14, T. 29 S., R. 20 E., M.D.M., half a mile south 
of the deposit in section 1 1 . 

Other Workings. Gypsite has been obtained from an 
area of several hundred acres in sec. 1, T. 29 S., R. 20 E., 
M.D.M., between Gould Hill and Chico Martinez Creek. 
The deposits are on two parallel, northeast-facing slopes, 
the first bordering the San Joaquin Valley, the second, 
one-quarter of a mile to the southwest. Shale-pebble 
conglomerate of the McKittrick formation (English, 
1921, p. 28) crops out along the summit of the first 
ridge, but there are no other outcrops of bedrock at 
this locality. The gypsite, which has been almost entirely 
removed, is underlain by fine sand and gravel that con- 
tains sparsely distributed fragments of selenite gypsum. 

Belridge Gypsum Mines, and probably others, have 
mined deposits in sec. 34, T. 28 S., R. 20 E., M.D.M., 3 
miles northwest of Gould Hill. The gypsite is underlain 
by the McKittrick formation. 

Bitterwater Creek Area 

Location: Sec. 31, T. 27 S., R. 18 E., M.D.M., near 
Sumners, about 12 miles west-southwest of Blackwells 
Corner. The area can be reached via the Bitterwater Val- 
ley road from Blackwells Corner or the Shandon- 
Simmler road from Shandon, San Luis Obispo County. 



Ownership: Sumner-Wreden estate; leased to Superior 
Gypsum Company, Albert Chanley, 3916 Pierce Road, 
Bakersfield. The Superior Gypsum Company has been 
producing ground rock gypsum for agricultural use from 
the Bitterwater Creek deposits since July 1955. 

Fine-grained brown rock gypsum, more than 90 per- 
cent pure, is associated with sedimentary rocks of the 
Plio-Pleistocene Paso Robles formation within or close 
to the San Andreas fault zone. Outcrops of rock gyp- 
sum lie in a zone at least a mile long that runs southeast- 
ward from the vicinity of Sumners. Probably the gyp- 
sum is in distinct, separate lenses as much as 100 feet in 
length and 10 to 25 feet thick, rather than in a single 
continuous bed. The gysiferous zone is in clay shale 
that weathers readily and does not form outcrops. Beds 
of coarse sand and gravel are exposed in the bed of 
Bitterwater Creek, 100 yards from the nearest gypsum 
outcrop. 

The principal mining and milling operations are one- 
quarter of a mile southwest of Sumners on the crest and 
northeast-facing slope of the ridge bordering Bitterwa- 
ter Creek where a pit 200 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 
50 feet deep near the crest of the ridge has yielded sev- 
eral tens of thousands of tons of gypsum. In March 1958, 
this pit was idle because the gypsum that remained in it 
lay beneath an excessive amount of overburden; and the 
company was working a second pit on the hillside 200 
yards to the northeast. Where the gypsum is compara- 
tively thin, it can be broken with a bulldozer so that a 
power shovel can load the gypsum chunks mixed with 
weathered shale into trucks. When clean gypsum is re- 
quired, the overburden is stripped from the thicker parts 
of the lens and the gypsum is broken by drilling and 
blasting. The crude gypsum thus obtained is ground to 
20 mesh in a mill equipped with a jaw crusher and ham- 
mer mill in circuit with scfeens. Electric power to drive 
the machinery is generated at the mill. The company 
makes two products, both of which are shipped by truck 
in bulk for agricultural use. One is guaranteed to contain 
90 percent gypsum; the other, obtained by processing a 
mixture of gypsum and weathered shale, contains at least 
70 percent gypsum. 

Cottonwood Creek (Cottonwood Co., W. A. Fauntle- 
roy, Gypsum Mining Co., Pampa Gypsum Mining Co.) 
Deposits. Location: sees. 20, 21, 27, 28, 29, 33, 34, T. 
29 S., R. 30 E, M.D.M., near Cottonwood Creek, 16 
miles east of Bakersfield on the west flank of the Sierra 
Nevada. Owner: Oscar Rudnick, Trustee, and P. Sumner 
Brown, Bakersfield (1949). The deposits can be reached 
via unimproved roads from Bena on U. S. Highway 466 
or from Breckenridge Road. 

The Cottonwood Creek deposits were among the first 
to be worked for gypsite in California. About 1 890, Cap- 
tain W. A. Fauntleroy formed three companies, the Cot- 
tonwood Company, the Gypsum Mining Company, and 
the Pampa Gypsum Mining Company, to mine gypsite 
for agricultural use from deposits along Cottonwood 
Creek 3!4 miles above Breckenridge Road (Angel, 1890, 



200 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



pp. 223, 224). About 1907, William Harmon was pros- 
pecting other deposits on the north side of the divide 
between Cottonwood Creek and Caliente Creek; and the 
Fauntleroy operations had been idle for some time (Hess, 
1920, pp. 70, 71). Gypsite also has been mined south of 
the divide, but the writer has not ascertained when or 
by whom the work was done. 

The gypsite deposits are underlain by the Oligocene 
Walker formation (Dibblee and Chesterman, 1953, pi. 
1). Gypsite perhaps originally as much as 5 feet in thick- 
ness has been largely removed from an area of 25 to 50 
acres in sees. 33 and 34, T. 29 S., R. 30 E., M.D.M., on 
both sides of a creek that flows south toward Bena. Thin- 
bedded gray sandstone cut by veinlets of satin spar gyp- 
sum underlies the deposits. Test pits and trenches show 
that gypsite is not present on the crest of the ridge to 
the east, and that only small bodies less than 2 feet thick 
are present on the upper slopes above the old workings. 

The deposits worked by Fauntleroy are in sees. 20 and 
21, T. 29 S., R. 30 E., M.D.M., on both banks of Cotton- 
wood Creek and 50 to 75 feet above the creek bed. 
Originally, several acres were covered with gypsite 2 to 
3 feet thick that grades downward into soft, earthy mate- 
rial (Angel, 1890, p. 223). 

The deposits prospected by Harmon are in sec. 28, 
T. 29 S., R. 30 E, M.D.M., on hilltops and in intervening 
gulches south of Cottonwood Creek. The hilltop deposits 
are comparatively small, but a specimen from one of 
them was found to contain 74.8 percent gypsum (Hess, 
1920, p. 71). The gulch deposits, which Hess believes to 
be accumulations of gypsite washed in from above, are 
several hundred feet long and as much as 25 feet thick. 

Kern Lake (Crystal Gypsum Co., Pacific Gypsum Co.) 
Deposits. Location: sees. 26, 27, 34, T. 32 S., R. 27 E., 
M.D.M., on the south margin of older Kern Lake, 14 
miles south-southwest of Bakersfield. Owner: Kern 
County Land Company. The deposits can be reached 
from U. S. Highway 99 via Copus Road. 

The gypsite deposits near Kern Lake, which has been 
drained, were discovered in an irrigation ditch that was 
excavated at some time before Hess visited them during 
the winter of 1906-07 (Hess, 1920, p. 71-73). They re- 
mained idle until 1946 when the Kern County Gypsite 
Company prepared to mine the gypsite for agricultural 
use. The Pacific Gypsum Company then took over the 
operation and mined gypsite at a substantial rate until 
the deposits were exhausted, about 1951. The Crystal 
Gypsum Company mined a smaller tonnage from nearby 
deposits during 1947 and 1948. The Kern Lake deposits 
probably have yielded about 100,000 tons of material 
containing 60 to 70 percent gypsum. 

Gypsite is present near the former shore line of Kern 
Lake, but none has been found in the central part of 
the lake bed. Within 2 feet of the surface numerous 
lenticular bodies i to 3 feet thick (fig. 67), lie with a 
sharp but irregular contact on brown clay. Most of the 
gypsite is light colored, earthy, and comparatively pure; 
but near the bases and lateral limits of individual bodies, 




Figure 67. View of pale gypsite and gypsiferous clay 
beds overlain by darker soil, Kern Lake gypsite deposit. 



it is hard, gray, and comparatively impure. The gypsite 
contains solution cavities as much as 3 feet in diameter. 

Koehn Lake Area 

The gypsite deposits of Koehn Lake, about 25 miles 
northeast of Mojave, have been worked intermittently, 
but on a relatively small scale since their discovery in 
1909. They have been described by Hess (1910b). The 
output, which probably totals 50,000 to 75,000 tons, has 
been used mostly for agricultural purposes. 

Koehn Lake is a playa in Cantil Valley, an undrainedi 
basin between El Paso Mountains and the Rand Moun- 
tains. Ordinarily the lake surface is dry, but after heavy 
rains a few inches of water accumulate in the central part 
and form brine from which salt is obtained (see under 
Salt in this report). The gypsite is on the south side of 
the playa, well above the area of flooding. Most of the 
gypsite produced has come from the Daly deposit in sec. 
28, T. 30 S., R. 38 E., M.D.M., but the adjoining Halsey 
deposit in section 29 also has been worked. These deposits 
can be reached from U. S. Highway 6 via graded roads 
from Cantil. 

Gypsite, with no overburden except for grass, covers 
most of section 28 and the eastern part of section 29. Al- 
though selected specimens contain more than 80 percent 
gypsum, most of the gypsite output in recent years had a 
guaranteed gypsum content of 60 percent. An average 
of 5 feet of relatively pure gypsite grades into gray 
gypsite of lower quality about a foot thick at the base. 



1962] 



Kern— Gypsum 



201 



The gray gypsite in turn rests with a sharp contact on 
clay. Boreholes penetrated clay layers containing sparsely 
distributed selenite crystals. Some relatively small areas 
in the deposit are rendered soft by seepages of rising 
water, and it seems likely that the seepages have played 
a part in the formation of the gypsite. 

Daly (Cane Springs, Cave Springs, Koehn Lake, Mo- 
jave Desert) Deposit. Location: Sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 38 
E., M.D.M., on the south side of Koehn Lake, 3 l A miles 
east-southeast of Cantil. Ownership: C. A. Koehn, 1909- 
30; Jennie E. Koehn (Mrs. C. A. Koehn), 1930-32; Jen- 
nie E. Daly, 1932-46; A. D. Daly, 1946-January 1958; 
Estate of A. D. Daly. Leased to Mojave Desert Gypsite 
Co., P.O. Box 467, Lindsay (1958). 

Lessees have produced most of the gypsite obtained 
from the Daly deposit. In 1910, shortly after the discov- 
ery of the deposit, a small calcining plant was built to 
manufacture wall plaster from gypsite of 80 to 85 per- 
cent gypsum content. The Crown Plaster Company re- 
ported a small production in 1912 and the first part of 
1913, but the enterprise failed after an unsuccessful re- 
organization as the California Gypsum Hollow Tile 
Company. 

A more successful operation was carried on from about 
1926 to 1935 by George W. Abel, who sold a product 
known as Mojave Desert Agricultural Gypsum with a 
guaranteed gypsum content of 80 percent. Abel fur- 
nished a substantial part of agricultural gypsum used in 
California, which at that time amounted to about 10,000 
tons a year. In Abel's operation, the covering of grass 
was first plowed up and removed. Then scrapers moved 
the uncovered gypsite into loading pockets from which 
it was hauled in small rail cars drawn by a Plymouth 
locomotive to a mill at Gypsite on the railroad. There 
part of it was ground and sacked, and part of it was 
bulk loaded into gondola cars for shipment to the San 
Joaquin Valley. 

Perhaps because of the rising output from mines in the 
San Joaquin Valley, especially in the Lost Hills area, the 
Daly deposit yielded comparatively little gypsite from 
1935 to 1950. In 1951 J. R. Canady of Lancaster installed 
new equipment and began to work the deposit on a 
large scale. Bulldozers and carryall scrapers were em- 
ployed to produce material guaranteed to contain 60 
percent gypsum. All material shipped was screened to 
remove lumps larger than '/2-inch in diameter, unless it 
was known that the gypsite was to be applied to land 
that was being cultivated for the first time. In addition, 
some minus 1/16-inch gypsite was sold for application by 
spraying with irrigation water. Canady's lease was termi- 
nated in 1954, and in 1958 the deposit was being oper- 
ated by Mojave Desert Gypsite Company, formerly Cal- 
Desert Gypsite Company. 

Additional operators, some of whom produced little 
if any gypsite, have leased the deposit. They include the 
Alpine Lime and Plaster Company, 1922; Walter Cala- 
way, 1936-45; the Pacific Gypsum Corporation, 1946 
and 1947; Wayne Doughty; 1950; and the Mountain 



States Uranium Corporation, Agricultural Gypsite Divi- 
sion, 1954. 

Halsey Deposit. Location: E'/ 2 sec. 29, T. 30 S., R. 
38 E., M.D.M., on the south side of Koehn Lake, 2>/ 2 
miles east southeast of Cantil. Owner: Mrs. M. E. Brehme, 
Hollister (1956); leased to Antelope Valley Agricultural 
Gypsite Company, D. F. Halsey, Rosamond, 1953-56. 

The Halsey deposit adjoins the west side of the Daly 
deposit. Production began in 1953, and comparatively 
small shipments of agricultural gypsum were made until 
the death of Halsey in July 1956. The deposit consists 
of grass-covered gypsite as much as 2 feet thick that 
rests with a sharp contact on clay. In mining, the ground 
was first loosened with a disk harrow then excavated with 
a smaller scraper. The gypsite was raised with a bucket 
elevator to a double-decked vibrating screen in which 
roots and lumps were removed. The fines, guaranteed to 
contain 60 percent gypsum, were stockpiled or loaded 
directly into trucks for shipment to farms in the San 
Joaquin Valley as well as in Antelope Valley. 

Lost Hills Area 

The largest known gypsite deposits in California are 
on the west flank of the Lost Hills. They are readily ac- 
cessible from U. S. Highway 466 via Brown Materials 
Road. Probably 2 million tons of gypsite, most of it con- 
taining 60 to 70 percent gypsum, has been produced 
since mining operations began there about 1930. The 
principal producer is H. M. Holloway, Incorporated, 
whose yearly output is exceeded in California only by 
that of the Fish Creek Mountains operation of the United 
States Gypsum Company. In 1958, C. L. Fannin was the 
only other producer in the Lost Hills; but production 
also was reported from the Handel deposit, (1941-44); 
by Roberts Farms Gypsum Mines (1952 and 1953); by 
the Star Gypsum Company (1933 and 1934); and by the 
Theta Gypsum Company, C. F. Casida (1941-43). 

Gypsite bodies in silty sand are scattered along the 
west side of the Lost Hills for a distance of 5 miles. Most 
of the bodies rest on clay but some rest on gypsum- 
bearing gravel that is underlain by clay. Some of the 
largest individual bodies are elongate and are in and along 
the washes that cut through the hills; others are pancake- 
shaped lenses as much as 20 feet thick. Typically the 
gypsite is within 3 feet of the surface, but in a few places 
it lies beneath as much as 10 feet of overburden. Informa- 
tion gained from mining and exploratory drilling reveals 
that the deposits are composite bodies composed of sev- 
eral gypsite lenses. They contain scattered pebbles and 
lenticular masses of sand and gravel. 

H. M. Holloway, Incorporated, believes that most of 
the gypsite was laid down by water as a sedimentary 
deposit. At some period less arid than the present, occa- 
sional floods of storm water may have come from the 
Temblor Range and have been temporarily ponded 
against the Lost Hills, which acted as a barrier. This 
flood water may have carried with it gypsite from the 
deposits in the Temblor foothills. Probably most of the 
floods reached no farther than the Lost Hills, where they 



202 

deposited their loads of gypsite, more or less separated 
from non-gypsiferous material by hydraulic classification. 
At times, the water seems to have broken through the 
Lost Hills, scouring channels through the deposits already 
formed, and distributing gypsite along the washes. 
Scoured channels were subsequently filled with gypsite 
or other material. 

Fannin Deposit. Location: Sees. 3, 4, 10, 11, T. 26 S., 
R. 20 E., M.D.M., in the Lost Hills, approximately 26 
miles west of Wasco. Ownership: Several parcels of 
multiple ownership fee land; leased to C. L. Fannin, 
Route 1, Box 7, Wasco. 

At least since the mid- 1940s C. L. Fannin has produced 
gypsite for agricultural use from deposits in Kern County 
as well as San Luis Obispo County. Recently, operations 
have been confined to the Lost Hills, and the pit worked 
early in 1955 was in S'/zNWtf sec. 11, T. 26 S., R. 20 E., 
M.D.M., on land leased from the Williamson Estate, In- 
corporated. The deposit, which lies just east of the crest 
of the Lost Hills, consists of an average of 20 inches of 
gypsite lying on clay. The clay is stained with streaks 
of red hematite and contains sparsely distributed crystals 
of selenite gypsum. Two carryall scrapers were used for 
stripping and mining. In March 1958, the deposit in sec- 
tion 11 was idle, and gypsite was being taken from pits 
in sees. 3 and 4, T. 26 S., R. 20 E., M.D.M., on the west 
side of Brown Materials Road. 

Holloway (H. M. Holloway, Incorporated, Lost Hills) 
Deposit. Location: sees. 3, 10, 11, 14, 15, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
T. 26 S., R. 20 E., M.D.M., and sec. 30, T. 26 S., R. 21 E., 
M.D.M., in the Lost Hills approximately 26 miles west of 
Wasco. Ownership: H. M. Holloway, Incorporated, 714 
6th Street, Wasco, leases fee land and holds mining claims 
on Federal petroleum land under Public Law 585. 

H. M. Holloway, Incorporated, the principal producer 
of gypsite in California, has been in operation since 1934. 
Since 1955 the gypsite has come from deposits along the 
entire gypsite-bearing length of the Lost Hills, but before 
October 1955 the company also worked deposits near 
Avenal Gap, Kings County. 

The gypsite deposits in the Lost Hills area are on pe- 
troleum land that is partly owned in fee by oil companies 
and others and is partly Federal petroleum land that is 
leased to oil producers. H. M. Holloway Incorporated 
pays royalties to the owners of fee lands. The royalties 
vary widely depending on the estimated cost of mining, 
the cost of access roads and other development work, 
and the extent of restoration of the surface after mining 
that may be stipulated. Some payments are higher than 
25 cents per ton; others are lower. Since 1954 title to the 
deposits on Federal petroleum land can be held with 
mining claims under Public Law 585, the Multiple Min- 
eral Development law. 

Individual gypsite bodies are comparatively small, but 
the total tonnage mined has been large. In order to de- 
velop the reserves necessary to maintain production at a 
consistently high rate, the company conducts a system- 



[ County Report 1 

atic program of exploratory drilling and sampling. In 

1948, mining was proceeding in SE'/J sec. 24, T. 26 S., 
R. 20 E., M.D.M., near the field office. By September 

1949, the pits in section 24 had been closed, and most of 
the output was coming from S l / 2 sec. 3, T. 26 S., R. 20 
E., M.D.M., about 4 miles to the north. In January 1955, 
operations had been shifted again to another part of sec- 
tion 24 and to NW% sec. 30, T. 26 S., R. 21 E., M.D.M., 
south of the field office, while a deposit in sec. 14, T. 26 
S., R. 20 E., M.D.M. was being prepared for production. 
Early in 1958, deposits in sec. 25, T. 26 S., R. 20 E., and 
sec. 30, T. 26 E., R. 21 E., M.D.M. yielded most of>the 
output. 

Carryall scrapers are used for stripping and mining. 
Most of the output is pit-run material bulk loaded into 
trucks that, after being weighed and billed, haul it di- 
rectly to the farms. Two grades are shipped, one guaran- 
teed to contain 70 percent gypsum; the other, 60 percent. 
Some of the gypsite is ground and shipped in bulk for use 
in gypsum water applicators. In 1955, the 60 percent ma- 
terial sold for $1.50 per ton'at the mine, the 70 percent 
material for $1.75 per ton, and ground material for $4.00 
per ton. 

Round Mountain Area 

Location: sec. 24, T. 28 S., R. 28 E., M.D.M., near] 
Round Mountain, 8'/ 2 miles northeast of Bakersfield. 
Owner: Not ascertained; leased to Purity Gypsum Mines, 
C. F. Casida, 715 34th Street, Bakersfield, 1953 and 1954. 

During 1953 and 1954, Purity Gypsum Mines obtained 
comparatively low-grade gypsite of 40 to 50 percent 
gypsum content from a number of small deposits within 
an area of several hundred acres near Round Mountain. 
In February 1955, the deposits were idle, and the equip- 
ment used for mining had been removed. Practically all 
of the gypsite, except for thin remnants that contain 
stones, has been mined off. The gypsite is underlain by 
fine sand containing abundant fragments of selenite and 
satin spar gypsum. Bedrock in the vicinity of the gypsite 
deposits is the Round Mountain silt member of the Mio- 
cene Temblor formation (Birch, fig. 1, in Keen, 1943), 
which, in a few exposures is seen to contain as much as 
15 percent of satin spar veinlets. 

Sunset Oil District 

Location: sees. 27 and 28, T. 11 N., R. 23 W., S.B.M., 
4'/4 miles southeast of Maricopa. The area is accessible 
from Maricopa via Western Minerals Road. Ownership: 
Federal petroleum land; held by Kern Gypsum Mines, 
C. F. Casida and Claud Stanphill, Bakersfield, with placer 
claims located in 1954 under Public Law 585, the Multi- 
ple Mineral Development law. 

The comparatively small but widespread gypsite de- 
posits of the Sunset oil district were mapped and de- 
scribed many years ago by Watts (1894, p. 35-36), but 
have been worked to only a limited extent. Some gypsite 
was produced in 1952 by the Foster Trucking Company. 
In February 1955, Kern Gypsum Mines had equipment 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



1962] 



Kern— Gypsum 



203 



on the property, but was not mining gypsite. The de- 
posits have been idle since Casida and Stanphill, owners 
of Kern Gypsum Mines, transferred their gypsite opera- 
tions to the Belridge area in 1956. 

Gypsite is discontinuously exposed for about a mile, 
between Bitter Creek and Santiago Creek, along the top 
and flanks of an outlying ridge which is part of the San 
Emigdio Mountains and faces the San Joaquin Valley. 
The gypsite forms numerous irregular, surficial bodies 
without overburden except about 1 foot of material that 
contains roots and decayed vegetation. Individual bodies 
are as much as 3 acres in areal extent and 2 feet in thick- 
ness. Most of the gypsite, however, is comparatively 
hard; and parts of some bodies are contaminated with 
sand. Sulfur deposits are associate with the gypsite in the 
west-central part of the area (see under Sulfur in this 
report). The bedrock on which the gypsite has devel- 
oped is brown sandstone of the lower Miocene Vaqueros 
formation (Pack, 1920, p. 34), which locally contains 
veinlets of satin spar gypsum. In the western part of the 
property gypsite has accumulated in a gully to form a 
hard mass 100 feet wide and estimated by Kern Gypsum 
Mines personnel to be 90 feet thick. Grinding would be 
required to prepare this unusually hard gypsite for agri- 
cultural use. 

The gypsite deposits have been well explored by 
trenching, and some have been stripped of overburden. 
Some tunnels have been driven in bedrock below the 
gypsite deposits, but their purpose and date of excavation 
were not ascertained. 

Telephone Hills (Abbott and Hickox, Ebbott and 
Hickox, Monolith Portland Cement Co.) Deposits. Lo- 
cation: sees. 29, 30, 31, 32, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., sees. 5 and 
8, T. 31 S., R. 22 E., M.D.M., 1 to 4 miles south of 
McKittrick. Ownership: many parcels of multiple-own- 
ership fee land. 

The Telephone Hills deposits were worked intermit- 
tently for many years, but have been idle since about 
1950. The total output, amounting to between 150,000 
and 200,000 tons, has been used mostly in agriculture; 
the rest, as a retarder in the manufacture of portland 
cement. Milton McWhorter recalls that the Eureka 
Gypsum Company, with which he was associated, pro- 
duced agricultural gypsum at McKittrick and elsewhere 
in the San Joaquin Valley about 1895 (Latta, 1949, p. 
146). Whether or not their operations included one in 
the Telephone Hills was not ascertained by the writer, 
but Abbott and Hickox was in production there in 
NEViSW'4 sec. 30, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., M.D.M. when 
Hess studied the area in 1907 (Hess, 1920, p. 68, 69). 
Abbott and Hickox, after reorganization as the McKit- 
trick Gypsum Company, was active until about 1915. 
The tabulation of gypsum deposits below lists additional 
companies that may have mined gypsite in the Telephone 
Hills about the same time or a little later, but their work- 
ings have not been identified. 



At least some of the gypsite mined before World War 
I was high-grade material containing more than 90 per- 
cent gypsum (Hess, 1920, p. 68). Perhaps because of 
the exhaustion of easily obtainable, high-grade gypsite, 
the deposits were idle until 1940 and 1941 when the 
Monolith Portland Cement Company mined gvpsite in 
sees. 31 and 32, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., and sec. 5, T. 31 S., 
R. 22 E., M.D.M. The company used the gypsite in the 
manufacture of portland cement in their plant at Te- 
hachapi. Between 1941 and 1950 four companies pro- 
duced gypsite for agricultural use; they were Green and 
Collins, the Gypsum Company of California, The McKit- 
trick Agricultural Gypsum Company, and the Western 
Gypsum Company. Much of the area is so covered with 
pits, prospect trenches, and waste piles that their work- 
ings cannot be distinguished from those made earlier. 




wj 



Figure 68. View of remainder of a narrow crooked body of gypsite 
overlain by dark gravels. Old Monolith Portland Cement Co. workings near 
McKittrick. 

The gypsite deposits (fig. 68) now in the Telephone 
Hills have been derived from gypsiferous beds in the 
Miocene Maricopa shale and in the Plio-Pleistocene 
McKittrick formation. Most of the deposits are on hill- 
sides and are lenticular bodies as much as 500 feet in 
diameter. In a few places gypsite crops out, but com- 
monly it is covered with 6 inches to 4 or 5 feet of stony 
soil. Commonly the deposits grade downward into gypsi- 
ferous silt with shale pebbles, or into sandy gravel that 
contains fragments of selenite gypsum. Where gypsite 
is absent, outcrops of non-gypsiferous, siliceous shale or 
shale-pebble conglomerate are common. Some of the 
gypsite forms crooked bodies, as much as 10 feet thick, 
10 to 20 feet wide, and as much as several thousand feet 
long, that are buried in the alluvial material of dry 
washes. The gypsite grades laterally into gypsiferous 
gray clay and lies on gravel that contains fragments of 
selenite gypsum. 



204 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GYPSUM 



Map 
No 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 




Remarks and references 




Abbott & Hickox 








See Telephone Hills in text. (Brown 












16:515; Hess 10b:17; 20:68; Ver Planck 












52:55) . 




. & 








See Daly in text. (Ver Planck 52:131t), 




a r 












Antelope Valley 




Antel ope Valley 




See Halsey in text. Held license to 




Agricultural 




Agricultural Gyp- 




produce gypsum, 60 percent grade, for 




Gypsite Co. 




site Co. , D. F. 




agricultural use, 1953-1956. Gypsite 






Halsey, P.O. Box 




from Halsey deposit. (California Bur. 








535, Rosamond 




Chemistry 53-56) . 








(1956) 








Lyman Appel 




Lyman Appel , 




Held license to produce gypsum, 50 per- 






500 Auburn, Tulare 




cent and 60 percent grade, for agricul- 








(1956) 




tural use, 1955 and 1956. Developed 












deposits near Devils Den , possibly in 












Kings County. Did not achieve commer- 












cial production . (California Bur . 










- 


Chemistry 55; 56). 




Atlas No. 1 


mi\ sec. 11, T29S, 


Undetermined, 1958 


Slightly gypsiferous sandy soil 


An undeveloped prospect. No production, 




prospect 


R37E, MDM, 6 miles 


Albert E. Droubie, 


overlying Quaternary- Tertiary 


(Dibblee, Gay 52:49, 62t) . 




north of Redrock 


Los Angeles (1952) 


sediments . 




384 


Belridge Gypsum 


Sec. 36, T28S, 


Undetermined, 1957 


Gypsite developed on hill slopes 


Formerly Kern Gypsum Mines. Held 






R20E, MDM, 3 miles 


leased to Belridge 


underlain by McKittrick formation. 


license to produce gypsum, 60 percent, 






northwest of Gould 


Gypsum Mines, C. F 




65 percent and 70 percent grade, for 






Hill in Belridge 


Casida and Claud 




agricultural use, 1955-1957. (Califor- 






area , 14 miles 


Stanphill, 2108 




nia Bur .' Chemistry 55 r 56) . 






northwest of 


So. M St. , Bakers- 








McKit trick 


field (1955) : Bel- 












ridge Gypsum Mines 












Mel Northington , 












1122 Casta i c Ave . 












Bakersfield (1957) 








Bitter Creek 








See Sunset oil district in text. 












(Calif. Div. Mines, Mineral Information 












Service, 56: 3) . 


385 


Bi tterwater 


Sec. 31, T27S, 


Sumrier-Wreden es- 




See text. 




Creek (Superior 


RISE, MDM, near 


tate. Leased to 








Gypsum Co.) 


Sumners, 12 miles 


Superior Gypsum 










west-southwest of 


Co. , Albert 










Blackwells Corner 


Chanley, 3916 












Pierce Road, 












Bakersfield (1958) 






386 


Buena Vista Lake 


Sec. 13, T32S, 


Undetermined, 1958 


Gypsite on lake beds near shore of 


Undeveloped deposit exposed in rail- 






R25E , MDM,' on 




Buena Vista Lake. 


road cut. (Hess 10b:25; 20:73; Ver 






southeast shore of 






Planck 52:123t) . 






Buena Vista Lake, 












12 miles east of 












Taft 










Cal-Desert 




Cal-Desert Gypsite 




See Daly in text. Held license to pro- 




Gypsite Co. 




Co. , P.O. Box 1544 




duce gypsum, 60 percent grade for 








McFarland (1955) 




agricultural use, 1954 and 1955. Gyp- 












site from Daly deposit . Became Moj ave 












Desert Gypsum Co. (California Bur. 












Chemistry 54; 55). 




Cal i f ornia Gypsuir 








See Daly in text. (Ver Planck 52:133t). 




Hollow Tile Co. 










California Gypsun 








See McKittrick - I. (Aubury 06:284; 




& Mineral Co. 








Brown 16:515; Hess 10b:16; 20:67; 












Tucker 19:917) . 




J. R. Canady 




J. R. Canady, 




See Daly in text. Held license to pro- 








Route 2, Box 303, 




duce gypsum, 60 percent grade, for 








Lancaster (1954) 




agricultural use 1951-1954. Gypsite 












from Daly deposit. (California Bur. 












Chemistry 51-54) . 




Cane Springs 








See Daly in text. (Hess lOcj 20:73). 




Cave Springs 








See Daly in text. (Tucker 21:311). 




Carriso 








See Packwood Creek. (Name used by 












operator and on map of Kern County 












Board of Trade) . 




Coloma Gypsum 


Approx. T28S, 


Undetermined, 1957 


Gypsite 


Held license to produce gypsum for 




Mines 


R20E, MDM, in Bel- 


leased to Coloma 


agricultural use, 1946. No record of 






ridge area, 15 


Gypsum Mines, Don 




production. Deposit held earlier by 






miles northwest of 


M. Crist, Mgr. , 




Valley Agricultural Gypsum Co. 






McKittrick 


Lebec, 1944-1946 




(California Bur. Chemistry 46; Ver 












Planck 52:134t) . 




Cottonwood Co. 








See Cottonwood Creek. (Angel 90:223; 












Ver Planck 52:136t) . 



1962] 



Kern— Gypsum 



205 



GYPSUM, com. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


387 


Cottonwood Creek 
(Cottonwood Co. , 
W. A. Fauntleroy, 
Sypsum Mining Co. 
Pampa Gypsum 
Mining Co.) 

Crown Plaster Co. 

Crystal Gypsum Co 


Sees. 20, 21, 27, 
28, 29, 33, 34, 
T29S, R30E, MDM, 
near Cottonwood 
Creek , 16 miles 
east of Bakersfield 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Oscar Rudnick, 
Trustee, and P. 
Sumner Brown, 
Bakersfield (1948) c 

Crystal Gypsum Co. , 
P.O. Box 823, 
Oildale (1948) 




See text. (Angel 90:223; Aubury 06:284; 
Brown 16:515; Fairbanks 04:121; Hess 
10b: 19; 20:70; Tucker 21:311; 29:69; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:247; Ver 
Planck 52:123t, 136t) . 

See Daly in text. (Ver Planck 52:71) . 

See Kern Lake. (Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:247; Ver Planck 52:51). 
Held license to produce gypsum, 60 
percent grade, for agricultural use, 
1947 and 1948. Gypsite from Kern Lake 
deposits. (California Bur. Chemistry 
47; 48) . 




Cuddy Canyon 


Sec. 34, T9N. , 
R21W, SBM, south 
side of Cuddy Cyn., 
2 miles west of 
Frazier Park 


Undetermined, 1958 


Light brown gypsum in beds as much 
as 3 inches thick alternating with 
shale. Forms gypsum-bearing 
lenses as much as 15 feet thick 
with strike lengths of as much as 
700 feet. Occur in Miocene (?) 
sedimentary and volcanic rocks on 
south side of San Andreas fault 
zone. 


Developed by open cut and inclined 
shaft at undetermined date. See also 
under Borates. No record of product- 
ion. (Gale 14b:455; Ver Planck 52:39). 


388 


Daly (Alpine Lime 
& Plaster Co. , 
Cal-Desert Gyp- 
site Co. , Calif- 
ornia Gypsum Hol- 
low Tile Co. , 
J. R. Canady, 
Cane Springs, 
Cave Springs, 
Crown Plaster Co., 
A. D. Daly, 
Jennie Daly, 
Wayne Doughty, 
C. A. Koehn, 
Jennie E. Koehn, 
Koehn Lake, 
Mojave Desert, 
Mojave Desert 
Gypsite Co. , 
Mountain States 
Uranium Corp. — 
Agricultural 
Gypsite Div. , 
Pacific Gypsum 
Corp. ) 

A. D. Daly 
Jennie E. Daly 


Sec. 28, T30S, 
R38E, MDM, on the 
south side of Koehn 
Lake , 3% miles east 
south-east of 
Can til 


Estate of A. D . 
Daly. Leased to 
Mojave Desert Gyp- 
site Co. , P.O. Box 
467, Lindsay (1958) 




See text. (Dibblee, Gay 52:49; Hess 
10c; 20: 73; Tucker 21:311; 29:69; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:248; Ver Planck 
52:52) . 

See Daly in text. (Dibblee, Gay 52:49; 
Ver Planck 52:135t). Held license to 
produce gypsum, 60 percent grade, for 
agricultural use, 1946-1949. (California 
Bur. Chemistry 46-49) . 

See Daly in text. (Ver Planck 52:135t). 



206 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 



Map 
No 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



. 4, 9, T31S, 
E , MDM, north- 
t of Derby Acres 

3% miles south 
t of McKittrick 



Undeter 
Held by C 



ied, 1957 



Wayne Doughty 



Ebbott & 
deposit 



W. A. Fauntleroy 



Foster Trucking 
Co. — Gypsum 
Dept. 



Green and 
Collins 



Sees. 3, 4, 10, 1 
T26S, R20E, MDM, 
in the Lost Hills 
26 miles west of 
Wasco 



Gypsu 
a ted 



Gypsum Mining 
Co. 

Halsey deposit 



Handel deposit 



Hoi I oway 

lH. W. Roll ova* 

Hills) deposit 



^1 loway , 



SW part T30S, 
R22E, NW. part 
T31S, R22E, MDM, 
Telephone Hill: 
liles south of 
McKittrick 

Telephone Hills, 
2 miles south of 
McKittrick 



Eh sec. 29, T30S, 
R38E, MDM, south 
side of Koehn Lake 
2h miles east 
southeast of 
Cantil 



Sec. 13, T26S, 
R20E, MDM, in the 
Lost Hills, 26 
miles west of 
Wasco 

Sees. 3, 10, 11, 
14, 15, 23, 24, 
25, 26, T26S, 
R20E, Sec. 30, 
T26S, R21E, MDM, 
in the Lost Hills, 
26 miles west of 
Wasco 



715-34th 
St. , Bakersfield, 
and Claud Stanphill 
2108 So. M. St. , 
Bakersfield (1955) 



Fee land leased to 
C. L. Fannin, 
Route 1 , Box 7, 
Wasco (1958) 



C. L. Fannin, 
Route 1 , Box 7 , 
Wasco (1958) 



Foster Trucking Co 
- Gypsum Dept. , 
1700 Lotus Lane, 
Bakersfield (1952) 



Undetermined, 1958 
leased to Green 
and Collins, Ceres 
(1941) 



Gypsite one to two feet thick 
developed on low, flat-topped hill; 
underlain by Plio-Pleistocene 
McKittrick formation . 



Gypsum 
iforni 
(1947) 



o. of Cal- 
McKittrn 



Undetermined, 1958 
Gypsum Incorpor- 
ated, I. D. Wat- 
kins, Gen. Super- 
intendent, P.O. 
Box 114, Rosamond 
(1947) 



Mrs. M. E. Brehme, 
Hollister (1956) . 
Leased to Antelope 
Valley Agricultur- 
al Gypsite Co. , 
D. F. Halsey, 
Rosamond (1953- 
1956) 

Undetermined, 1958 
leased to Handel 
and Son, Shafter 
(1941-1944) 



H. M. Holloway, 
Inc. , 714-6th St. , 
Wasco, leases fee 
land and holds 
mining claims on 
Federal Petroleum 
land under Public 
Law 585 (1958) 

H. M. Holloway, 
Inc. , 714-6th St. , 
Wasco (1958) 



Deposit stripped and ap'jrox. 100 
tons of gypsite stockpiled, 1954. 
No record of production. 



See Daly in text. Held license to 
produce gypsum for agricultural use, 
1950. (California Bur. Chemistry 50). 



See Telephone Hills 



See text. 



(Tucker 21:312) . 



Held license to produce gypsum, 60 per- 
cent grade, for agricultural use, 1948 
to present (year ending June 30, 1958). 
Gypsite obtained from Packwood Creek 
deposits and Fannin deposits. Lost 
Hills. (California Bur. Chemistry 
48-56) . 

See Cottonwood Creek in text. (Angel 
90:223; 'Brown 16:515; Tucker 21:311; 
Ver Planck 52:136t) . 

See Sunset oil district in text. Held 
license to produce gypsum, 60 percent 
and 70 percent grade, for agricultural 
use, 1952. Gypsite obtained from Sun- 
set oil district deposits (California 
Bur. Chemistry 52) . 

Production of gypsite for agricultural 
use reported 1941. (Ver Planck 52:56, 
136t) . 



Held license to produce gypsum, 70 
percent grade, for agricultural use, 
1946 and 1947. Gypsite from Telephone 
Hills. (California Bur. Chemistry 46; 
47; Ver Planck 52: 56) . 

Plant for the production of agricultur 
al gypsum, plaster, and wallboard. 
Under construction, 1946 and 1947. In 
the hands of Champco Minerals, 1948. 
(Tucker, Sampson, Oakeehott 49:248; 
Ver Planck 52:137t) . 



See Cottonwood Creek in text. (Angel 
90:223; Ver Planck 52:136t). 



See text. (Calif. Bur. Chemistry 
53-56) . 



Production reported 1941-1944. (Ver 
Planck 52:123t) . 



See te: 
21:311 
49: 248 



t. (Hess 10b:14r 20:65; Tucker 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 
Ver Planck 52:53) . 



See Holloway in text. (Tucker, Sampson, 
Oakeshott 49:248). Held license to 
produce gypsum, 60 percent and 70 per- 
cent grade for agricultural use from 
approx. 1934 to present (year ending 
June 30, 1958). Gypsite from the Lost 
Hills and deposits in Kings County 
(California Bur. Chemistry 46-56). 



1962] 



Kern— Gypsum 



207 



Map 

No. 



Name of claim, 
mine, or group 



Owner 
(Name, address) 



Geology 



Remarks and references 



Kern County 
Gypsite Co.- 



Kern Gypsum Mines 



Kern Lake 
(Crystal Gypsum 
Co. , Kern County 
Gypsite Co. -II, 
Pacific Gypsum 
Co.) deposits 



C. A. Koehn 
Jennie E. Koehn 
Koehn Lake 



La Corona Oil 
and Asphalt Co. 



Lost Hills 



McClure Valley 
(Sunflower 
Valley) 



McKittrick - I 
(California 
Gypsum & Minera] 
Co., McKittrick 
Agricultural 
Gypsum Co.) 



McKittrick- I I 



McKittrick Agri- 
cultural Gypsum 
Co. 



McKittrick Ex- 
tension Oil Co. 



McKittrick 
Gypsum Co. 



Mojave Desert 
Gypsite Co. 



Sec. 31 , T27S, 
R19E, MDM, in 
Temblor foothill s , 
6 miles southwest 
of Blackwells 
Corner 

McKittrick area 



Sees. 26, 27, 34, 
T32S, R27E, MDM, 
14 miles south- 
southwest of 
Bakersfield 



McKittrick area 



Sees. 14, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, 30, 
34, 35, 36, T25S, 
RISE, MDM, near 
Devils Den, 12 
miles northwest 
of Blackwells 
Corner 

Unconfirmed local- 
ity; reported in 
Sh sec. 21 or S% 
sec. 20, T30S, 
R22E, MDM, h mile' 
east of McKittrick 



McKittrick 



Undetermined, 1958 
leased to Jim's Gyp- 
sum Mine, De Bartho 
& Bohns, Lost Hill 
(1939, 1940) 



Undetermined, 1958 
Kern County Gypsite 
Co. , 100 Pacific 
St. , Bakersfield 
(1946) 

Kern Gypsum Mine 
C. F. Casida and 
Claud Stanphill, 
2108 So M St. , 
Bakersfield (1 



56) 



Kern County Land 



Undetermined, 1958 
leased to McKit- 
trick Agricultural 
Gypsum Co. , P.O. 
Box 267, McKit- 
trick, (1949) 



Unde termined , 1958 
McKittrick Agri- 
cultural Gypsum 
Co. , P.O. Box 267, 
McKittrick (1949) 



Gypsite as much as 3 feet thick 
grading downward into shale or 
sandstone. Numerous deposits up 
to 20 acres in area. 



Gypsite, 3-foot average thickness, 
lying on Plio-Pleistocene McKit- 
trick formation. Sample analyzed 
in 1907 contained 85.2 percent 
gypsum. 



Mojave Desert 
Gypsite Co. , P.O. 
Box 467, Lindsay 
(1958) 



Production reported 1939, 1940. 
(Ver Planck 52:123t) . 



Production reported 1921 and 1922. 
Deposit worked previously by La Corona 
Oil and Asphalt Co. (Ver Planck 52: 
139t) . 

See Kern Lake in text. Held license to 
produce gypsum for agricultural use, 
1946. Gypsite from Kern Lake deposits. 
(California Bur. Chemistry 46). 



See Sunset oil district in text. Held 
license to produce gypsum, 60 percent 
grade for agricultural use, 1954 and 
1955. Gypsite from Sunset oil district 
deposits. Became Belridge Gypsum Mines 
(California Bur. Chemistry 54; 55). 

See text. (Hess 10b: 23; 20:71; Tucker 
21:311; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49: 
247, 249; Ver Planck 52:51). 



See Daly in text. (Ver Planck 52:139t) 

See Daly in text. (Ver Planck 52:139t) 

See Daly in text (Ver Planck 52:52). 
See also Halsey in text. 

Production reported 1908-1913. Deposit 
worked later by Kern County Gypsite 
Co. -I. (Ver Planck 52:139t). 

See Holloway in text. (Hess 10b:14; 
20:65; Tucker 21:311; Ver Planck 52:52) 
See also Fannin, Handel, Roberts Farms 
Gypsum Mines, Star Gypsum Co., Theta 
Gypsum Co. 

No record of production. (Hess 10b:12; 
20:64; Tucker 21:311; Ver Planck 52: 
124t). See also Lyman Appel . 



Production reported by California 
Gypsum & Mineral Co., J. M. Anderson, 
Tulare, 1902, 1903, 1907-1912. Gypsum 
65 percent and 70 percent grade, for 
agricultural use, produced by McKit- 
trick Agricultural Gypsum Co. , about 
1947 to 1949. (Aubury 06:284; Brown 
16:515; Hess 10b:16; 20:67; Tucker 19: 
917; 21:312; 29:69; Ver Planck 52:55). 



See Telephone Hills 
29:69) . 



text. 



(Tucker 



See McKittrick-I. (Ver Planck 52:55). 
Held license to produce gypsum, 65 
percent and 70 percent grade, for 
agricultural use, 1946-1949. Gypsite 
obtained from McKittrick-I and Tele- 
phone Hills deposits. (California Bur 
Chemistry 46-49) . 



reported 1915. (Ver Planck 



Productic 
52:140t) . 

See Telephone Hills in text. (Ver 
Planck 52:141t) . 

See Daly in text. (Tucker 29:69; 
Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:248). 

See Daly in text. Held license to 
produce gypsum, 70 percent grade, f 
agriclutural use, 1956 to present 
(year ending June 30, 1958). Gypsi 
from Daly deposit. (California Bur 
Chemistry 56) . 



208 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



GYPSUM, com. 



Map 


Name of claim, 
mine or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Monolith Portlan 
Cement Co. 


3 






See Telephone Hills in text. (Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:248; Ver Planck 
52:56) . 




Mountain States 
Uranium Corp. — 
Agricultural 
Gypsite Div. 




Mountain States 
Uranium Corp. — 
Agricultural 
Gypsite Div. , P.O. 
Box 1226, Lancas- 
ter (1954) 




See Daly in text. Held license to 
produce gypsum, 70 percent grade , for 
agricultural use, 1954. Gypsite from 
Daly deposit. (California Bur. Chem- 
istry 54) . 




Pacific Gypsui 
Co. 




Pacific Gypsum Co., 
P.O. Box 563, 
Bakersfield (1950) 




See Kern Lake in text. (Tucker, Sampson 
Oakeshott 49:249; Ver Planck 52:52). 
Held license to produce gypsum, 60 per- 
cent and 70 percent grade, for agricul- 
tural use, 1946-1951. (California Bur. 
Chemistry 46-51) . 




Pacific Gypsum 
Corporation 




Pacific Gypsum 
Corp. , P.O. Box 33, 
Cantil (1946) 




See Daly in text. Held license to 
produce gypsum for agricultural use, 
1946. (California Bur. Chemistry 46). 




Packwood Canyon 








See Packwood Creek (Ver Planck 52:56). 


398 


Packwood Creek 
(Carriso, Pack- 
wood Canyon) 

Pampa Gypsum 
Mining Co. 

Purity Gypsum 
Mines 


Sees. 4, 9, T27S, 
R18E, MDM, 10 
miles west of 
Blackwells Corner 


Numerous parcels of 
multiple- ownership 
fee land. Leased 
to C. L. Fannin, 
Route 1, Box 7, 
Wasco, (1948 to 
about 1951) 

Purity Gypsum Mines 
C. F . Casida , 
715 34th St. , 
Bakersfield (1954) 


Gypsite developed on alluvial 
gravel in stream basin. 


Production of gypsum, 60 percent 
grade, for agricultural use, 1948-1951. 
(Ver Planck 52:56) . 

See Cottonwood Creek in text. ■ (Angel 
90:223; Ver Planck 52:136t). 

See Round Mountain in text. Held 
license to produce gypsum, 40 percent 
and 50 percent grade, for agricultural 
use, 1953 and 1954. Gypsite from 
Round Mountain deposits. (California 
Bur. Chemistry 53; 54). 


399 


Reward 


Sh sec. 3, SE*i 
sec. 4, T30S, 
R21E, MDM, in 
Frazer Valley, 1*5 
miles northwest 
of Reward 


Undetermined , 1958 


Gypsite , average thickness 2 feet 
1 ying on gypsi f erous shale of the 
Plio-Pleistocene McKittrick form- 
ation. Much of the gypsite is 
comparatively low in grade and 
contains stones. 


Old loading chute in NE'sSE's sec - 3 
indicates early mining, perhaps about 
1900. Probably in 1957 at least 5 
separate areas totaling 50 to 75 acres 
were worked. Idle in March 1958. 


400 


Roberts Farms 
Gypsum Mines 


Sec. 13, T26S, 
R20E, MDM, in the 
Lost Hills, 26 
miles west of 
Wasco 


Associated Oil Co. , 
(1955) . Leased to 
Roberts Farms 
Gypsum Mines, P.O. 
Box 307, McFarland, 
(1952, 1953) 


Gypsite devel oped in al luvium on 
the west flank of the Lost Hills . 


Held license to produce gypsum, 50 per- 
cent grade, for agricultural use, 1952 
and 1953 (California Bur. Chemistry 
52; 53). 


401 


Round Mountain 
(Purity Gypsum 
Mines) 


Sec . 24 , T28S , 
R28E, MDM, near 
Round Mountain, 
8*5 miles north- 
east of. Bakers- 
field 


Undetermined , 1 958 ; 
leased to Purity 
Gypsum Mines, C. F. 
Casida, 715-34th 
St. , Bakersfield 
(1953, 1954) 




See text. 




Star Gypsum Co. 


Eastern part T26S, 
R 2 OE , MDM , i n the 
Lost Hills, 26 
miles west of 
Wasco 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 

Gypsum Co. , P.O. 
Box 204, Lost Hills 
(1943, 1944) 


Gypsite developed in alluvium on 
the west flank of the Lost Hills. 


Production reported 1943, 1944. 
(Ver Planck 52:145t) . 




Sunflower Valley 








See McClure Valley. (Hess 10b:12; 
20:64; Tucker 21:310) . 




Sunset 


Sec. 18, TUN, 
R23W, SBM, 2 miles 
southeast of 
Maricopa 


Undetermined, 1958 


Small, thin gypsite deposits lying 
on shale. 


Undeveloped (Ver Planck 52:124t). 


40 3 


Sunset oil dis- 
trict (Bitter 
Creek, Foster 
Trucking Co.- 
Gypsum Dept. , 
Kern Gypsum 
Mines) 


N*s sec. 27, N*s 
sec. 28, TUN, 
R23W, SBM, 4*5 
miles southeast 
of Maricopa 


Kern Gypsum Mines, 
C. F. Casida and 
Claud Stanphill, 
2108 So. Main St. , 
Bakersfield (1955) 




See text. (Brown 16:516; Crawford 94: 
324; Hess 10b:19; 20:70; Watts 93:233; 
94:35) . 




Superior Gypsum 
Co. 

I 




Superior Gypsum Co., 
Albert Chanley, 
3916 Pierce Road, 
Bakersfield (1958) 




See Bitterwater Creek in text. Held 
license to produce gypsum for agri- 
cultural use, 1950 to present (year 
ending June 30, 1958). Gypsum from 
Bitterwater Creek deposit; gypsite from 
deposits in San Luis Obispo County. 
(California Bur. Chemistry 50-56). 



1962] 



Kern— Gypsum, Iron 



209 



GYPSUM, cont. 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
(Name, address} 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


404 


Telephone Hills 
(Abbott & Hickox 
Ebbott & Hickox, 
McKittrick-II, 
McKittrick 
Gypsum Co. , 
Monolith Port- 
land Cement Co.) 


Sees. 29, 30, 31 , 
32, T30S, R22E, 
sees. 5, 8, T31S, 
R22E, MDM, 1 to 3 
miles south of 
McKittrick 


Numerous parcels 
of multiple-owner- 
ship fee land 






See text. (Brown 16:515; Hess 10b:17; 
20:68; Tucker 21:312; 29:69; Tucker, 
Sampson, Oakeshott 49:248; Ver Planck 
52:55) . 


405 


Temblor Gypsum 
Co. 


Sec. 1, 11, 14, 
T29S, R20E, MDM, 
in Belridge area, 
12 miles north- 
west of McKittrick 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
leased to Temblor 
Gypsum Co. , Carrisa 
Plains Star Route, 
Box 80, Santa 
Margarita (1958) 






See text. Held license to produce 
gypsum, 60 percent, 65 percent and 
70 percent grade, for agricultural 
use, 1956 to present (year ending 
June 30, 1958). (California Bur. 
Chemistry 56) . 




Theta Gypsum Co. 


Eastern part T26S, 
R20E, MDM, in the 
Lost Hills, 26 
miles west of 
Wasco 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
leased to Theta 
Gypsum Co. , C. F. 
Casida, Lost Hills 
(1941-1943) 


Gypsi te 
the west 


developed in alluvium on 
flank of the Lost Hills. 


Production reported 1941-1943. (Ver 
Planck 52:145t) . 




Valley Agricul- 
tural Gypsum Co. 


Approx. T28S, 
R20E, MDM, in 
Belridge area, 15 
miles northwest 
of McKittrick 


Undetermined, 1958; 
leased to Valley 
Agricultural Gyp- 
sum Co. , M. M. 
Harris, Mgr., P.O. 
Box 186, Shafter 
(1939-1943) 


Gypsi te 




Production of gypsite, 70 percent grade, 
reported 1939-1941. Deposit held 
later by Coloma Gypsum Mines. (Ver 
Planck 52:146t) . 




Western Gypsum 
Co. 




Western Gypsum Co. , 
J. W. Vils, 733 
Maple St. , Wasco 
(1953) 






Held license to produce gypsum, 60 
percent and 70 percent grade, for 
agricultural use, 1946-1953. Gypsite 
from Telephone Hills until approx. 
1950; after 1950 from Belridge area 
(California Bur. Chemistry 46-53; Ver 
Planck 52:55, 147t) . 


406 


Western Petro- 
leum Co. 


W^SE^NW^ sec. 20, 
T30S, R22E, MDM, 
*5 mile west of 
McKittrick 


Western Petroleum 
Co. (1904) 


Gypsite 




No record of production. (Aubury 04: 
19t; 06:284; Ver Planck 52:147t). 



The largest group of workings extends from SW 1 / 
sec. 32, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., M.D.M., 1 1 / 4 miles south to 
SW!4 sec. 5, T. 31 S., R. 22 E., M.D.M., along a valley 
at the east edge of the Telephone Hills. Probably gypsite 
was first mined from a long, narrow, crooked excavation, 
about 20 feet deep, that follows the east side of the valley. 
Later, it was partly obliterated by numerous transverse 
cuts, probably made in a search for additional gypsite. 
Perhaps still later, gypsite was mined from the west slope 
of the valley, particularly in sec. 30, T. 30 S., R. 

22 E., and NW'/ 4 sec. 8, T. 31 S., R. 22 E., 
M.D.M. Another group of workings, in NE% sec. 31, 
T. 30 S., R. 22 E., consists of shallow workings on a low 
ridge between two washes and along their banks. On the 
hill in SW'/ 4 sec. 30, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., M.D.M., gypsite 
has been taken from a number of broad, shallow excava- 
tions that have a total area of 50 to 75 acres. In SE'/i sec. 
31, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., the overburden has been stripped 
from a small deposit of unusually compact gypsite. As 
exposed in a small gully, the gypsite rests on gravel com- 
posed of angular shale fragments; and the gravel is under- 
lain by steeply dipping shale. Gypsite probably was 



mined from shallow excavations along the east edge of 
sec. 29, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., M.D.M., on both sides of State 
Highway 33, but little if any trace of gypsite remains 
in them. 

Iron 

Several iron ore prospects are known in Kern County 
(fig. 66), but none has been mined and most are of sub- 
commercial grade. At the Iron Mountain deposit in the 
Woody district concentrations of magnetite are found in 
schist near a tactite body. Four miles west of Brecken- 
ridge Mountain at the Iron Mountain No. 1 and 2 deposit 
a hematite-rich zone in schist strikes northeast and dips 
45° SE. A third deposit, known as the Sam Emidio de- 
posit, is about 25 miles west of Lebec near the Kern- 
Ventura County line. There, hematite-rich layers in a 
zone 50 to 400 feet wide are present in schist. Most of the 
tin deposits in the Gorman tin district contain iron-rich 
tactite and gossan. These bodies, probably the richest iron 
concentrations in the county, consist mostly of magnetite 
and hydrous iron oxides, but are not large enough to 
warrant mining for common iron ore. 



210 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 3 



IKON 



Map 
No 


Name of c I o 1 m , 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
( Nome, address ) 


Geology 


Remarks ana references 




Butler prospects 






Iron-rich tactite and gossan. 


See Lower Butler and Upper Butler 












prospects under tin (Wiese, Page 46:32). 




Crowbar Gulch 








See under tin (Wiese, Page 46:50). 




prospect 












Dunton prospect 






Iron rich tactite 


See under tin (Wiese Pa e 46-32) 
ee un er in lese, age 


407 


Iron Mountain 


mh sec. 10, T26S, 


Mr. Remick Albitre, 


Concentrations of magnetite in pre- 


Developed by crosscut adit driven at 


(Iron Mountain 


R29E, MDM, Woody 


Woody (1957) 


Cretaceous schist near large mass 


least 200 feet S. 45° E. beneath 




Wonder) prospect 


dist. , 1 mile 




of tactite. Crest of hill is 


large tactite zone; 60- foot shaft on 




southwest of Woody 




composed of schis t , guar tzi te , 


top of ridge. Prospected for copper 






on Iron Mt. 




and garnetized calcareous rocks. 


about 1900. (Brown 16:480; Eric 48: 










Lower areas are underlain by quartz 


255t; Tucker 29:56; Tucker, Sampson, 










diorite. Traces of scheelite and 


Oakeshott 49:270t) . 










copper were noted in the tactite . 






Iron Mountain 








See Mount Breckenr idge . (Aubury 04:llt, 




Nos. 1 , 2 pros- 








19t; Brown 16:516) . 




pec 












Kim B. claims 








Claims at San Emidio deposit in 1958. 




Lake Castaic 


Repor ted in sec. 


Tejon Ranch Co. , 




Probably one of the tin prospects in 




deposit 


33, T9N, R18W, 


P.O. Box 1560, 




the Gorman district. See Butler, 




SBM (proj . ) , 4 


Bakersfield (1958) 




Dunton, and Meeke prospects. 






miles northeast of 






(Putnam 86: 503) . 






Gorman (1886) ; 












not confirmed. 












1958 










Meeke mine 






Iron-rich tactite. 


See under tin (Wiese, Page 46:32). 




Mount Brecken- 


NW% sec. 4, T29S, 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 


Hematite-rich micaceous schist from 


Production undetermined. Long idle. 




ridge (Iron 


R31E , MDM, one 


D. Lutz, Bakers- 


10 to 200 feet wide strikes NE, 


(Aubury 04:llt, 19t; Brown 16:516; 




Mountain Nos. 1, 


mile south of 


field (1904) 


dips 45° SE. 


Tucker 21 : 312 ; 29: 56 ; Tucker , Sampson , 




2) prospect 


Hoosier Flat, 4 






Oakeshott 49:270t) . 






miles west of 












Breckenr idge Mt . 








408 


San Emidio 


S*s sec. 17, T9N, 


G. Breski and R. 


Iron-bearing breccia ted met amorphic 


Deposit described as early as 1890 but 




(Kim B, Two to 


R21W, SBM, about 


Cornell , addresses 


rocks strike approximately east, 


has not been developed except for small 




One) deposit 


9 miles northwest 


undetermined (1958) 


dip steeply north, and form dark 


excavations. Also contains manganese. 






of Frazier Park, 




bands from 30 to 50 feet or more 


Area easily accessible since construc- 






low on southeast 




wide and several hundred feet long 


tion in 1957 or 1958 of new county road 






slope of San 




in paler metamorphic rocks. Iron 


between Cuddy Valley and Mill Potrero. 






Emigdio Mt. , at 




content of rocks probably low 


No production. (Angel 90:226; Aubury 






east end of Mill 




except for thin layers and lenses 


04:llt, 19t; Brown 16:516; Tucker 21: 






Potrero 




of moderately pure magnetite and 


312 ; 29: 57 ; Tucker , Sampson , Oakeshott 










other iron minerals in the dark 


49:270t) . 










bands. Some layers of magnetite 












are from 2 to 4 feet thick and as 












much as 150 feet long (M. W. Red- 












head, personal communication, 1959). 






Two to one 








See San Emidio deposit. (Brown 16:516; 




prospect 








Tucker 29:57) . 



lead 




Figure 69. Distribution of lead and zinc deposits in Kern County. 



1962] 



Kern— Lead 



21 



Map 

No. 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
( Name, address J 


Geology 


Remarks and references 




Beehive 








See Hoover under silver. 




Big Blue 






Galena and other sulfides in gold- 
quartz veins. 


About 69,000 pounds of lead was pro- 
duced as a byproduct from gold ores 
between 1932 and 1942. See under gold. 
(Goodwin 57:526t) . 




Black Bob 








See under gold. (Goodwin 57:526t). 




Blackhawk 








See under zinc in text. 


409 


Black Jack 

Black Mountain 
Blue Chief 

Cactus Queen 


Reported xn sec. 
26 (28?) , T26S, 
R33E, MDM, 2^ 
miles southeast of 
old Isabella 
1946) : not con- 
firmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
I. M. Prudy, 
Lancaster (1946) 


East-striking vein in limestone 
traceable 2,000 feet along strike. 
Contains lead and zinc minerals. 


Probably same as Summit Gp. Thirty 
tons reported sent to Garfield smelter. 
Developed by 36-foot shaft. (Bedford 
and Johnson, 1946, p. 4). 

See under gold. (Goodwin 57:527t). 

See under gold. (Goodwin 57:527t; Eric 
48:254t) . 

See text under gold. 


410 


Carbonate 
prospect 

Condor 
Four Star 

Golden Queen 


NE^s sec. 6, T31S, 
R 3 7W , MDM , hal f a 
mile north of 
Cinco 


Martin Beck, 
Mojave (1955) 


Traces of galena , chalcopyr ite , and 
copper and iron stains in fractured 
fine-grained granitic rock. Gypsum, 
clayey gouge, and calcite common in 
fractures . 

By-product recovery of 9,271 lbs. 
lead and 1,823 lbs. copper from 
gold ore between 1939 and 1942. 


Caved shaft and short adit extended 

S. 80° W. from shaft. A prospect. Idle 

See Kelso mine in text under zinc. 

See Pride of Moj ave mine under gold . 
(Goodwin 57:528t) . 

See text under gold. 


411 


Honey Bee 
prospect 

Hoover 
Hummer 

Kelso mine 


SEh sec. 5, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, 6h 
miles northwest of 
Randsburg , low on 
southeast flank of 
El Paso Mts. 


S. M. Mingus and 
others, P.O. Box 94, 
Randsburg (1958) 


Irregular, reddish iron-stained 
fractures in brecciated thin- 
bedded argillite and limestone. 
Fractures and bedding planes strike 
NW. and dip 30° NE. Iron-stained 
zone is several tens of feet thick 
and hundreds of feet long. 


Traces of lead mineralization reported 
by S. M. Mingus (personal communication, 
1958) . Twenty-foot adit driven NW. in 
zone of most brecciation. No product- 
ion. 

See under silver . 

See Hoover under silver . (Goodwin 57 : 
528t) . 

See text under zinc. 




Lead mine, The 


Reported in sec. 
35, T27S, R40E, 
MDM, Rademacher 
dist. (1904) ; not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Underwood and 
McNitt, Bakers field 
(1904) 


Lead carbonates and sul f ide 
"deposit" with 2 veins 6 inches and 
8 inches wide on sides. 


Uncorrelated old name; probably long 
abandoned claim. Developed by 25-foot 
open cut. (Aubury 04:19t). 




Monarch Rand 






Traces of galena in gold-silver 
veins. 


See under gold. 




Quartz 


Undetermined 


Undetermined , 1958 ; 
J. Hudison, Piute 
(1895) 


Undetermined . 


Gold mine from which 81 tons of ore 
mined in 1914 contained 4.10 percent 
lead, 27 oz . silver, and 2.20 oz . gold 
per ton. (Goodwin 57:530t). 




Rattlesnake 








See under gold. (Goodwin 57:530t). 




Rinaidi and 
Clark 


Undetermined 


Undetermined, 1958 ; 
Rinaidi and Clark 
(1913) 


Lead-silver-gold mine which yielded 
55 oz. gold, 1,200 oz. silver, 
33,000 lbs. copper, and 20,000 lbs. 
lead from 3 shipments totalling 
69 tons in 1911-1913 (Goodwin, 1957, 
p. 531). 


Uncorrelated old name. Probably listed 
herein under different name. (Eric 48: 
256t; Goodwin 57:531t). 

* 




Robinson 


Undetermined 


J. H. Robinson, 
Piute (1908) ; 
Monroe E. Bechtel , 
Kernville (1938) 


Gold mine in Caliente dist. 


Lead obtained from gold-ore concentrates 
mined in 1908 and 1938. Mine developed 
by 50-foot inclined shaft and 80 feet oi 
drifts. (Goodwin 57:531t). 




Santa Ana group 








See under gold. (Goodwin 57:532t). 




Smith mine 








See under copper . 




Standard group 






Recoverable lead and copper in 


See text under gold. (Goodwin 57:532t). 




Summit group 


Reported on east 
slope of Cook Mt. , 
2h miles southeast 
of Isabella (old 
site) (1940) : not 
confirmed, 1957 


Undetermined, 1957 ; 
Pacific Mines Corp., 
Los Angeles (1929) 


Two to 5-foot wide vein containing 
argent i f er ous galena . 


Probably same as Black Jack mine. 
Fifteen claims in 1929; principal work 
consisted of shallow shafts and open 
cuts on one claim. Thirty-ton shipment 
to Selby in 1928. Long idle. (Tucker 29: 
59; Tucker, Sampson, Oakeshott 49:271t). 




Whitmore 






Recoverable lead and copper in 
gold ore. 


See text under gold. (Goodwin 57:534t). 



212 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



LEAD* com. 



MoP 

No 


Name of claim, 
mine, or group 


Location 


Owner 
{Name, address) 


Geology 


Remarks and references 


412 


Yellow Aster 
Undetermined 


NbSW*j sec. 6, T29S, 
R40E, MDM, 7 miles 
northwest of 
Randsburg, high on 
southeast slope of 
El Paso Mts. 


Undetermined, 1958 


Minor amount of lead and copper 
from gold concentrates shipped in 
1937. 

Undetermined. 


See text under gold. (Goodwin 57:534t). 

May be one of the lead prospects listed 
herein. Developed by north-driven adit. 



Lead 

At least 275,000 pounds of lead has been recovered 
from ore mined in Kern County (fig. 69). About 108,000 
pounds was produced from the Big Blue, Blackhawk, and 
Rinaldi and Clark mines at intervals between 1911 and 
1945. The balance was produced, mostly in lots consist- 
ing of a few tens to a few thousand pounds, from small 
lead deposits and as by-products from gold mines. 

The Big Blue mine, in the Cove district, was opened 
as a gold operation in 1860, but during the period 1934-42 
bv-product lead was recovered. The Blackhawk mine 
(described in the Zinc section), in the Loraine district, 
and the Rinaldi and Clark mine, location undetermined, 
each yielded lead associated with other nonferrous metals. 

The principal lead minerals in Kern County are galena 
(PbS) and cerussite (PbCO a ). 

Limestone, Dolomite, and Cement 

By Cliffton H. Gray, Jr. 

Limestone production in Kern County, a major min- 
eral industry, is estimated from rated plant capacities to 
be about 2'/ 2 million tons each year. In 1958, most of this 
limestone was consumed in two portland cement plants; 
one near Tehachapi, and the other near Mojave. Prior to 
the mid- 1920s, large quantities of limestone were mined 
from deposits in the county as a raw material for lime 
production. In addition to these deposits and the deposits 
currently quarried by the cement companies, the 
contains large undeveloped reserves of carbonate 
rocks. Some of these carbonate bodies appear to be of 
industrial grade, whereas other bodies are composed of 
complexly intermixed limestone and dolomite currently 
unsuitable for industrial use either as limestone or dolo- 
mite. Some of the deposits suitable for industrial use are 
too remote or inaccessible to be of present commercial 
interest; some more accessible ones probably soon will 
be placed in production. Because limestone and cement 
produce; s i i County number fewer than three, pro- 
duction figures in 1957 were included with borates, gem 
stones, golu ; and pumicite, salt, silver, sodium 

carbonate, tun c , and uranium ore, which had a com- 
bined value of | 15,054. In 1958, the two portland 
cement plants had a combined annual capacity of about 
11,000,000 barrels oi cement. 



The production of commercial limestone in Kern 
County began prior to 1888 with the inception of the 
lime industry. During 1888, twelve lime kilns were re- 
ported as either operating or being constructed (Good- 
year, 1888b, p. 309-324), mostly within 5 miles of 
Tehachapi; one of the few places in Kern County where 
fuel and limestone were near a railroad. At that time the 
Summit Lime Company, the principal lime producer in 
the county, was operating four kilns in Antelope Canyon, 
3 miles due south of Tehachapi. One of these is reported 
(Goodyear, 1888, p. 311) to have had a capacity of about 
700 barrels of lime and required 70 cords of wood per 
firing. Seven other kilns, owned by five different oper- 
ators, were in Grizzly, Pine Grove, and Antelope Can- 
yons in the north margin of the Tehachapi Mountains. 
One kiln was about 2 miles east of Tehachapi Station in 
the foothills north of Tehachapi Valley. The earliest lime 
kilns were rudely constructed "pot kilns" built of stone; 
some were brick-lined. Later, limestone was burned in 
more modern brick and metal kilns. Both oil and wood 
were used as fuel (Aubury, 1906, p. 69). 

The lime industry in Kern County began in the 1880s 
with the operation of small kilns near Tehachapi which 
furnished lime for local use. Some of these kilns subse- 
quently were much enlarged, and, in 1894, lime was 
being shipped to many points in southern California. 
Lime production in Kern County continued to be of con- 
siderable importance until the mid- 1920s. Maximum pro- 
duction of 295,613 barrels was reported in 1906, and the 
last reported production was in 1928 (Logan, 1947, p. 
245). The decline in use of lime was due largely to the 
substitution of concrete construction for masonry con- 
struction. 

Varicolored marble was quarried before 1900 from 
the Cluff Ranch and Antelope Valley deposits near 
Neenach. The Antelope Valley material was used as 
facing stone in several large buildings in Los Angeles 
and San Francisco. These quarries have not been a source 
of marble facing stone since 1904 (Brown, 1916, p. 520; 
Wiese, 1950, p. 48). 

The portland cement industry in Kern County began 
in 1909 when the City of Los Angeles constructed the 
Los Angeles Aqueduct wet-process cement plant at 



1962] 



Kern— Limestone, Dolomite, Cement 



213 




Figure 70. Sketch map of central Kern County showing distribution of carbonate- and non-carbonate-bearing metasedimerttary rocks. 



214 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



Monolith Station, 4 miles east of Tehachapi. The cement 
was used in the construction of the Owens River water 
supply system between Haiwee Reservoir in Inyo 
County and San Fernando Reservoir in Los Angeles. 
Limestone was obtained initially from a deposit near the 
Summit Lime Company quarry 3 miles south of Te- 
hachapi, but since 1912 a deposit 2 miles northwest of the 
plant has been the principal source of limestone. By 1916, 
more than 900,000 barrels of cement had been produced 
by the City of Los Angeles under the brand name of 
"Monolith". In 1921, after lying idle for several years, 
the plant was purchased and reactivated by the Mono- 
lith Portland Cement Company who made immediate 
plans to increase the daily capacity from 1,200 barrels to 
3,000 barrels (Hamilton, 1922, p. 51). In 1958, this plant 
had a rated annual capacity of about 4,745,000 barrels. 

During 1954, the California Portland Cement Company 
began construction of a dry-process plant, known as the 
Creal plant, 9 miles west of Mojave. The production of 
portland cement was begun in December 1955. The ini- 
tial capacity was about 2,200,000 barrels per year, but by 
October 1958, the annual capacity was reported to have 
been increased to more than 6,000,000 barrels (Utley, 
1958, p. 93). Limestone is obtained near the plant from 
two quarries about 1 mile apart and in separate pendants. 
These pendants are two of the several large bodies of 
limestone along the southern and southeastern part of 
the Tehachapi Mountains (fig. 70). 

In 1958, Kern County limestone was first used for 
whiting. This material was obtained from a deposit near 
Isabella. In 1959, limestone bodies in the vicinity of 
Frazier Park were the first substantial and productive 
source of white roofing granules in the county. 

General Geology of the Limestone- Bearing Regions 

Limestone and dolomite bodies in Kern County are in 
roof pendants of weakly to strongly metamorphosed ma- 
rine sedimentary rocks scattered in intrusive rocks which 
range in composition from granite to gabbro. The meta- 
morphic rocks also include quartzite, argillite, phyllite, 
schist, slate, and hornfels, as well as contact-metamorphic 
rocks along the borders of the pendants. Few of the 
metamorphic bodies have been mapped in detail and little 
direct evidence of the age of the original strata has been 
found. Although only fragmentary fossil evidence has 
been reported (Goodyear, 1888, p. 310; Wiese, 1950, p. 
18), most of these strata are believed to be late Paleozoic 
in age, based largely on their similarity to established 
section'- in the Inyo Range and Randsburg area (Crowell, 
1952; Dibblee, 1952; Dibblee and Chesterman, 1953; 
Miller and Webb, 1940; Wiese, 1950). Some of the meta- 
morphic ... however, have been considered to be 
probably i. port Triassic and possibly in part Jurassic 
because litho logically they are similar to known Triassic 
rocks of the Inyo Range (Simpson, 1934, p. 383). Most 
of the pendants are in the eastern half of Kern County 
which is underlain mostly by granitic rock of the Sierra 
Nevada batholith. The batholith is now believed to be 
probably early Late Cretaceous in age (Larsen and 



others, 1958, p. 35). Some of the pendants are large, as 
much as 25 miles long and 4 miles wide, continuous, and 
free of intrusive rocks; others are small, with maximum 
dimensions of only a few hundred feet, or contain high 
proportions of granitic rocks. 

The Limestone Bodies 

Most of the limestone and dolomite deposits in Kern 
County lie in two distinct belts of metasedimentary 
rocks. One belt trends northeast and extends from the 
vicinity of Frazier Park, near the southwest corner of 
the county, along the southeastern flank of the Tehachapi 
Mountains to the foothills a few miles west of Mojave. 
The other belt extends north from a point about 4 miles 
south of Tehachapi, through the east central part of the 
county in the Sierra Nevada, to Isabella and Kernville 
and into Tulare County along Kern River Canyon (fig. 
70). The north- trending belt lies northwest of the Gar- 
lock fault, and the northeast-trending belt lies mostly 
southeast of the fault and is essentially parallel with the 
fault. 

North-Trending Belt. The north-trending belt occu- 
pies a 50-mile-long and 2 5-mile- wide segment in the 
middle of the southern Sierra Nevada. Pendants within it 
are lenticular or elongate to very irregular in plan. Most 
of the metasedimentary rock is contained in about 15 
pendants, each 4 or more miles long and half a mile or 
more wide. The largest pendant, in the vicinity of Isa- 
bella, is about 25 miles long and 4 miles in maximum 
width. Most of the pendants trend approximately north- 
ward; some are oriented slightly west or east of north, 
and a few trend east. 

The pendants are chiefly mica schist, quartzite, and 
hornfels, but most also contain carbonate rocks. These 
carbonate rocks appear from surface exposures to com- 
prise 15 to 30 percent of the volume of the major pen- 
dants. The lenticular carbonate bodies range from small 
masses only a few tens of feet long to large elongate 
bodies as much as 6 miles long and half a mile wide. Ir- 
regular carbonate bodies range from blebs only a few 
tens of feet in diameter to masses as much as 4 miles in 
diameter. Other irregular bodies are a mile or more long 
and half a mile wide. Much of the carbonate rock is in- 
timately mixed with schist and quartzite and much is do- 
lomitic or dolomite. In many places the dolomite occurs 
as irregular replacement patches in limestone. In other 
places entire masses of carbonate rock are dolomitic. In 
still other places the dolomite is in discrete mineable 
bodies. Commonly the layering or stratification within 
individual carbonate rock bodies is essentially parallel to 
the long dimension of the pendants and to the general 
trend of the belt. 

Large bodies of metamorphic rocks in the areas adja- 
cent to the valleys of the Main Fork and South Fork 
of the Kern River and in the Piute Mountains, in the 
central Sierra Nevada, were named the "Kernville series" 
by Miller (1931, p. 331-360), and later mapped by Miller 
and Webb (1940, p. 343-378). This series is made up 
largely of phyllite, quartzite, and crystalline limestone 



1962] 



Kern— Limestone, Dolomite, Cement 



215 



and dolomite. The carbonate rock bodies are lenticular 
and range in size from lenses only a few tens of feet 
long to elongate bodies as much as 6 miles long and half 
a mile wide. The limestones are mostly white to bluish- 
gray, thick-bedded and fine to moderately coarse grained. 
Beds of white limestone, as much as several feet thick, 
are interlayered with bluish-gray and banded white lime- 
stone. Mineable bodies of this limestone, of commercial 
grade and as much as 300 feet thick, are known. Many 
of the carbonate bodies within 10 to 15 miles south and 
southeast of Lake Isabella are mixed dolomite, dolomitic 
limestone, and limestone, and as such they are currently 
unsuitable as a source of limestone for portland cement 
and other industrial uses that require material of a specific 
chemical composition. The limestone in the Kernville- 
Isabella area was first mined in 1958 when the Kennedy 
Minerals Company opened a small quarry 6 l A miles east 
of new Isabella. The limestone was used as whiting. 

In the vicinity of Breckenridge Mountain, 20 miles 
east of Bakersfield, Dibblee and Chesterman (1953, p. 
12-22) found metasedimentary rocks similar to the Kern- 
ville series. These metasedimentary rocks consist of 
schist, quartzite, and crystalline limestone of Carboni- 
ferous (?) age and of the Pampa schist of Paleozoic or 
early Mesozoic age. The limestone crops out prominently 
at a point on Tweedy Creek 1 1 / 2 miles northeast of Keene 
and about 2 miles south of the Breckenridge Mountain 
quadrangle, and extends north-northeast about 6 miles 
across the southeastern part of the quadrangle and be- 
yond to Caliente Creek. The limestone is in north-trend- 
ing vertical to steeply east-dipping en echelon lenses as 
much as 100 feet thick, some of which are at least 1 
mile long (Dibblee and Chesterman, 1953, p. 16). The 
limestone is generally pale gray, fine grained and thick 
bedded. Bodies metamorphosed to a higher degree con- 
tain coarsely crystalline white marble. The carbonate- 
bearing sequence also includes calc-silicate rocks, which 
crop out mostly north of Walker Basin. Carbonate rocks 
north of Walker Basin have not been utilized as a source 
of commercial limestone, but pendants along Tweedy 
Creek were the source of many thousands of tons of 
limestone for lime burning during the early 1900s. 

The pendants near Tehachapi have been a source of 
commercial limestone since the 1880s, first for the lime 
industry and since 1909 for the portland cement in- 
dustry. The largest mined pendant is the Monolith Port- 
land Cement Company deposit, 2 miles northeast of 
Tehachapi. This pendant is crudely triangular in plan, 
about 3 miles long, and 2 miles wide. The pendant 
contains quartzite, schist, and a carbonate mass that is 
more than 3,500 feet long and 2,500 feet wide. In the 
quarry area the limestone is about 800 feet thick and 
is underlain by quartzite and schist more than 500 feet 
thick. 

Northeast-Trendmg Belt. The northeast-trending belt 
occupies the southern and southeastern foothills of the 
Tehachapi Mountains. This belt is about 35 miles long 
and 4 miles wide. The pendants are not as lenticular as 



those in the north-trending belt; most are elongate to 
nearly ovoid in plan with irregular borders, but the two 
largest pendants are irregular masses. The pendants in 
this belt are much smaller but more numerous than in 
the north-trending belt, and commonly contain a higher 
proportion of carbonate rock. Most of the metasedimen- 
tary rock is contained in some seven major pendants 
ranging from 1 to 4 miles in length and from half a mile 
or less to 3 miles in width; and in about 50 minor pend- 
ants most of which range in length from 100 to 2,000 
feet; though some are as much as 1 mile long and a 
quarter of a mile wide. The largest pendant, west of Cot- 
tonwood Canyon, is about 4 miles long and 3 miles wide. 
Most of the pendants trend northeast. Layering within 
the bodies is commonly parallel with their long dimen- 
sion. 

The pendants east of Cottonwood Creek, in the Eliza- 
beth Lake quandrangle, consist mostly of schist, quart- 
zite, slate, hornfels, metavolcanic rock, and coarsely 
crystalline limestone. This series of metamorphic rocks 
was named the Bean Canyon series by Simpson (1934, 
p. 371-415), who tentatively dated the series as probably 
in part Triassic and possibly in part Jurassic. The car- 
bonate rocks comprise perhaps 10 to 15 percent of the 
volume of most pendants, but a few are chiefly carbonate 
rock. Three limestone bodies about 80, 20, and 150 feet 
thick, and separated by schist and quartzite, are exposed 
in Bean Canyon. Other bodies, as much as 1,500 feet 
thick, composed mostly of carbonate rock, are exposed 
in larger pendants 1 mile to the west. The limestone is 
white or gray and ranges from thin-bedded to coarse- 
bedded. Except for some bodies which contain inter- 
mixed dolomite, much of the carbonate rock appears to 
be suitable for use in portland cement. The probable 
chemical grade is indicated by a few analyses (tables 11, 
12). Limestone from the Bean Canyon series has been 
mined in only one area. Large bodies exposed east of the 
Willow Spring road have been mined since 1955 as the 
source of limestone for the Creal plant of the California 
Portland Cement Company. 

West of Cottonwood Creek, in the southern Tehach- 
api Mountains north of Antelope Valley, metamorphosed 
sedimentary rocks are found in the Neenach quadrangle 
(Wiese, 1950) and to the west in the Lebec quadrangle 
(Crowell, 1952). About 75 percent of the volume of 
these rocks is carbonate rock. These metamorphic rocks 
are tentatively dated as Paleozoic (Wiese, 1950, p. 18; 
Crowell, 1952, p. 6) and Wiese (1950, p. 18) points out 
that these rocks probably are not the same as the Bean 
Canyon series. According to Wiese (1950, p. 16-18) the 
metamorphic series in the Neenach quadrangle consists 
mostly of bluish-gray to white limestone and marble, 
but also contains quartzite and hornfels. A sequence 
which crops out north of Quinn Ranch contains 4,000 
feet of bluish-white coarse-grained marble; 2,500 feet of 
gray and reddish sandy limestone, quartzite, and horn- 
fels; and 2,500 feet of medium-grained to coarsely crys- 



216 California Division of Mines and Geology [County Report 1 



Table 11. Chemical analyses of limestone and dolomite deposits in Kern County. 



Location — See entry in tabulated list for detail 






a 1 r\ 
AI2U3 


CaU 


MgO 


P 2 5 


* Bean Canyon area (west side of major drainage channel 1 mi. 


. 1U 


. (Tt 


.vo 


j 1 . 1 j 


1 CI 

1.31 


.Ul 


SW of Bean Canyon). Random samples of middle limestone 


.U4 


.U4 


r\A 


j4.uu 


1 .4o 


.1)1 


lens. 














* Tecuya (Cuddy Canyon, Kramer) deposit. Random samples 


1 A 
. 14 


A7 
.U/ 


1 c 


54. 80 


.45 


.04 


from south face of main limestone outcrop near road. Sam- 


L . OU 


1 c 

. IJ 


. j / 


O 7J. 
. /4 


Q1 

.03 


ni 

.\J3 


ples 1-5 (see fig. 75). 


.06 


.02 


.06 


53.40 


1.87 


.02 


1 06 


13 


55 


53 38 


1 20 


02 




]08 


.03 


.07 


53^80 


l!S4 


]03 


* Marble Spring Canyon deposit. 


2.42 


.06 


.82 


28.89 


21.06 


.02 


* Sand Springs Canyon deposit. Sample 6 (see fig. 75) 


.16 


.04 


.09 


53.83 


1.63 


.03 


* White Ridge deposit. Sample 7 (see fig. 75) 


.36 


.47 


.25 


29.49 


21.62 


.01 


** Guff Ranch marble deposit. Random sample from quarry 


.42 


.076 


1.10 


32.50 


19.66 


nil 


face, SEX sec. 31, T. 10 N., R. 16 W., S.B.M. 














** Dark Canyon deposit. Random sample from NEy+NWy* 


16.86 


.029 


.33 


40.90 


5.18 


.282 


sec. 25, T. 30 S., R. 34 E., M.D.M. 















• Analyses by Abbot A. Hanks, Inc., San Francisco, 1955. 
•* Analyses by Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory, San Francisco, 1959. 



talline bluish-gray marble. Between Cottonwood and 
Little Sycamore canyons, about 3,000 feet of marble 
with minor amounts of calc-silicate hornfels make up 
a sequence. Numerous smaller bodies of carbonate rock, 
enclosed in granitic rock, are present to the northeast 
between Antelope Canyon and Cottonwood Creek. 
Much of the carbonate rock is limestone, some is dolo- 
mitic limestone, and discreet masses of fine-grained crys- 
talline dolomite are known, as at Marble Spring Canyon 
and Cluff Ranch (table 11). 

A large mass and several smaller bodies of limestone 
and marble with minor amounts of schist, quartzite, and 
hornfels were mapped by Crowell (1952) in the Lebec 



quadrangle adjoining the N'eenach quadrangle on the 
west and about 5 miles east of Lebec. Here the limestone 
consists in part of an aggregate of coarse, interlocking, 
bluish crystals of calcite. Some of the limestone is pure, 
but some contains zones of dolomitic limestone, inter- 
mixed streaks of graphite, and thin lenses of quartzite, 
calc-silicate hornfels, and iron-stained tactite. Lenses of 
high-calcium limestone, as much as 1,000 feet wide and 
one mile long, are in the metamorphic series (fig. 76, 
table 13). 

The masses of carbonate rock that lie along the south 
margin of the Tehachapi Mountains have been mined 
from three small quarries in the Neenach quadrangle. 



Table 12. Chemical analyses of "Bean Canyon series" limestone ( Creal deposit) exposed along 
Willow Spring Road, sec. 27, T. 11 N., R. 14 W., S.BM. 



Analyses by Abbot A. Hanks, Inc., San Francisco (1953). 







R2O3 








Location (see fig. 74) 


Insoluble 


(Fe 2 3 + A1 2 3 ) 


CaO 


MgO 


P 2 6 


Willow Springs Road samples 


1.44 


0.48 


53.60 


1.10 


0.03 


0.50 


0.28 


54.38 


0.01 


0.03 




0.80 


0.28 


54.25 


0.94 


0.03 




0.64 


0.16 


54.37 


1.01 


0.03 




0.52 


0.14 


54.32 


0.93 


0.01 




0.32 


0.26 


54.59 


0.98 


0.02 




0.36 


0.30 


49.31 


5.40 


0.02 




0.16 


0.20 


53.97 


1.55 


0.01 




0.14 


0.20 


54.65 


0.97 


0.04 




0.32 


0.22 


53.20 


1.92 


0.01 




0.44 


0.22 


53.23 


2.06 


0.03 



Location (see fig. 74) 


Si0 2 


Fe 2 3 


Al 2 O a 


CaO 


MgO 


PsO, 


Willow Pass Hill, 25 feet (slope distance) above 
quartz monzonite contact on west face of hill 


.26 


.07 


.17 


53.20 


1.91 


Trace 


Willow Pass Hill, 40 feet (slope distance) above 
quartz monzonite contact on west face of hill 


.36 


.19 


.45 


52.90 


1.85 


Trace 



1962] 



Kern— Limestone, Dolomite, Cement 



217 



Table 13. Chemical analyses of Microwave Station area of limestone, 5 Vi miles northeast of Lebec, southeast of 
Bear Trap Canyon, sees. 22, 23, 26, 27 (proj) T. 9 N., R. 18 W., SBM. 



Analyses by Abbot A. Hanks, Inc., San Francisco (1955) 



Location (see fig. 76) 


Sample 
no. 


Si0 2 


Fe 2 3 


A1 2 0, 


CaO 


MgO 


P 2 6 


Traverse along Microwave Station road 




















to 


50 feet west of east edge of deposit 


1 


.44 


.08 


.22 


54 


45 




80 


Trace 


SO to 


90 feet west of east edge of deposit 


2 


.19 


.06 


.13 


54 


49 




97 


.01 


90 to 


130 feet west of east edge of deposit 


3 


.48 


.11 


.30 


53 


69 


1 


34 


.01 


130 to 


170 feet west of east edge of deposit _ . 


4 


.46 


.06 


.20 


53 


79 


1 


33 


.01 


170 to 


210 feet west of east edge of deposit.. .. 


5 


.22 


.03 


.15 


53 


27 


1 


91 


Trace 


210 to 


250 feet west of east edge of deposit 


6 


.40 


.09 


.19 


53 


44 


1 


71 


Trace 


250 to 


290 feet west of east edge of deposit 


7 


.49 


.06 


.26 


54 


26 




98 


.01 


290 to 


330 feet west of east edge of deposit 


8 


.18 


.07 


.11 


54 


47 




96 


.01 


330 to 


370 feet west of east edge of deposit 


9 


.18 


.35 


.16 


41 


14 


12 


42 


Trace 


370 to 


410 feet west of east edge of deposit . _ 


10 


.07 


.03 


.06 


54 


69 




83 


.01 


410 to 


450 feet west of east edge of deposit .. 


11 


.10 


.05 


.08 


54 


44 




97 


.01 


450 to 


490 feet west of east edge of deposit 


12 


.12 


.04 


.10 


54 


45 


1 


04 


.01 


490 to 


530 feet west of east edge of deposit 


13 


.18 


.04 


.12 


54 


29 


1 


03 


.02 


530 to 


570 feet west of east edge of deposit 


14 


. 14 


.04 




54 


47 




99 


Trace 


570 to 


610 feet west of east edge of deposit . 


15 


.06 


.02 


.05 


54 


24 


1 


21 


Trace 


610 to 


650 feet west of east edge of deposit 


16 


.16 


.03 


.07 


54 


36 


1 


07 


.01 


650 to 


690 feet west of east edge of deposit 


17 


.20 


.04 


.12 


53 


58 


1 


65 


.02 


690 to 


730 feet west of east edge of deposit 


18 


.20 


.03 


.12 


54 


07 


1 


31 


.01 


730 to 


770 feet west of east edge of deposit 


19 


.24 


.07 


. 1 1 


54 


24 


1 


14 


.01 


770 to 


810 feet west of east edge of deposit 


20 


1.40 


.10 


.84 


53 


27 




78 


.06 


810 to 


850 feet west of east edge of deposit 


21 


3.90 


.11 


1.33 


51 


65 




76 


.08 


850 to 


890 feet west of east edge of deposit 


22 


.36 


.06 


.26 


54 


45 




83 


.UI 


890 to 


930 feet west of east edge of deposit _ 


23 


.48 


.08 


.28 


54 


27 




88 


.02 


930 to 


970 feet west of east edge of deposit 


24 


2.64 


.17 


1.09 


50 


66 


2 


22 


.04 


970 to 1010 feet west of east edge of deposit 


25 


4.00 


.62 


1 .72 


42 


16 


8 


20 


Trace 


Random sample from old road 
















56 




100 feet below Microwave Station road - - 


26 


.20 


.04 


.14 


53 


77 


1 


Trace 


100 feet below Microwave Station road . 


27 


.17 


.03 


.12 


54 


43 




99 


.01 


100 feet below Microwave Station road 


28 


.32 


.02 


.20 


54 


34 




95 


.03 


Rando 


ti sample along trend of the ridge 1,000 feet 










54 


35 




95 


.04 


SE of Microwave Station road _ — 


29 


.16 


.04 


.14 




Random sample along trend of the ridge 1,300 feet 










54 




1 


01 


.01 


SE of Microwave Station road 


30 


.26 


.06 


.20 


28 


Random sample along trend of the ridge 1,700 feet 








.21 


53 


68 


1 


45 


.02 


SE of Microwave Station road 


31 


.26 


.05 



These quarries, idle for many years, furnished marble 
for building stone and rubble. Several of the largest 
masses, however, appear to be suitable, at least in part, 
for use in portland cement (fig. 70, table 11). In respect 
to water supply, transportation, and availability of other 
raw materials for manufacturing portland cement, the 
limestone deposits along the southern and southeastern 
margins of the Tehachapi Mountains are more favorably 
situated than most hitherto unused masses of limestone 
in Kern County. 

Field studies to date suggest that the limestone pend- 
ants of the northeast-trending belt which crop out as 
a discontinuous chain along the southern Tehachapi 
Mountains between Mojave and Frazier Park possibly 
are equivalent or partly equivalent in age to the lime- 
stone-bearing units of the north-trending belt that crop 
out near Tehachapi and Monolith. These Monolith- 
Tehachapi limestone deposits probably are the southern 



continuation of the limestone pendants in the vicinity 
of Isabella and Kernville. 

Other Limestone Bodies. In addition to the north- 
trending and northeast-trending carbonate-rock-bearing 
belts, other limestone-bearing pendants are found at 
widely separated localities in the county. Masses of car- 
bonate rock lie south and west of San Emigdio Creek 
at Blue Ridge, in the southwest part of the county, and 
trend nearly eastward. About 40 limestone pendants, the 
largest of which is about 2 miles long and a third of a 
mile wide, but most of which are about a quarter of a 
mile long and an eighth of a mile wide, are in the San 
Emigdio Mountains north and west of Frazier Park. 
These pendants contain mostly carbonate rock in which 
limestone predominates, but also contain schist and 
quartzite. They trend northwest to nearly east. These 
pendants have been mined from several small quarries, 
long idle, but one of which since mid-1959 has been a 



220 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 




1962] 



Kern— Limestone, Dolomite, Cement 



221 



source of roofing granules. Other limestone-bearing 
pendants which trend north are present along the east 
side of Walker Pass Road east of Canebrake Creek, and 
northeast- to east-trending pendants are found south of 
Kelso Valley. In east-central Kern County limestone- 
bearing metamorphic rocks crop out from a point several 
miles south of Tehachapi Pass to the vicinity of Cinco 
and Cross Mountain. They are aligned along the north- 
west side of the Garlock fault and have not been mined 
for limestone. In the eastern part of the county a thick 
section of slightly metamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary 
and volcanic rocks in El Paso Mountains was named the 
Garlock series by Dibblee (1952, p. 15, 19). A Paleo- 
zoic age, Permian in part, was assigned on the basis of 
faunal evidence. The Garlock series, unlike other Paleo- 
zoic sequences, contains little limestone and is composed 
mostly of shale, chert, and volcanic rocks. Hulin (1925) 
found a similar series to the east, in the vicinity of Rands- 
burg, along the Garlock fault. 

California Portland Cement Company ( Creal ) Deposits 
and Plant. Location: Sees. 13, 14, 15, 23, 24, 26, 27, T. 
11 N., R. 14 W., S.B.M., and several adjoining sections 
astride Willow Springs Road and south of Oak Creek 
Road, 9 miles west of Mojave. The deposits are along the 
southeast margin of the Tehachapi Mountains. The plant 
is in section 24 and the main quarry is in section 23. 
Ownership: California Portland Cement Company, 612 
South Flower Street, Los Angeles 17 (1959). 

The Creal plant (fig. 71) of the California Portland 
Cement Company was built in 1954 and 1955 and placed 
in operation in December 1955. In 1958, most of the 
portland cement from it was marketed in the northern 
and western part of the Los Angeles area and the south- 
ern end of the San Joaquin Valley. Limestone for the 

! plant is quarried from the large deposits that crop out 
discontinuously along the southern and eastern margins 
of the Tehachapi Mountains. In 1959 these deposits were 

: being mined at the two initial quarries which were 

I opened in sections 23 and 24, in the foothills about 1 
mile west of the plant (figs. 72, 73). The company owns 
additional large reserves of limestone in sections 13, 14, 

I 15, 26, and 27 east of the Willow Springs Road, and in 
section 27 west of the road. 

The limestone, is found with schist as roof pendants in 
Mesozoic granitic rocks. The metasedimentary rocks are 
part of the Bean Canyon series (Simpson, 1934, p. 
381-383). These strata probably are of late Paleozoic or 
early Mesozoic age, but fossils have not been found in 
them. 

The limestone, in the vicinity of the Creal plant, ranges 
from coarsely crystalline white and grayish white to 
finer-grained massive to banded, blue-gray to white. Some 
of it contains more than 54 percent CaO (table 12). The 
layers apparently differ in average grain size rather than 
in composition. The limestone is bordered by quartz 
monzonite and related granitic rocks and protrudes from 
I these rocks in bold relief as strike ridges or as ovoid, 
isolated knobs. Granitic dikes penetrate the limestone 



R. 14 W. 



T. I I 




I 62500 



Figure 74. Geologic sketch of Willow Springs Rd.-Oak Creek Rd. area 
showing locations of limestone samples listed in Table 12. 



bodies in many places and commonly the bodies are 
thoroughly shattered. 

The limestone strata strike northeast and in most places 
dip 60°-80° SE. They underlie irregular ridges parallel 
to and 1 to 3 miles southeast of the Garlock fault. A lime- 
stone body in section 27 at Willow Springs Road, 1 mile 
southwest of the quarry in section 23, which was exam- 
ined in detail, is 200 to 500 feet thick and thickens and 
thins abruptly between intrusive bodies. Individual lime- 
stone beds within it are from 2 to 20 feet thick. The 
arithmetical average computed from chemical analyses 
made by Abbot A. Hanks, Inc., San Francisco, on 13 
clean samples of limestone collected by members of the 
Division of Mines in 1953-54 from this body along the 
Willow Springs Road (fig. 74) was as follows: 

SiQ 3 Fe2Q 3 + AlsO. CaO MgO P2O5 

0.48% 0.28% 53.5J% 1.58% 0.02% 

The magnesium oxide content ranged from 5.40 per- 
cent to 0.01 percent, and the calcium oxide from 54.65 
percent to 49.31 percent (table 12). 

Smaller limestone pendants are in an area about 2 miles 
north of the area sampled. The largest mass is in section 
14, east of Willow Springs Road and south of Oak Creek 
Pass Road. 

In 1958, limestone was being quarried from a ridge 400 
feet high in the center of section 23 and from a lower, 
rounded, hill in sections 13 and 24 (fig. 73). The quarry 
in section 23 is about three-quarters of a mile southwest 
of the plant, and is the principal source of high-grade 



222 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



limestone. The rock is hard, coarsely crystalline, and 
tends to break into angular blocks. In July 1958, the 
quarry (figs. 71, 72) was essentially an ovoid bench 
around the ridge top. The quarry in sections 13 and 24, 
about 1,000 feet northwest of the plant, contains 
shattered, medium-grained limestone and also is the 
source of the aluminous and siliceous fraction ("shale") 
from quartz-mica schist and quartzite strippings. This 
quarry (figs. 71, 73) has been benched on four levels 
and several pits at the south end are opened in schist. In 
addition to limestone, schist, and quartzite, the raw ma- 
terials used at the plant include iron oxide (pyrite 
cinder) purchased from the Mountain Copper Company 
in northern California and gypsum purchased from the 
United States Gypsum Company in southern California. 
In December 1959, the plant utilized several truck loads 
of iron ore (hematite, magnetite) from the Monarch iron 
mine, located about 16 miles north of Trona in Inyo 
County. 

In the quarries, blast-holes for development work are 
made with crawler-mounted wagon drills and most of 
the primary drilling is done with two crawler-mounted 
I.R. "down the hole" drills with 6 l / 2 inch bits. Loosened 
rock is loaded by 4!4 cubic yard diesel electric shovels 
on 35-ton capacity rear-dump trucks which haul the lime- 
stone, schist, and quartzite to the primary crusher at the 
plant. The rock is selectively quarried and the various 
grades are delivered to the primary crusher in a sequence 
that provides raw rock to the plant in a rough chemical- 
grade blend. 

The plant, which employs dry process, originally con- 
tained two rotary-kilns. Its initial rated capacity was 
2,200,000 barrels per year, but expansion was begun in 
1956 and by October 1958 the plant was reported to 
have a capacity greater than 6,000,000 barrels per year 
(Utley, 1958, p. 94) from five rotary kilns. 

Quarry rock is delivered to the primary jaw crusher 
from which minus 10-inch rock is fed to a gyratory 
crusher. Minus 4-inch rock from the gyratory crusher 
is conveyed on a belt under a magnet for removal of 
tramp iron, then discharged to a vibrating scalper ahead 
of an impactor hammer mill. Rock from the hammer mill 
is conveyed to a vibrating screen from which the plus 
%-inch rock is recycled through the impactor and the 
minus %-inch from both scalper and screen is conveyed 
by a belt to the raw rock storage building. Dust is col- 
lected and returned in part to the circuit. 

The rock and clinker storage building is divided into 
two sections. One end is for limestone, aluminous and 
siliceous rock ("shale"), and iron oxide and the other is 
for clinker and gypsum; all of these materials are stored 
in open-top feed-out bins. Continuous-type automatic 
weighing devices deliver predetermined quantities of 
limestone, "shale", an. iron oxide for the raw grinding 
mills to one of two parallel belt conveyors in enclosed 
tunnels and also deliver clinker and gypsum to the second 
belt, which feeds the finish grinding mills. 



The mill building houses 10 ball mills for raw and 
finish grinding. Raw material is ground to 90 percent 
minus 200 mesh and is then moved by screw conveyor 
and bucket elevator to one of the proportioning silos 
where the kiln feed is mixed to obtain the type of cement 
desired. From the proportioning silos the material goes to 
one of the kiln-feed silos where final blending is done 
and the material is fed to the 11- by 350-foot rotary kilns. 

Clinker from the kilns is returned to the storage shed 
and together with gypsum is delivered to the finish 
grinding mills. Each mill grinds 125 barrels per hour at 
specified fineness. Finished cement goes to one of the 36 
finished-cement storage silos which have a total capacity 
of about 400,000 barrels. The Creal plant makes several 
types of portland cement including Type I, Type II, and 
Type V. About 95 percent of the output is bulk loaded 
on railroad cars and trucks. The remainder is bagged. 

Kennedy Minerals Company (Isabella Limestone De- 
posit, South Fork Valley) Deposit. Location: NE!4- 
NE'/ 4 sec. 31, SW/4NW1/4, N/ 2 SW/4 and SEtfSWM 
sec. 32, T. 26 S., R. 34 E., M.D.M., 6 ! / 2 miles east of 
new Isabella and \y 2 miles south of State Highway 178. 
Ownership: Kennedy Minerals Company, Inc., 2550 East 
Olympic Blvd., Los Angeles 23, owns two placer claims 
(Big and Small Piute claims) totaling 200 acres (1959). 

The Piute claims were located in 1958 by the Kennedy 
Minerals Company who mapped and sampled the de- 
posits. A small quarry was opened in the SW/4NW/4 
section 32. By October 1958, the quarry face was about 
16 feet high, and a few tens of tons of white limestone 
had been removed. Mining is done intermittently with 
a Caterpillar D-4 tractor equipped with a ripper and 
rock basket. Loosened rock is loaded on trucks for trans- 
port to the company's mill in Los Angeles where the 
limestone is ground and then sold as whiting for use in 
paint manufacture. 

This deposit is in a belt, at least 10 miles long, of 
discontinuous limestone bodies described by Tucker 
(1929, p. 70) as the Isabella limestone deposit and listed 
by Logan (1947, p. 247) as South Fork Valley (deposit). 
The limestone deposit is surrounded by schist, quartzite, 
and granitic rock and is part of the Kernville series of 
Carboniferous (?) age (Miller and Webb, 1940). In plan 
the limestone body is irregular, about 1 1 / 2 miles long, 
and ranges in width from 500 to 1,500 feet. It forms 
steep hills and ridges and some slightly rounded elongate 
hills. In general it strikes northwest and dips steeply 
southwest. In a few places the limestone is displaced 
several thousand feet along cross faults, and in most 
places the rock is thoroughly fractured. 

High-calcium limestone in the quarry area is white, 
granular to coarsely crystalline, thick-bedded, and weath- 
ers buff to light gray. It contains a few thin beds of gray 
dolomite and a few small masses of chert. In the north- 
west part of the deposit (section 31), beyond the quarry 
area, the limestone is less pure and contains large masses 
of dolomite, quartzite, and impure calcareous materials. 
These contaminants apparently preclude the use of this 



1962] 



Kern— Limestone, Dolomite, Cement 



223 



T9N / R.20W 




PROPERTIES APRIL 



and property 

boundaries by MW Redhead and Bruce Fleury, 
I959-, courtesy of Mineral Materials Company 



sample locality, 
shown in Table II 



Figure 75. Reconnaissance geologic map of limestone masses near Frazier Park. 



part of the deposit either as high-calcium limestone or 
industrial limestone. 

The commercial limestone under development in Octo- 
ber 1958 .lies in the west half of section 32 and has a 
maximum thickness of about 400 feet, 300 feet of which 
is probably of commercial grade. Twenty-four samples 
collected and analyzed by the Kennedy Minerals Com- 
pany averaged 51.68 percent calcium oxide and a 2.26 
percent magnesium oxide. The calcium oxide content 
ranged from 43.00 percent to 54.82 percent and the mag- 
nesium oxide content ranged from 0.26 percent to 9.31 
percent. 

Lebec Deposit. Location: Sees. 13, 14, 23, 24, 25, 
T. 9 N., R. 20 W., and sees. 19, 30, 31, T. 9 N., R. 19 
W., S.B.M., 4'/z miles west of Lebec, north of Frazier 
Park. Ownership: Mineral Materials Co., a partnership 
consisting of Mr. C. W. Dunton and Mr. A. S. Vinnell, 
1145 Westminster Ave., Alhambra, owns 26 unpatented 
placer claims (Lebec placer claims 1-26, totaling about 
3,000 acres) (1959). 



The Lebec deposit was located by the Mineral Mate- 
rials Co. in 1956. The company has since explored the 
property by reconnaissance geologic mapping, sampled 
the limestone bodies and built access roads. No limestone 
had been marketed by March 1959. 

Coarsely crystalline white to gray limestone is dis- 
tributed in some 35 pendants in Mesozoic granite in an 
area of about 5 square miles astride a prominent west- 
trending ridge (fig. 75). Several of the larger pendants 
are each 1 mile or more in length and range from 300 to 
more than 1,000 feet in width. Many of the smaller pen- 
dants are at least a quarter of a mile long and 200 to 
500 feet wide. In general the limestone bodies strike 
northwest and dip steeply southwest. Thirty-five surface 
samples, collected by the Mineral Materials Co. from 
26 pendants and analyzed by Eisenhauer Laboratories, 
Los Angeles, averaged 54.00 percent calcium oxide and 
0.45 percent magnesium oxide. The calcium oxide con- 
tent ranged from 42.29 percent to 55.85 percent and the 
magnesium oxide content ranged from 0.04 percent to 



224 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



R 18 W 



K 



k W I C 1/4/ •» a d s^y 



>^4. Vol / p V> <• i ^ 

^ = >**^rn/,f., 5l MlCro lcve\ V\ 
Stofion / 1 (*~~— \ 1 s- 



mm 



1 



1,27 



3bi 



Geology surveyed 1955 
by C.H. Gray, Jr., in part 
after Crowell, 1952, pi. I. 



T.9 N. 



1000 2000 



Scale I- 24000 
Contour Interval 250 feet 
Base mop from U. S. Geol. Survey Lebec, Calif. Quad, (advance sheet, 1959) 



EX PLAN ATION 



>>"<><> 
> % » 



landslide 



gr. * 



granite 



mixed roc k 
(limestone, schist.granite) 



schist and granite 



Isad 



limestone and dolomite 




Contacts 
known position 



approx position 

— ? ?~ inferred position 

Chemical Analyses shown in 
Table 13. 

°29 Division of Mines lime- 
stone sample locality. 



1-25 Division of Mines lime- 
stone sompling traverse. 



Figure 76. Geologic sketch of Microwave Station area. 



4.35 percent. The silicon dioxide content averaged 1.65 
percent and ranged from 0.16 percent to 14.35 percent. 

Reserves have not been measured by drilling (October 
1959) but the owner estimates indicated reserves of 
about 20,300,000 tons and inferred reserves of about 
30,500,000 additional tons in the southern and lower 
parts of the area more readily accessible from the Frazier 
Park Road. Even larger reserves are estimated by the 
owner in the higher areas and in an area farther north 
in the vicinit. ' Tecuya Creek on the north side of 
the ridge. 

Microwave Stai. Deposits. Location: SE'/ 4 sec. 22, 
SW cor. sec. 23, N ; sec. 26, NE'/ 4 sec. 27 (proj.), 
T. 9 N., R. 18 W., SJ ' y 2 miles northeast of Lebec, 
south of Bear Trap Canyon and east of Oso Canyon, in 



the southwestern Tehachapi Mountains. Ownership: Un- 
determined (1958). 

Paleozoic (?) limestone crops out over about 7 square 
miles in the northeast one-quarter of the Lebec quad- 
rangle (Crowell, 1952), and extends eastward into the 
southwest one-quarter of the Neenach quadrangle 
(Wiese, 1950). Much of the limestone is impure and 
contains abundant oxides of iron, magnesium, and silicon. 
In many places the limestone contains layers of schist and 
hornfels and bodies of granite so that the limestone is 
present only as small bodies irregularly exposed above 
the less resistant rocks. Nevertheless, lenses of high-cal- 
cium limestone (fig. 76), as much as 1,000 feet wide and 
1 mile long, are in the limestone area shown by Crowell 
(1952, pi. 1). 



1962] 



Kern— Limestone, Dolomite, Cement 



225 



The largest known body of high-calcium limestone 
crops out 500 feet west of a microwave station southeast 
of Bear Trap Canyon. This lens (fig. 76) is about 1% 
miles long. It is about 1,000 feet wide at its central part, 
thins to about 300. feet to the north, and to 450 feet to 
the south. Bedding is not apparent but in plan the lens 
trends northwest. It consists of white and gray mottled 
to blue-gray, fine- to coarse-grained crystalline limestone. 
The northern part of this high-calcium limestone body 
is bordered on the east by a reddish-buff dolomitic lime- 
stone. Mixed limestone, granite, and schist borders it on 
the west, south, and southeast, and to the northwest it 
grades into dolomitic limestone. 

In 1955, the Division of Mines collected 31 clean sam- 
ples from the high-calcium limestone lens noted above. 
Twenty-five samples were taken at 40-foot intervals 
along the Microwave Station road, approximately per- 
pendicular to the long axis of the lens. Three random 
samples were collected along an old road 100 feet south 
of the Microwave Station road, and 3 samples were col- 
lected to the southeast at intervals of about 300 feet 
parallel to the long axis of the lens and from its central 
part (fig. 76). The samples were chemically analyzed by 
Abbot A. Hanks, Inc., San Francisco. The arithmetical 
average of the 31 samples was as follows: 

Ferric Calcium Magnesium Phosphorus 

Silica oxide Alumina oxide oxide pentoxide 
0.602% 0.080% 0.296% 53.17% 1.75% 0.015% 
The magnesium oxide content ranged from 0.76 percent 
to 12.42 percent and the calcium oxide from 41.14 per- 



cent to 54.69 percent (see table 13). The high-magne- 
sium limestone is apparently confined to two zones, one 
320 to 360 feet from the east edge of the high-calcium 
body, and the other along the west margin. These analy- 
ses indicate that the area is a potential source of high- 
calcium limestone. 

Monolith Portland Cement Company (Los Angeles 
Aqueduct Plant) Deposits and Pla7it. Location: sees. 12, 
13, 14, 24, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M.; sees. 7, 19, 20; 
30, T. 32 S., R. 34 E., M.D.M., and a large tract of ad- 
joining land; 4 miles east of Tehachapi at Monolith Sta- 
tion along the southern margin of the Sierra Nevada. 
The plant is in sec. 30, T. 32 S., R. 34 E., M.D.M., 
adjacent to the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe Railroads, 
and the quarries are in sees. 13, 14, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., 
M.D.M., about 2 miles from the plant. Ownership: 
Monolith Portland Cement Company, Box 65947 Glas- 
sell Station, Los Angeles 65. Part of the holdings are 
leased from the J. W. Jameson Corporation, 541 South 
Spring Street, Los Angeles (1959). 

The cement plant at Monolith (fig. 77) has been oper- 
ated continuously since 1909, except for a period of sev- 
eral years preceding 1921. In 1909, the City of Los An- 
geles built the plant, known then as the Los Angeles 
Aqueduct Plant, to manufacture portland cement for use 
in constructing an aqueduct between Haiwee Reservoir 
and Los Angeles. The original plant had a daily capacity 
of 1,200 barrels of portland cement. More than 900,000 
barrels of cement was produced by the city under the 
brand name of "Monolith." The City owned three lime- 





226 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



[County Report 1 



stone deposits— (1) the "Cuddeback Ledge" and (2) the 
"North quarry", both several miles northwest of the 
plant and apparently in the vicinity of the area being 
quarried in 1958, and (3) the "South quarry", 6 miles 
southwest of the plant (see Los Angeles Aqueduct South 
quarry in tabulated list). The South quarry was opened 
first. An aerial tramway 4,700 feet long was installed to 
deliver limestone from the quarry to a bin near the north 
base of the hill. The rock was transported